By Alexander Carroll,2014-05-26 12:48
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     A study on the issues of university development from the viewpoint on the balance between the arts & social science students, and the science and technology students

     Yao Tang, Diwan University Professor of Graduate Institute of Education

     The ability on science and technology would lead you a prosperity life; however, liberal arts will bring you rich in your mind

     from Dr. Tang Yao

     Background review The current institutional status Reasons to the balance issues 1. Admission standards 2. Historical tradition 3. Curriculum design 4. Employment market 5. Problem-solving ability 6. Liberal education Conclusion & Recommendations

     Background review

     The progress of science and technology education reform has been steady and sometimes accelerated, though the publication of Taiwan Educational Reform in 1996. However, it is quite clear that what students learn in higher education institutions is close to what they are going to be employed in the labor market.

     Background review No doubt that Taiwan is an industrial country and needs for more hi tech labors in employment market. Thus the professional selection among departments would tend to be science and technology instead of arts and social science. The M.O.E. shows that, from 2.68 in 1996 to 3.67 in 2005 between students registered science and technology and Arts.

     Background review

     The aim of this paper is to explore the issues on the enrollment number balance between Human Arts students and Science Technology ones to universities and colleges in Taiwan, in which the student management is regarding to human capital distribution has gained its transformation these years.

     The current institutional status

     There are about 160 higher education institutions which are focused on the post-18 level program. More than half of them are called as university of technology or polytechnic college in Taiwan. That means also that most of their curriculum arrangement is majored on the field of applied technology and information. However, the sample of my paper is only focused on the comprehensive university in which total is about 60 institutions.

     Table 1: A survey on Public Comprehensive universities in Taiwan (22)

     Institution name institution established Arts and social science College established

     Ratio (Arts & social science Departments/ total)

     ÒËÌmuniversity ?ÎÁxuniversity ÕþÖÎuniversity ÇåÈAuniversity Å_ž?university

     Before 1987

     1926 1920 1927 1956 1928 1946 1946 1948 1953 1958 1962 1972 1980 1987 1989 1994 1995 2000 2000

     (77) (80) (28) (28) (19) (50) (19) (55) (52) (37) (34) (28) (15) (0) (0) (7) (0) (0) (0)

     2003 2000 1955 1984 1947 1996 1967 2003 2005 1995 1996 2000 1995 1987 1989 2001 1995 2000 2000

     4/18* 20/50 20/48 9/36* 18/104* 12/77* 16/52* 13/18 3/25* 8/40* 7/44* 3/33 14/41* 19/31 12/35 13/46 11/23 9/29 3/25

     ?É??university ÖÐÅduniversity Å_–|university Å_ž?º?Èóuniversity

    ??Í?university ÉÐÈëuniversity “ºÏuniversity ÉÐÇ?university Å_ÄÏuniversity ÖÐÕýuniversity |ÈAuniversity

     After 1987

     ôßÄχøëHuniversity Å_??university ?ßÐÛuniversity

     Table 2: A survey on Private Comprehensive universities before 1987 in Taiwan (16)

     Institution name institution established 1925 1950 1954 1955 1955 1957 1957 1958 1960 1961 1962 1963 1965 1987 Arts and social science (36) (8) (13) (25) (38) (47) (46) ?w (37) (38) (18) ?w (16) ?w College established 1961 1958 1967 1980 1993 2004 2003 NAV 1997 1999 1980 NAV 1981 NAV

     Ratio (Arts & social science Departments/ total)

     ÝoÈÊuniversity µ???university –|…Æuniversity ÉÐÔ?university

    –|º?university ìoÒËuniversity ã‘‚?university Œ•Û`university

    ÊÀÐÂuniversity ?ê?×university ÉЇøÎÄ??university ?óÍ?university

    ÕæÀíuniversity éL?ýuniversity

     20/63 11/63 7/22 5/29 13/34 10/25 6/60 NAV 6/23 4/42 17/75 NAV 5/40 NAV

     Table 3: A survey on Private Comprehensive universities after 1987 in Taiwan (17)

     Institution name ÔªÖÇuniversity ÖÐÈAuniversity ?óÈ~university ?Aèóuniversity ÁxÊØuniversity éL?suniversity ÄÏ?Auniversity ÐþÞÊuniversity é_ÄÏuniversity ?È?úuniversity ÖÂßhuniversity Á?µÂuniversity Åd‡øuniversity ?ð?âuniversity ?†ÉÞuniversity µ???university Ã?µÀuniversity institution established 1989 1990 1990 1990 1990 1993 1996 1997 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 Arts and social science (8) (16) ?w (6) ?w (10) (5) (8) (6) (2) (0) (0) ?w (0) (2) (2) (1) College established 1997 2006 NAV 1996 NAV 2003 2001 2005 2006 2002 2000 2000 NAV 2000 2002 2003 2002

     Ratio (Arts & social science Departments/ total)

     7/24 2/28 NAV 5/12 NAV 8/27 14/37 9/18 5/24 9/23 4/15 3/20 NAV 18/18 5/21 6/16 5/23

     Table 4: The transformation on the education Market based on the number of students?? enrollment from the past 10 years in Taiwan

