DOC

Browns Gas What exactly is it

By Virginia Henderson,2014-11-13 13:26
6 views 0
Browns Gas What exactly is it

    Browns Gas 1

    Browns Gas: What exactly is it?

    By Chris Eckman

    May 1, 2008

    Browns Gas 2

    Abstract

    Brown's Gas, according to a current theory, is a mixture of monatomic and diatomic hydrogen and oxygen and a special form of water called Electrically Expanded Water (EEW) or Santilli Magnecules. Brown‟s Gas is produced by a similar design of the electrolyzer that will split water

    into its various components. Browns gas has a plethora of unusual characteristics that seem to defy current chemistry. It has a cool flame about 130 degrees yet is able to melt steel, brick and many other metals. The goal of this paper is to confirm claims of the browns gas and to help

    solidify the current theory of browns gas. [16]

    Note: George Wiseman defines Brown‟s Gas as: “The entire mixture of gasses evolving from an electrolyzer specifically designed to electrolyze water and not separate the resulting gasses.”[16]

    Browns Gas 3

    Browns gas: the basic claims and current theory

    Water is split by electricity to form its various elements, Oxygen and Hydrogen. By the unique design of the electrolyzer it is able to keep a portion of the gas in the form of monatomic Hydrogen and Oxygen (measured between 1% and 3% I can give you references). The Brown's Gas mixture, when lit, will both explode and implode to form water, releasing the energy that is found in the bonds of the two elements in the form of heat. In the mon-atomic portion, No atomic

    bonds need to be broken (the bonds of the H2 and O2 respectively) before turning back into water. The key difference of browns gas is the fact that some of the Hydrogen and Oxygen never go into a diatomic state, hence Brown‟s Gas has more energy because these bonds were never made. Further, Brown‟s Gas contains water in a special structure that Yull Brown called a “fluid crystal”, George Wiseman calls Electrically Expanded Water and Professor Santilli calls Santilli Magnecules. This state of water contains an, as yet, unknown quantity of electrical energy that is released when Brown‟s Gas is burned.

Breaking of the bonds in the diatomic gasses requires energy and the energy comes from the

    atomic energy of the reaction itself. The potential atomic energy is released in a random fashion if the gas is not channeled (as in a flame). There is so much heat, so fast, there is a violent explosion. Once the explosion has happened, it is followed immediately by an implosion; because the split atoms are monatomic and now combine to form water. Water is the ultimate byproduct and can be seen condensing on a metal plate.

    Browns gas can fuse brick, steel, sublimate tungsten, flame is cool, glaze quarts, neutralize nuclear waste, fuse two dissimilar substances and many more things. Brown‟s Gas burns with a clean flame. It uses no atmospheric oxygen, and creates only pure water as its combustion product. One liter of water produces ~1866 liters of gas. When this gas is ignited, the volume is reduced to the original one liter of water. [16]

    “Typical 2H2:O2 behavior, known to everyone. Because 2H2:O2 (diatomic hydrogen and oxygen

    in stochiometric mixture) needs heat (explosion) to break the atomic bonds between the diatomic hydrogen molecules, turning them into "mon-atomic" atoms, which can then reform into water (implosion). So you get an explosion, then an implosion. It is important to realize that for hydrogen and oxygen to form water, they must be in their mon-atomic or "elemental" form.” [21]

    “This invention relates to welding, brazing or the like utilizing a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen generated in substantially stoichiometric proportions in an electrolytic cell by electrolytic dissociation of water, the mixture so generated being passed from the generator through a flash-back arrestor and thence to a burner where the gases are ignited. The invention also relates to atomic welding in which the above mentioned mixture is passed through an arc causing dissociation of both the hydrogen and oxygen into atomic hydrogen and oxygen which on recombination generate an intensely hot flame.”

    A most important application of the invention is atomic welding utilizing the properties of atomic oxygen in combination with atomic hydrogen (for welding) or atomic oxygen separately (for cutting). This particular application of the invention is based, among other things, on the appreciation that considerable energy is associated with the dissociation of molecular oxygen into

    Browns Gas 4

    atomic oxygen by passing this gas through an arc, and that this property can be usefully employed to generate temperatures even higher than those previously attainable with, for example, an atomic hydrogen flame. The significance of the energy which can be obtained in this way can be appreciated from the following reactions that take place, and the heat energies associated therewith, when hydrogen and oxygen are both passed through an electric arc.

