Civic education is to cultivate children's democratic
Abstract title】 growth and social development of young people
Xiaochuan: Beijing Normal University Institute of Education Professor of Education, National Education Professional Committee, deputy director of the basic theory.
In building a harmonious socialist society in the process of the status and role of civic education even more clearly, and the present academic theoretical study of civic education is not enough, many teachers and parents also have a lack of deep understanding. With confusion and doubt, the reporter interviewed Professor Xiao Chuan.
If the adverse social environment, most people can not have a good quality of life, so we should pay special emphasis on civic education.
Bow: Why do you think that today with special emphasis on civic education? Civic education and previous relevant education What is the difference?
Shaw: We often say that the civil society, free society, open society, rule of law,
democratic society, a harmonious society, a pluralistic society, these are almost always synonymous. To build a civil society is our country and nation in order to win necessary for a better future is our way forward. True sense of the modern society, it
should be a civil society. We want to achieve national prosperity and happiness of the people, we must build a civil society, without which, there was no alternative.
Attention to education as a human self-sustaining and development of a practical
activity, involving two basic issues - the direction and methods. The so-called direction,
that is what our education should cultivate a kind of society what kind of person. My answer to this question is: laid the foundation stone for a happy life, in order to foster a
free society people, cultivate a good citizen in a democratic society. The method is more ideal and the practice of faith overtaken by practical action strategies and operating procedures. Teaching methods are important, may be the direction of education should
be the first. If the direction is wrong, way better, more effective, more likely it is poles apart, more and more away from the real goal.
Society, democracy, not only needed to improve the social productive forces, it also
affects the quality of life each one of us. Because democracy allows us to have more life, more concerned about points. If a person does not participate in social life, it would not be concerned about. When we have more participation, more attention, we only enrich
the social life.
Bow: You say in modern society, is there a clear division of the historical stage?
Shaw: Modern society is not the time concepts, is a manifestation of social structure, levels of development. It is a multi-equal society. Today's Chinese society is in a
transitional period, one dollar from the traditional hierarchical society, authoritarian society to a pluralistic egalitarian society, the transition to a democratic society. A very important element of civic education is to cultivate people's democratic maturity.
And citizens of the concept of relative subjects important characteristic of the citizens of free and equal and full involvement of social cooperation. The so-called
freedom, is a wide range of independent citizens have a lot of choice. The so-called
social cooperation, not countries, and individuals such a straight line connection, but rather the middle there are many social organizations. In civil society, we all belong to
different social organizations. Through these social organizations that we participate in social life. We now focus on building harmonious society, is to make people feel more beautiful life. Society is our community, we all grow in the community were. If the
adverse social environment, the vast majority of us who can not have a good quality of life. Therefore, we should pay special emphasis on civic education.
Bow: You have mentioned the distinction between citizens and subjects, is not to say
that with the civil society, non-existent subjects it? If a person does not participate in
social life, there is no people's basic qualities, such a person not to ask subjects to do?
Shaw: subjects in the monarchy and society exist. Now, we are building civil society,
there are some unqualified citizens. They are citizens in name only, but not with a civic literacy and ability. While social stipulates that every citizen is freedom and equality, but it can not exercise their right to freedom, the ability to intervene in social
cooperation is another question. Our emphasis on civic education, that is, in building a civil society in the hope that people possess compatible with democratic political system, the knowledge, attitudes, values and social ability to cooperate.
Among the civil society, the law provides that you are a citizen, but do you have a citizen's quality, is education.
Civic education should be the tone of moral education, the core and soul of
Bow: civic literacy education and moral education we often say what relationship?
Shaw: the political and ideological education within a certain range with the
ideological nature, purpose is to impart to students a number of ideological attitudes and positions. Rather, civic education means a country or community in accordance with relevant laws and policies, to develop their own members who have faithfully fulfill their civic rights and duties of character and ability of education. It includes the following objectives: identify their own national identity; access to exercise their civic rights and obligations of the character and capacity; the development of interest in participation in social life, and state and commitment to the community sense of responsibility and accountability capabilities.
Bow: If you focus on civic education, democratic participation, then the content related to morality, it is extremely civic education, or moral calculation we often say it? Similarities and differences between civic education with moral education gone?
