TXT

pc system

By Kyle Harris,2014-05-27 14:58
11 views 0
pc system

     ??ÎÄÓÉmissile31??Ï×

    pdfÎĵµ?ÉÄÜÔÚWAP?Ëä?ÀÀÌåÑé???Ñ????ÒéÄúÓÅÏÈÑ?ÔñTXT???òÏÂÔØÔ?ÎÄ?þµ????ú?é????

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Historical Perspective Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     9 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Goals of the Course

     1 2

     Demystify software and hardware layers of modern computing systems Provide concrete experience

     Complementary to the study of computing science ??Computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes?? Edsger Dijkstra, Turing Award 1972 Let??s talk about telescopes, little about astronomy

     3 4

     Introduce Master courses in electrical and computer engineering Experiment a top-down pedagogical approach (complementary of the bottom-up one in INF559 ?C computer architecture)

     10 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Supercomputer = Computing System

     Roadrunner, rst PetaFLOP/s computer (AMD Opteron and IBM Cell)

     11 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Storage/Networking Server = Computing System

     Data Center

     Virtualization

     12 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Embedded Device = Computing System

     13 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Mobile Device = Computing System

     Nokia N810

     14 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Mobile Device = Computing System

     Google Android

     15 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Mobile Device = Computing System

     I have always wished that my computer would be as easy to use as my telephone???? My wish has come true: I no longer know how to use my telephone.

     Prof. Bjarne Stroustrup, father of C++ More mobile phones than PCs sold in 2006

     16 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Historical Perspective Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     17 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     (Compressed) Historical Perspective

     1945: ENIAC First Turing-complete computer Digital, but decimal arithmetic Program = cables and switches

     http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware

     18 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     (Compressed) Historical Perspective

     1964: IBM System/360 Integrated circuits, family of 6 compatible computers and 40 peripherals OS: millions of line of assembly code

     http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware

     18 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     (Compressed) Historical Perspective

     1969: UNIX ?ª Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie UNiplexed Information and Computing Service (economical redesign of MULTICS) Rewritten in C with Brian Kernighan in 1973

     http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware

     18 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     (Compressed) Historical Perspective

     1974: Xerox PARC ?ª Alto First interactive window system, menus, icons

     http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware

     18 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     (Compressed) Historical Perspective

     1981: IBM ?C PC and compatibles Cross-vendor microcomputers, progressively dening the hardware standards Plagued by the lack of a reasonable operating system until 1996 (Windows NT, Linux), nourrished

non-sensical backward binary compatibility business

     http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware

     18 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     (Compressed) Historical Perspective

     1983: GNU ?ª Richard Stallman Free software, free operating system (free like freedom)

     http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware

     18 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     (Compressed) Historical Perspective

     1991: Linux ?ª Linux Torvalds Free OS kernel, originally inspired by Minix Provides a complete OS: GNU/Linux Runs on low-end mobile phones up to 1024-core multiprocessors (SGI Altix) or a 884736-core cluster (BlueGene/P, 3PFLOPS)

     http://www.computerhistory.org/timeline

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware

     18 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     The (Simplied) UNIX Family

     http://www.osdata.com/kind/history.htm

     19 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Historical Perspective

     GNU/Linux

     Free software (open source) Robust and modern avor of UNIX Most portable and largest range of supported devices Highly compatible with other OSes Modular and customizable, excellent code quality Lightweight: can be downsized for embedded devices Benets from most OS innovations

     20 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     1. A Computing System, What Is It?

     Historical Perspective Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     21 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     Stored Program, von Neumann Architecture

     EDVAC (1945?C1949) Turing machine (logical abstraction, 1936) First programmable machines: Zuse Z3 (electromechanical, 1941), Colossus (digital, 1943), Harvard Mark I / IBM ASCC (punched paper tape, 1944) ENIAC (1945) was the rst Turing-complete computer (John Eckert and J. Presper Mauchly) EDVAC introduced the stored program concept in a real

    machine (John Eckert, J. Presper Mauchly and John von Neumann)

     22 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     Stored Program, von Neumann Architecture

     EDVAC (1945?C1949) Main evolutions in the next 60 years of computer architecture R&D:

     Registers Caches (and local memories, a.k.a. scratchpad memories) Pipelined execution (and branch prediction) Superscalar execution (and out-of-order execution) Multiprocessors (and multicore processors) System-on-chip

     23 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     Multi-Threading Concepts

     Program Threads in Shared Address Space Multiple concurrent execution contexts of the same program, cooperating over a single memory space, called shared address space (i.e., shared data) Hardware Threads in Shared Memory Multiple concurrent execution contexts actively running on the hardware, cooperating or not, over a shared address space

     24 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     Multi-Threaded Architectures

     Simultaneous Multi-Threaded (SMT) A.k.a. hyper-threaded (Intel)

     L1 L2

     25 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     Cache-Coherent Multiprocessor Architectures

     Chip Multi-Processor (CMP) A.k.a. multicore (Intel)

     L1 L2

     L1

     26 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture Concepts

     Cache-Coherent Multiprocessor Architectures

     Symmetric Multi-Processor (SMP) Multiple chips interconnected with a bus

     L1 L2

     L1 Bus

     L1 L2

     L1

     27 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture

    Concepts

     Cache-Coherent Multiprocessor Architectures

     Non-Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA)

     L1 L2

     L1 Bus

     L1 L2

     L1

     L1 L2

     L1 Bus

     L1 L2

     L1

     Network Interconnect

     L1 L2

     L1 Bus

     L1 L2

     L1

     L1 L2

     L1 Bus

     L1 L2

     L1

     28 / 262

     1. A Computing System, What Is It? ?C Survey of Computer Architecture

    Concepts

     System-on-Chip

     29 / 262

??TXTÓÉ??ÎÄ?â????ÏÂÔØ:http://www.mozhua.net/wenkubao

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com