    The basics are: “The simplest way to make Brown's Gas is to use an electrolyzer, which uses electricity to split water into its elements of hydrogen and oxygen. At the instant that the water splits, the hydrogen and oxygen are in their mon-atomic state, this is H for hydrogen and O for oxygen.[22]

    The test

    Most of these tests were done with Larry [14] using his ER1600 WaterTorch from Eagle Research. I also had borrowed a home built Browns Gas machine from Lewis Greadwalt who lives in Blackfoot, Idaho. Some of the test equipment was from my personal stash and from college labs.

First test: How much energy will it take to ignite the gas?

    The minimum energy required to ignite Browns Gas (in normal atmospheric pressure) is with a spark is with about 0.03 milli-joules. I found that it can go with out a spark, however it takes more energy, if there is a visible spark then it will (99% of the time) ignite. When ignited, the gas mixture converts to water and energy, a calculated energy of around 15KJ of energy per liter.

Second test: What is the flame heat?

The flame heat was around 130 degrees (+ or 2 degrees). Very cool flame, it proved to be even

    cooler then commercial electrolyses. I first used a series of thermocouples and put the fire from the torch onto surface and took several readings. The ceramic material heated up rapidly and ended up damaging the thermocoupler. The second test was done in a lab using an InfraCAM SD

    thermal imaging storage camera system. There were about 100 pictures taken (in video mode) and took the average heat picked up was 130 degrees F.

Third test: Is browns gas radioactive?

    The browns gas seemed to be slightly more radioactive then the background radiation, the amount varied by around a 5 millirems more then background radiation (constituently same in over 10 test). I was unable to determine what type of radiation was being produced, however I believe I can rule out Alpha and Gamma radiation, due to the fact that there was defiantly no helium (alpha particle) and gamma has too much energy, I determine it was beta particles. Hydrogen has three

    Browns Gas 5

    isotopes. The most common, making up more than 99.98% of the hydrogen in water, has 1

    O, proton and 0 neutrons. A second isotope, deuterium, has 1 proton and 1 neutron. Deuterium, D2

    is also known as heavy water and can be found in electrolysers when they have been running for sometime, the water left in the fuel compartment will have a larger amount of heavy water (because it is „heavier‟ then water it sinks and also is harder to brake apart). This is one method that those in the nuclear business get heavy water (it helps regulate the amount of neutrons produced in nuclear fission). The third isotope is tritium, has 1 proton and 2 neutrons, and is radioactive (half life of 12.3 years). TO exists in nature only in tiny quantities, being produced 2

    primarily via cosmic ray-driven nuclear reactions in the atmosphere. The radiation released by TO and DO is Beta radiation (high energy electron). 22

Fourth Test: What is the electron density of Browns Gas?

    The electron density is the amount of electron per given area, thus I extrapolate that it is the electron density of Hydrogen and Oxygen (there form matters, if is a in a diatomic state it could hold a given amount of electrons, if is a monatomic form it will hold a separate amount of electrons). The given amount of electrons per liter in Browns gas is (unlit) ~ 3.9222X10^27 per liter (with an error of 12 % due to equipment). The electron density distribution in an axisymmetric gas may be determined by measuring the deviation of a gas laser beam on passing through the gas. If the beam is inclined at a small angle to the axis of the gas the bending is closely proportional to the difference between the axially averaged electron density at the radius at which the beam enters the gas, and at the radius at which it leaves the gas. Experimental results demonstrating the validity of this method, and the advantage and limitations of beam bending as a diagnostic tool (It shows great accuracy for electron density measurements but there are some factors that need more study). This was done in a physics lab using „EDMA‟ (she) or Electron Density Measurement Apparatus. After testing (mathematically) we found that the amount that diatomic did not work, it was too small. Monatomic did not work either, it was still too small. When compared to water the amount is much closer, 3.1052X10^27 per liter is what the book said is water. This ~ 4.0221X10^27 per liter is saying that there is about 0.8x10^27 (remember 12 % error, it however still does not explain that difference) difference between the two numbers, meaning that there is significant added amount of electrons. This could mean that the substance is water that has soaked up electrons.

Fifth test: Does it react to a magnetic field?