Shaw: Moral and civic education is such a relationship: In modern society, the citizens of literacy is one aspect of the broad moral. The moral quality of our students is based on the concept of citizenship. This moral is not the kind of slavish morality. Civic
education should be the tone of moral education, core and soul. We emphasize the moral should be based on a fundamental capacity of civil society. Every student to do qualified citizens, we must first understand the rights and obligations of citizens to
understand the basic rules of running a modern society, and citizenship has a self-
Bow: In the ancient education, there is no concept of civic education, but it attached great importance to the people to cultivate virtues. I think a lot of the quality of a man does not change with changing times. How do we understand this issue?
Shaw: human life, whether past, present and future do have some things in common. However, changing times is mainly reflected in the social structure. Confucius talked about morality, there is a strong hierarchy, whereas in today's society emphasizes equality. So, today's civic education in some of the eternal elements of both, but also have the characteristics of the times.
Bow: We Can it be understood, from a personal point of view, need to have some qualities in ancient times, when there are not many people's sense of participation. Historical development to the present, as individuals, not only to have those basic
moral, but also to add new content.
Shaw: civic education, more emphasis on the relationship between society and individuals, such as civil rights, social participation capability. China for thousands of years of monarchy rule, making our citizens a serious lack of civic awareness.
Citizenship including social and public awareness, this community is our community, there must be a sense of ownership. A good citizen know how to care for the community's wealth, reduce the use of disposable items. Nothing to do with something
more expensive, not too much bargaining, the money in my pocket and in your pocket, does not result in substantial waste. Of course, the prices reasonable and necessary. If a thing is not done, then make the best use would result in wastage. Literacy of citizens
would include such civic awareness. We used to talk about morality, not based on personal freedom, happiness and dignity, and more for people outside the norms and requirements of even mandatory, but did not really focus on a person's quality of life.
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Bow: I have seen abroad civic education and our moral education is almost the
same, which you talk about the content of participation in society, there are a lot of the
content of personal cultivation, it seems that these two aspects are combined together.
Shaw: A good citizen must be a good morality of the people, for example, frank, frank, happy expression, is an important quality of citizens. Each of us knows best what
is required, and only true expression of inner thoughts, the social institutions-building
in order to truly reflect our personal needs.
Civic literacy is not simply society's demands, but also a person popular and respected important quality.
Bow: In the past neglect of moral dignity and freedom of the individual. Today's parents in the education their children were attached great importance to the child's self-development and performance. Thus many people worry that today's kids are too
self-centered of the. As a civic education, to protect individual rights, but also have to serve the community consciousness. How do we strike a balance between the concept and the development of self and to serve the community relations?
Shaw: The so-called society is the relationship between human beings. We
emphasize that citizens are autonomous individual, which includes self-judgment, self-
selection and self-commitment. Independent What is the relationship between
individuals do? Is a cooperative relationship. We always talk about the past, comradeship, which is ideological overtones. Each of us have different positions, interests and aspirations, and strictly speaking can not be called "comrade", unless they are accomplices. But we can cooperate between and can be mutually beneficial. In the modern pluralistic society, everyone belongs to a different interest groups, human relations are equal, there is no hierarchy between them. On an equal basis, we, through dialogue, consultations, reach a consensus. Put extremes is a bargain, to compromise. On the one hand we have to respect the individual interests of the other, to take into account the existence of others. So, in modern society is a co-operative relationship
Today, the students are relatively strong tendency to self-centeredness, which is the
background to grow the relationship between the parents in the family has been too much attention and accommodation. Therefore, school education with special emphasis
on the ways to cultivate children's spirit of cooperation. As a parent how to guide children? All levels of society is to conduct extensive exchanges of people, in particular, to emphasize and peer interaction between. And let them face the conflict and learn to
resolve conflicts grow.
Bow: the parents to understand the concept of civic education, for children as they grow What is the significance? Parents may think that these are the social system issues, and impersonal.
Shaw: Only the building of good society, there is a better system in order to make the best use, to make the best use of them. As citizens have more opportunities to participate in society in order to ensure that each person's quality of life. If the society does not sound, then the vast majority of the wisdom and labor can not be a real play and recognize the increase in social wealth would be greatly compromised.
Where is the system come from? By the people to make them. As a modern citizen, not merely the perspective of thinking is a personal life, personal life should be placed against the background of society as a whole thought. The quality of life of individuals depends on the degree of social civilization. Only by establishing an individual will be able to fully express and free channels, we can feel more comfortable inner. But this platform and how the pipes come from? It has to come together to create the whole community. However, the society is not the abstract there is a composition of each specific person. The social construction of how, depending on the qualities each of us. So cultivate good citizens of literacy is necessary.
