Colonization in the Context of Lu Xun and the Malaysian
Abstract title】 Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao and overseas Chinese Literature
According to Singapore's definition of literary historians Fang Xiu, MCA 54 new
literature is the cultural movement to accept Chinese influence in Malaya (including Singapore, Borneo) region appears to Malaya as the main area, with new ideas, new spirit of the Chinese vernacular literature; originated from China's new literature,
belong to the same language system, but in their development, gradually began to separate from Chinese literature, the self-contained one system. This definition from
the genetic point of view, to pass a message to us: China's 54 new literature on the Malaysian Chinese literature produced a "formative impact." Data show that, it can be said that the fact that the new Chinese literature, classical literature on the impact of the new Malaysian Chinese are sent out Lu Xun, for the most: Malaya writer Han Shan
Yuan (Zhang Han) point of view is representative: "Lu Xun was the greatest impact on the Malaysian Chinese literature and art, the deepest and most extensive of modern Chinese writers ... ... "(Note: Han Shan Yuan:" Lu Xun and the Malaysian Chinese New Literature ", Singapore Fenghua Press, 1977 edition, p. 1.); in Malaysia Asian widely circulating a pamphlet "great writer and thinker," full of praise of Lu Xun's how the great; Lu Xun's works as the classic writers and Malaysia have been the greatest extent possible to imitate, transplantation, single is "The Story of Ah Q" There, on 10 depict this, rewrite this; Lu Xun's essay in the new Malaysia is extremely respected, and become a dominant trend of writing; new horse writers, scholars, Fang Xiu, Zhao Rong, high tide, the north side and other issues discussed in literature, everywhere Lu Xun as a basis; Lu Xun, cultural and Malaysia after the death of his memory, a new horse the most solemn memorial service for a writer, the most solemn and unprecedented one ... ... The question is, why a significant impact on the Malaysian Chinese literature, or that the ECM literature most acceptable yes Lu Xun, rather than someone else, not Kuo Mo-jo, Mao Dun, Ba Jin is not the Lao She spent time in
Singapore and Malaysia, Yu Da-fu ... ...? Impact of the route through the literature is: those who run the media, the recipient. From "run by" inspection, Lu Xun was the founder of the new literature, but also the reputation of China's new literature, the largest direct source of new literature in China Malaysia's Chinese literature has attracted this new literature, the "founder" and the eminent persons has a special concern; Lu Xun's works of art in itself also has its own appeal to the great literary MCA radiation. From the "media person" visits, as described in Wang Runhua
Singapore scholars, Lu Xun, "the leader of left-leaning writers has been moved to a
new image of the horse and the promotion of left-wing intellectuals to promote the
literary trends. In addition to left-wing writers, Communist Party, the patriotic anti-
Japanese national salvation Overseas Chinese have done their best to shape the heroic
image of Lu Xun. "(Note: Wang Runhua:" Chinese post-colonial literature - China,
Southeast Asia, case studies, "Shanghai Xue Lin Press, 2001 edition, p. 71.) followed by
the The problem is, that is, from the "recipient" examine why the new left-wing literati
Ma Lu Xun's more "non-literary" publicity would encourage such a big response?
Wang Runhua discussed: "The Communist Party of Malaysia in the new colonial
society, in order to create a left-wing parties on behalf of the worship of idols, they use China's model, to come up with a writer as a cult object, so that it can be a hero by the British colonial government to accept. Lu Xun was a very good idol and banners.
"revelation, then I put this question into the colonial context to the study. The face of the colonialists, in the face of power and their literature consciously assume the dual mission of enlightenment and salvation, while the Lu Xun's just been molded into the
left-wing scholars to carry out such a literary enlightenment and salvation of the national hero, thus entering a new horse culture people's "horizon of expectations."
First, the colonial context of the writer's unique precursor selection
1840 after the Opium War, China entered a semifeudal and semicolonial status. "Semi" means in international relations, one or some countries in dealings with other countries in which the sovereignty of the semi-independent status. Part of the national
sovereignty are subject to other countries. "In the formally independent, in fact been a subsidiary of the financial and diplomatic relations between the trap surrounded by." (Note: "Selected Works of Lenin," Volume 2, People's Publishing House, 1972 edition,
p. 398.) Imperialism powers held several wars of aggression to the Chinese to defeat China, forced to enter into unequal treaties, China "in the form of independence", while the political, economic and so serious "subject to" foreign powers. Semi-colonial
situation of living in such a young Lu Xun, Gao Yang "I'm in my Blade Heart", the Chi is not literature, but in science save the nation, turning to the medical body strong nationals, and finally implemented in a literary change the National Heart. In other
words, Lu Xun's own choice of literature is not, or not primarily interested in based on the literature, nor is or is not primarily based on the literature, naturally gifted, but rather or mainly because he is convinced that art was more likely to change people's
spirit, so as to "Liren", and thus to national self-help.