    We also pulsed a large magnetic coil to around ~1.5 teslas, as close to the beam of flaming water as possible and it acted diamagnetic (was repelled). Water is diamagnetic, and there was a visible kink in the flame (however it was not much). IF it were in two gases then we should see some separation, however there appeared to be none. Oxygen is paramagnetic and hydrogen is diamagnetic, however the molecule of water takes on the propriety of diamagnetictism. (This can be expected, as the portion of the flame that is visible should mostly BE water, in the form of steam, having already exploded and imploded near the torch tip) [16]

    Browns Gas 6

    Sixth test: How much energy is in one liter of Browns Gas?

I calculated about 15K joules in one liter. I used a one liter container that (Vacuum Filtering

    Flask) was first striped of the air inside. I filled it with browns gas and let it seep out gas for one hour, this was to ensure it had only Browns Gas with in it. I put the gas into separate containers (5 ml of browns gas) and had a thermal camera video the ignition of the gas with in the containers. I had my professor and two other professors help with the math and back calculating the amount of energy in 5 ml of gas and then took an average of 5 ml. The next step was to just multiply the factor of 5 ml till I had 1 L of gas (mathematically). This is how I was able to find the ~15k j and why I said “calculated”.

Seventh test: What is the gas temperature before it becomes a flame and what is its density?

    It comes out of the nozzle (unlit) at very cool temperature of around 60 to 70 degrees and has a density of around .9 (that may be familiar seeing how water is ~1…).

Note: I originally had filled a Vacuum Filtering Flask‟ full of browns gas and had left it out for

    ~12 hours (the lab shut down that night and I had to wait for morning), this was in a plugged glass container witch had been sealed for extra protection of leakage of gas‟s in or out of the

    container. I had to return the homebuilt browns gas machine (he only let me borrow it for a few days) and so did not have access to it for more examination. Thus on arrival the next morning the test seemed to appear to have the density of water. I learned later that browns gas would turn back into O2 and H2 if left for long time and expressly in direct or indirect sunlight. I tested the remaining gas in the container and found traces of H2 and O2 and Water, so it would of skewed my results because of such a wait and sunlight interaction.

    (Unlit it should have been about 0.45. Lit it should be close to 1 [16]) I measured one liter of the gas coming out of the nozzle and weighed it, mathematically it did not match monatomic or diatomic, it seem to heavy, however I had trouble in the fact that hydrogen will escape as soon as it can, so the weight may be off. Over all, Brown's Gas seems too heavy to be monatomic or diatomic, but it had proprieties of water in that vapor state.

    Note: Gorge points out that a bag filled with Brown‟s Gas will rise in air, that can‟t happen if the density is near 1. This means that there were skewed results on my part.

    Eighth test: Will the gas act like a battery? If it is put through a fuel cell what is the energy?

    I tested the unlit gas and lit gas. I found that lit gas is exposed to two pieces of metal (about 5 mm away from each other) it will give a voltage of about 1.4 V and through a fuel cell it gave 5 V. The metals I used were Copper and Aluminum there were 2 flat panels about 3‟ x 3‟ large and

    they were oriented to just barely hit the beam of the browns gas. The unlit gas seemed unresponsive to these test. I did notice a static spike during the lighting process, however have no explanation for it (I first thought it was a malfunction…). My teacher pointed out that this

    may be an effect similar to a thermocoupler; in witch heat is turned into electricity by means of the beam of burning browns gas.

    Browns Gas 7

Ninth test: Will it burn in a vacuum?

    The flame will burn in a vacuum, when I used the schools vacuum chamber with a small browns gas machine (I borrowed) it made a flame nearly 2 times as long as normal in air gas and ~ 1.5 times hotter (however it was a tuff experiment due to lack of quality equipment). I used the same SD thermal imaging storage camera system as in test two. The vacuum chamber was about 1 foot by 3 feet and could reach a pressure of around 1/5000 of that of sea level (meaning it was not a true 100% vacuum however it would be able to prevent the burning of most all things at such pressures). The torch I borrowed I was able to fit into the vacuum chamber and I rigged it to a barbecue igniter (so only one wire was coming into the chamber from a pressure level valve and the other was connected to the metal chamber it‟s self), the hole test set up was able to just fit in to the vacuum chamber r. The „window‟ was able to show the length and we took thermo

    pictures of the flame and found a slight spike in heat as the pressure dropped. We were unable to go to full depressurization (due to the water literally boiling away and the effects of pressure on water).[12] We could not measure the flame directly but noticed a real change in length.

Tenth test: Is flux needed (when welding)?