Bow: From a macroeconomic viewpoint, the social good, each of us will be better people. However, the specific to each individual, is not entirely the case. Parents feel
that their kids going on to college, there are social status and economic status of the most important. Other things I am very far away, I just care about their children's own development.
Shaw: Parents are concerned about their growing up. But the growth of content What is this? Co-operation with others to cultivate children's sense of concern for public welfare, but also the growth of important content. If a child can effectively express their inner desire to let others willing to accept that these kids can be more popular and respected. Civic literacy is not simply a requirement of human society, but also popular and respected as an important quality. As a parent for the child's concerns are broader and more lofty vision of the realm, will be more beneficial to a child's growth. On the contrary, is too narrow, can only make the child become short-sighted,
Civic education is to cultivate children's democracy. Democracy is not only a
political system, but also a kind of attitude to life
Bow: Do you think that civic education in school education and whether the current received enough attention?
Shaw: Today our school education is not to civic education as a separate course, not
highlighted, sharp. In developed countries, civic education is a required course. Although we have ideological and moral lessons, can be reflected in very inadequate sense of civic responsibility. Today's education should be carried out around the civic
literacy. Actually, all reflecting the citizenship curriculum, but refracted to different degrees. Language, society, history lesson this can reflect even more. For example, language teaching materials choose the kind of content can reflect certain values.
Bow: What do you think will better embody the lessons of civic education in thinking?
Shaw: For instance, fourth-grade text, "quarrel" is written by foreign authors,
described the father to teach their children learn to face their own conflicts, conflict
resolution, to win the friendship story. In modern society, conflict is inevitable, we use what is solution to the conflict is very important. For example to learn to put themselves in, empathy, more understanding, we must learn to give up and
compromise. Democracy is a deal with the problem attitude towards life. Such as freedom of speech, "I strongly disagree with your opinion, but I swear to defend your right to be heard." We can not as in the past due to opposition on the concept of cause
Teaching materials should at least not contrary to the principles of civic education. School to comply with the rules of civil society. For example students in a code of practice can not be imposed on the adult world to the kids, and should reflect the
children's thinking, by their own rules. At present, some rules in a manner inconsistent with the concept of civic education, since most are developed by the educational institution. We believe that our students not only have the ability to comply with the
rules, but also rule-making capacity. For example, many rules of the game is that kids have set for ourselves. Of course, education is a value guide. This guide is based on the child should be allowed to consciously and willingly accept.
Bow: In the family education appear to have some of our things for granted, but in violation of the principles of civic education?
Shaw: I am a casual survey of several aspects: First, the issues raised in the child deception attitude. For example a child asked me come from? Many parents can not realistically answer. This civic education is not consistent, citizens have the right to know. In fact, the correct concept is that any questions we should all children and a true exchange. Second, children and peers are in conflict, most parents are not encouraging their children to face the conflict, learn themselves, but always encouraged their children to complain to. Such children are more likely superstitious power. Third, the child crying, some parents threatened their children, or casual promises. And when the child stopped crying, the parents failed to fulfill his promise. Fourth, children are sometimes a problem, parents are always the responsibility attributed to external
factors, rather than letting the child to reflect on their mistakes. This is very beneficial to cultivate children's self-reflection and accountability capabilities.
In short, the character of democracy must be willing to share, good communication,
hard reflection, adhering to the truth, a sense of commitment, courage to innovate. In short, civic education is to cultivate children's democratic character. Because democracy is not only a political system, is also an attitude to life.
Bow: The concept of civic education to express happy to share a sense of
commitment and other qualities, and some parents would say: I do not understand civic education, still can cultivate children of these good qualities, why should she want to know the meaning of civic education?
Shaw: We have very little emphasis on democracy in the past, many families there is patriarchal, the child did not express their rights. Parents to understand the meaning of civic education can increase awareness of their actions. Some parents, a relatively high
personal qualities have always been doing, but he may not be aware this kind of education to the children and the importance of society as a whole. The value of theory lies in a description and explanation of things, as we understand it more deeply, we will
be more conscious of the act, it may do a better job.
Civic education is the era of the personality development of students and the moral qualities of the soul of requirements. It emphasizes self-esteem, self-reliant, able to
participate in society, there is public awareness.
Bow: It appears that the meaning of civic education need more people understand. Only in this way, parents can bring children to develop into a happy life, the creator and the good citizens of modern society. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://