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les18_Rev2

By Samuel Bryant,2014-05-26 13:05
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les18_Rev2

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     Auditing

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Objectives

     After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: ? Outline auditing categories ? Enable auditing for an instance ? Outline auditing options ? Obtain audit information

     18-2

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Auditing

     Auditing is the monitoring of selected user database actions, and is used to:

     ?C Investigate suspicious database activity ?C Gather information about specific database activities

     Auditing can be performed by session or access

     18-3

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Auditing Guidelines

     Define what you want to audit:

     ?C Users, statements, or objects ?C Statement executions ?C Successful statement executions, unsuccessful statement executions, or both

     Manage your audit trail:

     ?C Monitor the growth of the audit trail ?C Protect the audit trail from unauthorized access

     18-4

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     18-5

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Auditing Categories

     Audited by default:

     ?C Instance startup and instance shutdown ?C Administrator privileges

     Database auditing:

     ?C Enabled by the DBA ?C Cannot record column values

     Value-based or application auditing:

     ?C Implemented through code ?C Can record column values ?C Used to track changes to tables

     18-6

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     18-7

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Database Auditing

     Enable database auditing DBA Review audit information Parameter file Specify audit options Server process Generate audit trail Execute command User

     Audit options OS audit trail Audit trail

     Database

     18-8

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     18-9

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Auditing Options

     Statement auditing:

     AUDIT TABLE;

     Privilege auditing:

     AUDIT create any trigger;

     Schema object auditing:

     AUDIT SELECT ON emi.orders;

     18-10

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Auditing Options

     Fine-grained auditing: ? Provides the monitoring of data access based on content ? Is implemented using the DBMS_FGA package

     18-11

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Auditing User SYS

     Auditing user SYS provides: ?C Extra level of security ?C Set AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS to True ? Non-auditing of user SYS: ?C Set AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS to False ?C This is the default value.

     18-12

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Obtaining Auditing Information

     Information about auditing can be obtained by querying the following views: ? ALL_DEF_AUDIT_OPTS ? DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS ? DBA_PRIV_AUDIT_OPTS ? DBA_OBJ_AUDIT_OPTS

     18-13

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Obtaining Audit Records Information

     Information about auditing records can be obtained by querying the following views: ? DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL ? DBA_AUDIT_EXISTS ? DBA_AUDIT_OBJECT ? DBA_AUDIT_SESSION ? DBA_AUDIT_STATEMENT

     18-14

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Summary

     In this lesson, you should have learned how to: ? Outline auditing needs ? Enable and disable auditing ? Identify and use the various auditing options ? Obtain audit information

     18-15

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

     Practice 18 Overview

     There is no practice for this lesson.

     18-16

     Copyright ? Oracle Corporation, 2002. All rights reserved.

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