     Year No. Arts students Ratio Social Science No. Ratio No. Technology Ratio Sum

     1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

     75,692 80,548 86,790 94,630 103,216 113,969 125,626 136,216 144,914 151,282

     22.40 21.55 21.18 20.13 18.30 16.83 16.30 16.26 16.20 16.12

     115,382 128,911 141,828 162,545 197,279 241,858 278,454 302,346 323,128 337,671

     34.15 34.50 34.62 34.58 34.97 35.72 36.12 36.10 36.12 35.97

     146,763 164,243 181,087 212,855 263,564 321,344 366,835 399,040 426,486 449,695

     43.44 43.95 44.20 45.29 46.73 47.45 47.58 47.64 47.68 47.91

     337,837 373,702 409,705 470,030 564,059 677,171 770,915 837,602 894,528 938,648

     Reasons to the balance issues

     The prospect of future students coming to higher education with a broader and more uniform knowledge of science and technology raises several important admissions and placement issues. For higher education to join forces with the reform movement, it will have to address seriously such questions as: 1. Admission standards 2. Historical tradition 3. Curriculum design 4. Employment market 5. Problem-solving ability 6. Liberal education

     Admission standards

     Are Parents or policy-makers? High schools construct their curricula in part to meet the demands of standardized assessments and in part to be acceptable to higher education. If graduates of a high school science and technology program do not gain admission to the college of their choice, that curriculum in high school level is in danger. Science and technology educators must work to ensure that reforming the curriculum makes the transition from high school to college more difficult. Will reform expand the pool of science and technology majors? Because reform focuses on producing a more science literate populace rather than on producing more and better scientists, it could allow some universities to ignore the reform as irrelevant to their students and faculty.

     Historical tradition

     What is the role of community colleges? Are they more likely than four-year colleges and universities to build on reforms? Science and technology education reformers should pay special attention to the

    transitions from high school to community college to university. If higher education faculty really wants to enlarged pool of undergraduates to enter some of the most elite laboratories and classrooms in our nation's colleges and universities, they must work toward admitting students prepared to be science and technology literate. This is true even if these students differ from traditional high-school honors students.

     Curriculum design If in their first two years, undergraduate science and engineering majors study a common core of physical and life sciences heavily laced with interconnections and links to the social sciences and humanities, they will be better equipped to choose and succeed in a science discipline. They will also be better prepared to function as professionals in the world of work, which is not neatly divided into disciplines.

     Employment market If universities support experimentation with innovative teaching methods?ª multidisciplinary programs; team teaching; collaborative learning; simulation; multimedia and computer-supported instruction; and exploration of the interaction of science, technology, and human values?ªthey will necessarily stimulate more conversation among the disciplines and engender still more interdisciplinary collaboration between teaching and employment market.

     Problem-solving ability

     college faculty would agree that all students need genuine experiences grappling with scientific questions, collecting data, constructing models, guessing, estimating, making mistakes, recognizing the unanswerable, and other activities that go beyond calculating solutions to routine sets of problems. Thus, labours in general, and future learners in particular, should have a wide range of learning experiences and should also come to appreciate how each student selects and adapts teaching approaches.

     Liberal education

     To change science and technology education for majors and non-majors alike, our approach to science and technology curricula should stress the important central concepts of science and technology, their observational basis, and the history of their development. Most campuses entertained vigorous discussions of general or liberal education in the 1980s. The available resources in colleges and universities provide ample opportunities to involve students with historic and societal perspectives in science and technology that will prepare them for a lifelong pursuit of science literacy. A convincing case can be made that a defined but varied selection of liberal education science and technology courses can satisfy the science requirement for science and non-science majors.

     Conclusion & Recommendations

     1. Attending to the needs of prospective science and technology students, science majors, and general education in this way makes sense for several reasons. First, if we do our jobs right, there will be people who were planning to be students who decide to become scientists, and vice versa. 2. Second, people who are not only arts students but also science technology students should nevertheless be science literate. We should insist that whatever we call good science and technology for all Taiwanese will be good for future humanbeing-and that good science and technology for future development will be good for all Taiwanese.

     Conclusion & Recommendations

     3. Equity issues are critical to the success of reform. Although science and technology education are clearly committed to an equity agenda. Policy aimed at increasing the needs of economic development has had disappointing results thus far. Agents of change in higher education must be identified. Because higher education often sees the needs of the sector as peripheral to itself, it will be important to work closely with professional and disciplinary societies.

     Conclusion & Recommendations

     4. Parents and college applicants should be informed to specific information about the teaching and learning culture at institutions of higher education. It is important for prospective students to consider how their future college's attitudes toward science and technology teaching and learning will impact their success. This information should be made available, especially for students who may not have traditional access to information about colleges.

     Conclusion & Recommendations

     5. The admissions process is critical. Higher education in Taiwan has begun to adapt admissions procedures in response to the standards movement and the growth of portfolio and performance assessment programs. Flexibility in admissions should be explored further and communications between schools and higher education institutions enhanced.

     Conclusion & Recommendations

     6. High quality professional development for students not only on science and technology but also on the liberal arts is essential to human capital and whole life of learning. 7. Higher education can help in this regard. To provide the appropriate content for students, university faculty in the sciences and in education departments must be more involved in day-to-day learning in schools. 8. For higher education to participate fully student career development on both reforms, university faculty must change their outlook on teaching.

     Conclusion & Recommendations

     9. When faculty show respect for students interested in arts or

    social science, encourage some of their best and brightest to think about careers in teaching and learning, take seriously their role in developing human potentiality, and become involved in important new research that can help both arts, social science and science and technology development, they will be full participants in the education reform agenda.


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