Lu Xun's concrete creation is driven by foreign works, as he said himself, writing a novel, "could rely on all of the previous read to chapter 100 foreign works." The choice
of Lu Xun's foreign works, not to the level of artistry to choose, but pay attention to the selection of those reflected in the oppressed nations and peoples suffering the fate of small works to read and introduced, he said: "are looking at Russia, Poland and the
Balkans, a writer of various small countries particularly large number of things. "(Note:" Accents South and North to mobilize me how to start novels. ") again in the" Reminiscences, "Lane said:" The time when the Ching Dynasty, in the hearts of a part
of China's youth , revolutionary ideas Masamori, where there are cries of revenge and resistance, and would easily aroused sense. then I remember that people, as well as the Polish poet revenge Adam Mickiewicz; Hungary's patriotic poet Pet fisandor; flying the
literati and the shore hunting for Spain The Government killed the PCT sand road. "entering from the text at the beginning of Lu Xun's vision of Lu Xun's writing constitutes a" formative impact "of foreign precursor writer, not Shakespeare, Tolstoy,
Balzac, etc., but Russia's Chekhov, Gogol, Ibsen, Norway, Hungary, Petofi, and even can not be considered a classic of Poland Henryk Sienkiewicz, the Philippines, Rizal and so on. Of these countries, these countries, writers, these writers, to the suffering of
the oppressed enslaved a reflection of the destiny of the nation's Concerned, rich and powerful voice in the fight for independence of expression, etc., just to satisfy a semi-Lu
Xun's emotional demands.
The same situation appears in the new horse to accept the writer Lu Xun. January 25,
1819, the British officer Raffles landed in Singapore in estuaries, the new horse will become a British colony. Malaya became independent in 1958, Singapore was delayed to 1965 from the colonial rule. Malaysian Chinese new literature is generated in this colonial context. The face of colonial rule and their literature needs a strong "spiritual father" to a literary as a weapon against power, the literary spirit of the will is the
"father" is shaping up, this is Lu Xun.
Many commentators have pointed out that the acceptance of Malaysian Chinese literature, Lu Xun, there is an "image change" process. 20 era literary response to mainland China and Malaysia "revolutionary literature", Lu Xun's criticism of
"outdated." In 1930, "Sin Chew Daily" published a supplement signed by "hills," wrote the author of "literature and art direction" and said: "I think more than ten years, China's literary circles, but also saw some very familiar people, dominated by
the principal. Lu Xun, Yu Da-fu class, a veteran writer, has not lost its focus on young people of faith. This is really a decade of China's literature and art, there is no clear evidence to step forward. "(Note: The hills: "literature and art direction" and "Sin
Chew Jit Poh wild Boji" (supplement) March 19, 1930; see side revision "ECM New Wenxuedaxi" 1.)
Then turning point appeared, around 1929, the Creation Society, the Sun Society to stop the attack of Lu Xun, 1930, "Leftist" set up, Lu Xun to become the leader, and he
in the new image of the horse to a big change: no longer is a backward and even "reactionary", not just the first decade of the new literary movement an important writer, but a leftist, anti-bourgeois, proletarian revolutionary literature belongs to
author. This "image of the transformation process" that reflects the choice of Lu Xun's literary MCA more than out of artistic aspirations, but for "revolutionary" aspirations. Refused to accept criticism and hype, there is a right of Lu Xun's serious "misreading"
have too much political interpretation. In fact, it can be said that the Lu Xun's criticism of literature and will think that this is the "father" not a "revolution" of the force; of Lu Xun's esteem, is Lu Xun in China has become a left-wing leaders, is the because the
"father" has become a powerful "revolution" father.