    Flux is not needed, even when I added flux it burned and moved off the metal pieces being welded together. It was able to even „burn‟ rust off things, to expose the metal.

Eleventh test: Will it neutralize radioactive elements?

    The test were inconclusive, however there was a significant difference before and after the test sample of Americium from an old smoke detector reacted to the Geiger counter. Upon trying to melt the sample, it exploded and I found only part of the remains, the Geiger counter did not detect any other pieces of the element (proof?), but about 1/3 of it that seem to retain it‟s

    radioactivity. (This test was cut short by the teacher, who did not want radioactive elements getting lost in the lab…)

    (The protocol is to mix the radioactive material together with equal parts aluminum and iron. The resulting „pop‟ as the aluminum and iron turn into thermite and explode, in the presence of Brown‟s Gas, neutralizes the radioactive waste. Good to do it in a special chamber, see video

    from Eagle-Research, can add to references) [16]

Twelfth test: What is the nozzle velocity of the browns gas?

    It is about 7.62 Meters per second. I used a weather vane (for measuring speed of wind) that was made with aerogel wind fins. Aerogel is a low-density solid-state material derived from gel in

    which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with gas.” [17] This would resist high

    temperature, however still reacted to the flame and began to desterilize. I span the wind meter

    Browns Gas 8

    and put the fins into the flame, this made the wind vane spin which in turn made current that could be translated into speed. The measurement of 7.62 M/s is an average of the test preformed.

Thirteenth test: What is its reaction to a high - ion source?

    The gas was neither deflected or attracted, however it lit the flame. The electricity is very attracted to the gas; I had an arc of electricity nearly a foot long (normal length was about 2 inches). I believe the gas to be in a high energy state that can conduct electricity in a manner of a wire. The gas seemed to be impervious to getting ionized (needs more study).

Fourteenth test: What color light does the flame give off?

    It does not give the normal emission spectrum of hydrogen, nor oxygen, unknown.

    Information on Water and proprieties thereof

Water is very interesting; it shapes earth and everything we see.

    Freezing is what happens when HEAT is displaced or „moved‟. You see when water freezes HEAT is let out. The heat in the water is released and only the slow or „cold‟ molecules remain in the water witch will eventually turn into ice.

    Well what about thawing ice? It is the process of heat being absorbing into the ice is namely, „thawing‟. If you were to thaw one pound of water, you would use X amount of energy. That X amount of energy would HAVE TO be taken out of the one pound of water to reform it to ice.

    Let me explain just a little more, the heat given out by the freezing water will actually slow the freezing process; this tends to slow down the temperature change in the vicinity of the water. Think of this, in areas of great water, such as ponds, lakes and rivers, gives tremendous amounts of energy when the temperature becomes cold. This energy given out by those bodies of water keeps the temperature in those areas from reaching extreme bitter cold temperature. Think of North Dakota and its tremendously bitter cold temperature and no large bodies of water and then of Michigan‟s witch is at the same latitude, but has the great lakes surrounding it. It has much nicer and milder temperature during winter time.

     When cooled to near freezing point the molecules rearrange to minimize their energy, form the hexagonal crystal structure of ice that is actually of lower density: hence the solid form, ice, will float in water. Having a lower density as a solid than the liquid makes ice melt if sufficient enough pressure is applied. The increasing pressure will make the density less, causing it to reform into a liquid state.

    Now let‟s explore another aspect of water. Lets take water at normal temperature (lets say 70 degrees), if the temperature were to fall at the surface, the colder water (not ice yet) at the top would sink to the bottom, as it contracts and gets denser. The warmer water from the bottom

    Browns Gas 9

    will be forced up because of it being lighter and less dense then the falling cold water. This becomes a cycle that will continue until water comes to exactly 39 degrees.

    When this point happens, that cycle will stop and the water will be at its greatest density. When the temperature continues to fall more, the water will begin to expand (even form something similar to a crystal) this means the expanded water will then make its way to the top (less dense) to form ice. In most cases the ice that forms on top of the water will act like a wall to prevent the farther freezing to the water under the ice. Ice is a poor conductor of heat and the denser water underneath the ice will remain near the constant 39 degrees.[1]

    Because water is so different then other liquids it makes life possible. If the ice were to sink (or act like 99% of all other liquids) rivers lakes oceans would freeze solid and kill everything (maybe except microorganisms); it would most likely render earth inhabitable.

Let‟s talk about the vapor now.

