Factory farming agribusiness ;工厂化养殖化农业；
How Factory Farms Impact You
Over the last two decades, small- and medium-scale livestock farms have given way to factory farms that confine thousands of cows, hogs and chickens in tightly packed facilities. The growth of these factory farms has contributed to a host of environmental, public health, economic, food safety and animal welfare problems.
It resulted from public policy choices driven by big agribusinesses, especially meatpackers and processors that dominate the critical steps in the food chain between livestock producers and consumers.
Too Much Manure
These animals produce tremendous amounts of manure. Large-scale commercial livestock and poultry operations produce an estimated 500 million tons of manure each year, more than three times the sewage produced by the entire U.S. human population.
Industrial livestock operations also can create public health hazards in other ways. The facilities are over-crowded and stressful to animals, making it easy for disease to spread. When thousands of beef cattle are packed into feedlots full of manure, bacteria can get on their hides and then into the slaughterhouses屠宰场. Contamination on even one steer can contaminate thousands of pounds of meat inside a slaughterhouse.
Overuse of Antibiotics激素
Factory farms can create public health concerns beyond foodborne illness. Because over-crowded animals are susceptible to infection and disease, most industrial livestock facilities treat the animals with low-levels of antibiotics to prevent illness and also promote weight gain. By creating a breeding ground for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the sub-therapeutic dosages used on millions of factory-farmed livestock can reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics for human patients. The feed used for livestock can also introduce public health threats. Broiler chickens often receive arsenic-based feed additives to promote pinker flesh and faster growth, and beef cattle continue to be fed with animal byproducts, which increases the risk of mad cow disease.
detrimental to the animals themselves. Most factory-farmed hogs and chickens have no access to the outdoors and never see daylight. Beef cattle and dairy cows spend time outside, but they are crammed onto feedlots with no access to pasture or grass, which is what they are built to eat. The lack of outdoor access, inability to express natural behaviors, health problems and stress caused by production practices, and breeding designed to maximize weight gain or egg and milk production take a toll on animal welfare.
Independent Farmers Suffer农民
Nor do most farmers benefit from the shift to factory farming. The number of dairy, hog and beef cattle producers in America has declined sharply over the last twenty years as the meatpacking, processing and dairy industries have pressed farmers to increase in scale. Most farmers barely break even. In 2007, more than half of family farmers lost money on their farming operation. The tiny handful of companies that dominate each livestock sector exert tremendous control over the prices farmers receive, and they micromanage the day-to-day operations of many farms. The real price that farmers receive for livestock has fallen steadily for the last two decades.
Recommendations建议The stakes are high for the future of livestock production. Because
government at all levels has made decisions that contributed to the rise of factory farms, all levels of government must be involved in changing policies and enforcing existing laws to rein in this industry. Food & Water Watch recommends the following courses of action: Congress must restore sensible commodity programs that do not prioritize the production of artificially cheap livestock feed over fair
prices to crop farmers. The Environmental Protection Agency must implement and enforce appropriate environmental rules to prevent factory farm pollution. The Food and Drug Administration must reverse its approval of controversial hormone, non-therapeutic antibiotic and other livestock treatments that facilitate factory farming at the expense of public health.
"Factory farming is an attitude that regards animals and the natural world merely as commodities to be exploited for profit. In animal agriculture, this attitude has led to institutionalized animal cruelty, massive environmental destruction and resource depletion, and animal and human health risks." So, for one, animals are exploited as things that are solely alive for the purpose of human comfort. For the most part, humans do not require the supply that has been created through factory farming. Two, cruelty. Institutionalized cruelty has become a norm for factory farming. They barely see any way around it, which grows a branch of the issue. Even an attempt at reducing the cruelty seems feeble. Right now the only reasonable solution is to form a ban and abolish factory farming. Three: environmental destruction and resource depletion. The world's ecosystem keeps us alive. Factory farming however destroys the ecosystem in which allows us to thrive, which increases the risk of total environmental destruction. Thus, the necessary resources that prosper in our environment become significantly reduced in availability.
Four: animal and human health risks. Due to the grave danger factory farming emissions put our ecosystem and ourselves in, a health risk is in place. Industrial areas boom all over the world. And what's even more disturbing is the fact that instead of trying to preserve flourishing environment, industrial leaders choose to destroy massive areas of environment to create a city of industry. Not only does the destruction of the environment to create the area endangering species of animal and putting their lives at risk, the emissions factory farming produces puts human lives at risk. These farms are polluting communities and lessening their well being. Factory farms destroy quality of life and they deplete resources required for human life. So why do we still permit factory farms? I can infer from truth that factory farms do no good; only harm.
Cheap food production: Due to the use of technology and “economies of scale,” they produce food at less cost than smaller farms, thus enabling customers to save money on food purchases. Efficiency: The ability to efficiently produce and distribute huge quantities of food to feed large cities. Employment: Factory farms provide employment to nearby communities.
Capital: Supporters argue that factory farms do invest in the communities in which they operate. 缺点
Animal cruelty: Typically large numbers of animals are kept in close confinement, having little room to maneuver. This overcrowding frequently causes stress, frustration, boredom and joint pains. Other examples of cruelty include drugging and mutilating animals (for example, chickens’ beaks are sliced
off and cows’ tails are amputated).
Diseases: Raising large numbers of animals in cramped conditions leads to disease. Therefore, the animals are fed antibiotics in order to ward off diseases.
Also, animals are injected with hormones to speed their growth and some are even given feed containing animal byproducts.
This has led to humans acquiring antibiotic resistant bacteria, and diseases such as mad cow disease.
Pollution: Factory farms produce large quantities of waste that is difficult to dispose of. This waste emits greenhouse gases, and leaks into lakes, rivers and ground water, putting entire communities at risk.
Monoculture: Factory farming typically devastates the ecosystem in an area by wiping out large tracts of land to produce one crop.
Inferior food: Food produced by factory farming has lower nutritional value than food produced by organic farming.