Moved to a new horse leftist writer Zhang Tian-bai (Qiukang) that Lu Xun was "a
great national hero" and "Father of the Chinese literary literature"; Singapore
Writers Fang Xiu Lu Xun praised the "young teachers" and "new China's sage" , and even quoted Mao Zedong's "On New Democracy", then Lu Xun's argument that "the person with the highest moral character"; Malayan writer Han Shan Yuan, the "Lu
Xun and the Malaysian-Chinese new literature and art," declared: "Lu Xun was a ... ... The great revolutionary and thinker ... ... in the new social movements in Malaysia on all fronts, Lu Xun's impact is enormous and far-reaching ... ... Lu Xun's works, filled
with the spirit of anti-feudal imperialism and colonialism ... ... for the conduct of anti-
colonial anti-feudal The Malayan people are greatly encouraged and inspired, is Malayan people for democracy and freedom of the sharp ideological weapon. "... ... is
portrayed as Lu Xun is one such warrior, giant, mentor, anti-colonial anti-hero seal
entering a new horse. "Lu Xun as a classic writer, had been transplanted from China is to learn from him anti-colonial, anti-old culture, a thorough revolution", "To take
advantage of Lu Xun to achieve local political objective: to overthrow the British colonial." This is the colonial Malaysian Literature in the Context of a writer's unique choice of precursor, highlighting the ideological and political functions which are not
prominent artistic function, heavy political revolution, identity and image (national hero, warrior) in excess of the identity and image of the literary value. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
Second, the colonial context of the specific themes
Can be said that the colonial context of the two words are "Enlightenment" and "Salvation", does not constitute a confrontation between the two. For example, in Lu Xun's there, united in his "Liren" idea. How to "Liren"? By the Enlightenment;
"Liren" after what? Salvation, to statehood. That is, Lu Xun's so-called "national
salvation of the Road, the first in the Liren." Also unified in his "obeyed" and "Scream" literary concept, slogan-chanting is to awaken the national commitment to
the Enlightenment functions; cries for comfort warriors fighting to undertake rescue functions.
This concept art colony of Singapore and Malaysia have been literary transplant. Lu Xun, and Malaysia has not been "formally accepted" before, his work has been
introduced into Southeast Asia, and his concept of literature and art have received recognition and response. In April 1926, a Chinese-language weekly "Star" magazine,
published Nankui article "Articles of future attitude", he wrote: "We sincerely do
everything we can to eliminate the power of darkness to create light. We also there is self-knowledge, know no means Zhang Hongbao, 10000 Hill to respond to a hero, only in this, under the stars on the equator, and unwilling, reluctant to lonely, could not help
but cry several more 'bright! bright!' if that is weak calls, unfortunately, but awakens the sleeping people's dreams, and we only ask them not to revile, not to expel us from the sleeper to sleep, cheer from the cry ... ... "(Note: Nankui:" Articles attitude toward
the future, " "Starlight" in April 1926.) concept of large and small to sentences, words, we have seen a Lu Xun's "Scream preface," the shadow. This concept of the literary theme of literary and artistic expression of a certain statute, "wake up sleeping people"
is to "enlightenment", the so-called "sleeping person from deep sleep" is merely a
cynical words; "wipe out the dark, creating a bright ... ... tolerance is not live Scream "in the colonial discourse that is" salvation. " Thus, the main theme of literature is not
an abstract love and death, love and hatred, not even abstract "human nature", but rather specific "bleak life" and "change" This is life; is not a casual or even not "elegant", but "Scream" and "combat."
Colonial Singapore and Malaysia and the writer Lu Xun had the same due to the emotional and spiritual aspirations of Lu Xun's works in reading and drawing, the first on the subject and content, resonate, and soon "identity" of Lu Xun's national bad quality of the anatomy, the situation of being enslaved revealed, as well as its commitment to the Enlightenment, "Liren" and "salvation." Then they shall be "digested deformation", strive to return wealth to its own distinctive form of literature and Malaysia "performance" out. A variety of South Seas version of "The Story of Ah Q", vomit rainbow "" America is a big "Ah-Q Do not pass," Ding Yi's "Ah Q Gaiden,"
Lin Wan-ching's "True Story of Ah Q," Lee Yong-Shi-A re-Q ... ... In Lu Xun's "The
Story of Ah Q" to "digest" we have "deformed" as the colonists under the rule of nationals of Southeast Asia "spiritual victory" unique "line-like": one worships money,
"America is great" Ah Q, Ah Q and so on and then the World everything possible to make money; second, by color, described by Ding Yi Ah Q "has 300 days 365 days are lying on the bed side of cloth touching a woman's thigh, one side swallow the black rice "; Third, forget their ancestors, are opposed to learning the Chinese language, do not recognize themselves as Chinese; Fourth xenophilia, such as" America is a big "Ah Q in order to" evil horse Liegen "(American) itself. Lu Xun's "The Story of Ah Q" has revealed colonialists conspired with the local feudal lords, constitutes the plundering of the people - seeking refuge with foreigners fake foreigners and Zhao Taiye collusion, common exploitation of farm laborers Ah Q. Malaysian Chinese literature, "Ah Q" to enlarge this point fully exposed under colonial rule, Singapore and Malaysia the prevalence of social worship of money, the colonial culture and suppress Chinese,
destroy Huazuwenhua, advocating foreign culture, resulting in worships money and forget their ancestors, xenophilia characteristics such as Southeast Asia's "national character." It is through a similar migration, deformation, zooming, MCA and
continuation of the Lu Xun Literature echoed the theme of writing in the colonial
context of the enlightenment and salvation tenacious.