    Clouds are water droplets that gather together to form the white puffy things in the sky. In spring time farmers know that if they see clouds they will not expect any frost to come. Clouds absorb great amounts of heat. This heat is slowly released during the night preventing frost to form. The heat that comes from the ground (from the sun or inner earth) will radiate out into space unless there are clouds out to reflect and absorb that heat. I believe earth would be un-inhabitable if there were no as clouds (maybe not all life but all land dwelling things).

    When any water vapor condenses back into liquid water, it will release all energy that would have been necessary for it to become steam. That is a large amount of energy that is put back into the air and sky. To convert water into vapor requires a large amount of heat. When the vapor condenses into water all this heat is given out again. [1]

    One last thing, do you know how you would go UP into the mountains and cook, lets say, soup and when you go to eat it, just after boiling it, it seems as if its still cool and not warmer. This is due to the pressure, or lack of it, that is up in the mountains. The less the pressure the cooler the temperature of boil. Just the opposite is something such as a pressure cooker, because of the sealed container the steam builds up causing more and more pressure making the temperature of boil higher and higher; which will help in cooking food faster. In space if you were to slowly release the pressure in a container with water in it, it would literally „boil‟ to an ice cube.

    This effect is due to the „hot‟ molecules of water that can escape the surface tension at less and less pressure, until only „cold‟ water exist, hence it freezes. So evaporation of water is when all the heat is absorbed (steam), leaving all the slower or colder particles around the area of the water, so in essence it is a cooling process, it absorbed the heat around it to become hotter. When you freeze water it moves all the heat out, heating everything around it, so in essence it is a heating process. Things around the water become hotter. There is another odd effect of water called the Mpemba effect is the process that hot water can, under certain conditions, freeze sooner than cold water, it is hard to explain. [12]

    Browns Gas 10

    Oxygen attracts electrons much more strongly than hydrogen (more electronegative), resulting in a water molecule having a positive charge on the side where the hydrogen atoms are and a negative charge on the other side, where the oxygen atom is. Electrical attraction between water molecules is due to this dipole nature of individual water molecules to pull each other closer together, making it more difficult to separate the molecules (meaning the charge differences will cause water molecules are attracted to each other).

    This attraction is known as hydrogen bonding. Surface tension is a manifestation of this unique bonding (important later). Also hydrogen bonding is a comparatively weak attraction compared to the covalent bonds within the water molecule itself. Currently chemistry says that any water molecule can have at most four hydrogen bonds (which I will talk about later). It is believed that hydrogen bond in water is largely due to electrostatic forces and some amount of covalence bonds. Hydrogen bonding also gives water its unusual behavior when freezing. [10]

    Could just Hydrogen explain these proprieties of Browns gas?

    Hydrogen by its self cannot explain everything; however there are torches that use hydrogen to weld. This may help in explaining some of the effects but is a far cry from explaining all the effects of browns gas. I included information on other torches to show the difference. [10]

Hydrogen[11]:

    Molecular bonding strength of Hydrogen: 104 Kcal per mole

    Protons/neutrons/electrons of average Hydrogen: 1/0/1 The ground state energy level of the electron in a hydrogen atom: ?13.6 eV.

    Energy it takes to split H hydrogen molecules: 4.476 eV. 2

Atomic Hydrogen Torch: 4000 ?C

    Acetylene Torch: 3300 ?C

    Cyanogen Torch: 4525 ?C

    Dicyanacetylene Torch: 4987 ?C

    [5]

    Browns Gas Torch: depends on object to be heated… However its relatively 'cold' flame of about

    130 degrees seems to defy it welding anything.

    Atomic Hydrogen Welding is a form of arc welding. It uses an electric arc between two metal tungsten electrodes (An electric arc efficiently breaks up the hydrogen molecules, which later recombine with tremendous release energy, mostly in the form of heat). The atomic hydrogen torch uses it to generate very high temperatures near 4,000?C for welding (still not matching the browns gas). The heat produced by this torch is enough to melt or weld tungsten (3422 ?C). The

    presence of hydrogen acts like a „force field‟ and protects metals from mixing with carbon, nitrogen, or oxygen (hence, no flux is needed…).[9]

The hydrogen gas is normally diatomic (H), however the electric arc breaks down the hydrogen 2

    into its atomic form, which in turn absorbs that energy in the form of heat. When the hydrogen hits any hard cold surface, it reverts back into its diatomic form and rapidly releases that stored

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com