Third, the colonial context of the art of preference
Colonial Literature in Singapore and Malaysia to accept China's new literature has shown a particular tendency of literary trends, or a particular liking to the ideas of realism and writer. From October 1919 the rise of new literary movement before and after the Malaysian start interest in literature, workers focused on realism, almost all of imitation to learn 54 new schools of literary works of realism, to Lu Xun's works, literary studies would be a writer works as the main target. Fang Xiu in the "mainstream of Malaysian Chinese literature - the development of realism," said: "The
main trend of Malaysian Chinese literature, a beginning of realism, despite the decades of the new literary movement and sometimes high horse, and sometimes low, but the Realism has always been permeated with the spirit of the horse before the war, a new literary history reflected in all important works, has become the mainstream of literary creation has never been interrupted. "Then he further believes that only Lu Xun's works is the old reality ism in a thorough critique of the highest level of realism, only Lu Xun's works to achieve this height. Another writer, Malaysia, the northern side, even in the 20th century, when the Malaysian-Chinese literature discussed 80 years, but
also everywhere in order to Lu Xun's writing style realism, the highest example and model. These facts explain these conclusions and their literature on China's new literary trends unite in screening, the main choice is the realism, they are mainly of Lu Xun's realism.
Of a literary trend only in the spirit of a relatively suitable atmosphere to get a relatively full migration and development. Brutal colonial rule of the new horses, there is no suitable for the growth of the spirit of Romantic literary atmosphere, so one as
late as July 15, 1925 (as realistic as early as 1919 that the incoming) founded the "New National Daily" literary Supplement "South", the only one from China by the immigration favorite romantic author "extension brother" for the first time in
literature to introduce 54 new romanticism, represented by Kuo Mo-jo; second is the
Romantic literature in Singapore and Malaysia, while also a certain climate, but the momentum is still far less realistic creation. Modernism from the philosophical and cultural life to a high degree of certainty that it will live deliberately deformed distance from life, which in colonial Singapore and Malaysia there is no suitable soil, is committed to national salvation literati and Malaysia have time to go right to life too
many abstract speculation, they need close to reality "on the ground." As a result, consciously take against imperialism and colonialism, enlightenment salvation of the Malaysian-Chinese literature, with emphasis on realistic and objective realism trend
met with China's new literature, Lu Xun's classical realism encounter.
Colonial Literature in Singapore and Malaysia to accept when the new Chinese literary classics, but also to demonstrate genre-specific preferences, in particular,
reflected in the essays on Lu Xun's special attention and esteem: "essays, which single-
handedly created by Lu Xun's literary dagger, has been that we general authors generally have ... ... which means they are more practical content, more lively political commentator who thought Guli prose, but also adopted a number of Lu Xun's essay at the end of a critical spirit and the way judges. In "ECM New Wenxuedaxi" in "Theory and Criticism 2 series", there are a number of terse and forceful criticism of the article is basically the theory can be said to Lu Xun's essay-style at the end of ... ... in the
"ECM New Wenxuedaji" and "essays", then quite a few essays the basic content is the same strain, and Lu Xun's essays ... ... "and the essays have been respected, and become a dominant trend of writing as opposed to sentimental lyrical prose writing is considered a vice, to write leisurely and humorous essays have been cursed. Ku written essay "On Hsu's death," the sentimental style of writing criticism Crescent Moon;
Qiukang to "instructions on the criticize humorous style," Lin Yutang's literary concept will be labeled a "degenerate." Rich sense of reality militant essays by courtesy, sentimental kind of leisure class essays are cold, which can be used Lu Xun's own words to explain the reason of: "In the sand Pumian, Lang Hu groups of the time, and who has leisure to the many martial arts fans fall during Mid-Autumn amber,
emerald ring it? "(Note:" Complete Works of Lu Xun, "four volumes, People's Literature Publishing House, 1957 edition, the first 441,443 pages.) in a particular
colonial context of the essays militant emphasis on the leisure class comedy criticism is necessary and reasonable. The former is more sober reality has a degree, to truly touch the existence of the pain.
4, the colonial context of the literary aspirations of national character
A complex situation is that Lu Xun was radically anti-traditional, in literature and
creative resources, he even advocated "less to see - or Jingbu read Chinese books, but
to see more foreign books" (17) of his work Europeanization phenomenon indeed heavy, from the structure to the image of the sentences. Three to four decades on behalf of the "national form of struggle", the 54 represented by Lu Xun has traditionally been
the antithesis of national tradition has been the emergence of some people trying to defend. On the other hand, Lu Xun's works and has extremely local nationalism, he described in the figures - Yiji, Xianglinsao, 7 jin Hua Laoshuan even reveals spiritual
victory of this "universal" human nature Ah Q, are marked with a distinctive mark on native thick. Ah Q, is definitely that "Wei Zhuang" Ah-Q. Lu Xun's works filled with
rich southern style, contains the more profound cultural background. Namely, the art
form, the Lu Xun's pay attention to straightforward style of writing, in action, dialogue in a dynamic description of the portrayal of character, psychology, including "The Story of Ah Q," the irony of traditional story-telling style body simulations, are clearly
a "national form "elements. Consequently, we say, "The more national the more the world", the often Lu Xun as an example.
Lu Xun was the existence of an extremely rich, he received the resources of foreign literature, in fact at the same time the resistance to foreign literature for his classic not only drawing on lessons, but also misreading of deviation in order to highlight its uniqueness, but to compete with the West Classic ; he completely "anti-tradition"
emerged, but they clearly have a semi-colonial and Lu Xun's culture of self-defense
instinct psychology. His long-standing malpractice and against the traditional is the propriety of "cannibalism." In the "anti-", while obviously there are "tree", "breaking
down" when clearly there, "Li." He Shu Yu, Mo Zi and others are "the backbone of
China", in the famous "take-ism," where a very rational manner, a very in-depth idea
of the traditional culture to be "brought" there is clearly critical in the succession.
Lu Xun's literary scene is the main MCA as a "national hero imperialism and
colonialism," introduced, as mentioned above, they establish the Lu Xun's idol is to achieve its political purpose: to overthrow the British colonial rule. Malaysian Human Figure in order to nationalism as a basis for resistance to colonial culture. Reflected in their literary works where there is a clear national character is the demand, and consciously works to pursue local characteristics and focus on the business structure of a "national allegory."
In the semi-colonial and Lu Xun's works, "not Zhuang" is a microcosm of China after 1911 Revolution, "medicine" that showcases the Chinese, summer 2 that is, the
profound tragedy of the Chinese nation, seven pounds of pigtail incident is modern China the fate of the farmers concentrate ... ... deeply affecting colony of Lu Xun MCA literature, found its business structure, "national allegory," a unique carrier: rubber tree. Rubber trees to Chinese immigrants and other ethnic groups in the lives of the Malay Peninsula is shown by Western capitalism and those of the British Empire through the overseas migration, piracy-style robbery, the crimes revealed the slave
trade to the oppression of colonial officials and businessmen and capital cruel dealings exposed. Spray's novel "Life of the chain" is a construct "national allegory," the representation of the text. In the rainy, the piercing winds of the rubber plantation, a chemical engineer and supervisor of the orang-workers were taking advantage of a
plastic to borrow money from his mother the daughter of treatment, she was raped. Dark, dark rubber plantation, was presented by the harsh conditions of labor in Southeast Asia; teenage sexuality vent any foreigners, is a symbol of the Chinese workers being trampled upon, is the history of colonialist rape of the indigenous
microcosm. Content of their work itself, i.e. show a strong tendency of imperialism and colonialism. Works distinctive local characteristics and the "national allegory" trade
structure, but also its national character of self-conscious literary aspirations to resist
the strong discourse of colonialism. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://