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Schwarz Time Use Presentation

By Alvin Martin,2014-05-26 12:41
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Schwarz Time Use Presentation

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     Approaches to Well-being

     How people evaluate their lives

     Day Reconstruction Method

     Norbert Schwarz, Michigan Daniel Kahneman, Princeton Alan Krueger, Princeton David Schkade, UC San Diego Arthur Stone, SUNY Stony Brook

     Funded by Hewlett Foundation and NIA

     ?C ??How satisfied are you with your life as a whole??? ?C Basis of most of what we know about well- being ?C Answers ? highly context dependent ? poorly related to objective conditions

     Approaches to Well-being

     How people live and experience their lives

     ?C Time use & experience ? How much time spent doing what? ? How does it feel? ?C Pioneered by Tom Juster in 70??s ? ??An important ingredient in the production and distribution of well-being is the set of satisfactions generated by activities themselves" (Juster, 1985, p. 333)

     Day Reconstruction Method (DRM)

     Builds on Juster??s approach ? Takes advantage of last 20 years of cognitive research into reports of emotions and experience

     ?C Juster: global enjoyment ratings for classes of activities ("dislike very much" to "enjoy a great deal"). ?C DRM: tailored affect profiles for specific episodes of yesterday, which are

    ??reinstantiated?? in memory in some detail

     DRM

     Step 1 ? R??s reconstruct ??yesterday?? on a private form

     ?C List major meaningful episodes from getting up to going to bed, noting some details ?C Can insert new episodes as later ones prompt memories of earlier ones ?C The interlinked structure facilitates rich ?? reinstantiation?? of the last day.

     DRM

     Step 2 ? R??s complete a form for each episode, reporting

     ?C Where ?C Who with ?C What ?C How they felt during the episode

     R??s indicate approximate times (to estimate duration) ? R??s keep this form, which serves as their own memory prompt for later questions.

     Specifics tailored to the purpose of the study

     1

     DRM Episode Questions

     Where were you? (check one) __ At home __ At work __ Somewhere else

     DRM Episode Questions

     What were you doing? (check all that apply)

     __ commuting __ shopping __ doing housework __ eating

     __ working __ preparing food __ taking care of your children __ pray/worship/meditate __ watching TV __ computer/internet/email __ on the phone __ exercising

     Who were you interacting with (including on the phone, etc)? Check all that apply.

     __ no one __ spouse/significant other __ friends __ co-workers __ clients/ students __ my children __ parents/relatives __ boss __ other people

     __ socializing __ nap/resting __ relaxing __ intimate relations

     __ other (please specify)

     DRM Feelings

     How did you feel during this episode? Not at all Impatient for it to end . . . . . . . . . Happy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frustrated/annoyed . . . . . . . . . . .

    Depressed/blue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Competent/capable . . . . . . . . . . . Hassled/pushed around . . . . . . . Warm/friendly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Angry/hostile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    Worried/anxious . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enjoying

    myself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Criticized/put down . . . . . . . . . . . Tired . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Very much 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

     Data Collection

     Initially tested with diverse convenience samples

     ?C Full day takes about 1 hour

     Currently adapted for representative surveys conducted by Gallup and WHO

     ?C Different parts of the day for different R??s ?C Detailed reports on random subset of episodes ?C 10-15 minutes

     Feasible task, independent of R??s education

     Analyses

     Feelings as a function of episode characteristics ? Duration weighted to characterize day ? Provides rich descriptions of the subjective experience related to different activities, situations, interaction partners, etc. ? Can be related to background variables

     ?C e.g., SES, work conditions, personality

     Validation

     Gold standard for measuring momentary experience is ESM ? Against ESM data from the same person for the same day ? Against ESM profiles from other persons for the same type of episode ? Non-obvious ESM patterns

     ?C Can we reproduce non-obvious patterns observed in ESM? ?C E.g.,

diurnal patterns

     2

     Tiredness

     People predict a linear increase in tiredness over the course of the day. ? ESM shows

     ?C you start out tired ?C tiredness drops over the morning ?C is lowest at lunch ?C increases after that

     ??Tired?? in DRM and ESM

     DRM replicates this pattern, which R??s can??t report introspectively (Kahneman et al., Science, 2004)

     Negative Affect

     People do not predict diurnal patterns for negative affect, which they see as situation driven. ? ESM shows diurnal pattern ? DRM replicates it ?C without introspective insight.

     Negative Affect in DRM and ESM

     Validity

     More examples in Kahneman et al., Science, 2004 ? DRM replicates non-obvious ESM findings ? ESM and DRM profiles show good correspondence

     Some Illustrative Observations

     3

     Activities & Affect

     Activity intimate relations relaxing socializing eating pray/meditate watching TV preparing food shopping childcare internet/email doing housework working commuting Net Affect 4.26 3.71 3.59 3.35 3.26 3.17 2.90 2.81 2.55 2.50 2.39 2.25 2.10 % time 1.6 14.3 14.8 14.7 2.8 15.2 7.7 3.0 7.9 11.8 14.7 40.5 10.5 Net affect = positive minus negative (possible range -6/6) N = 909 employed women 24% African-American 22% Hispanic 49% White Household income $54.7k

     ??Enjoying Myself??

     ??Enjoying Myself??

     Features More Correlated with Job Satisfaction Than Job Affect (DRM)

     Satisfaction > Affect Current job compared to previous Low status job (-) Overqualified for my job (-) Requires specialized education/training Can make decisions that help people Household income Excellent benefits .31 .23 .20 .20 .20 .20 .17 .17 .11 .12 .09 .11 .04 .09

     Features Less Correlated with Job Satisfaction Than Job Affect (DRM)

     Satisfaction < Affect Affective Disposition Constant pressure to work fast ( -) Had trouble staying awake, etc (-) Constant attention to avoid mistakes (-) Can chat with other workers while on job Exposed to offensive noise (-) .25 .19 .08 .04 .04 .04 .42 .28 .18 .14 .10 .10

     Global vs. Episodic:

     How Much Do People Enjoy Their Kids?

     4

     Direct Ratings

     Juster and colleagues, 1975 survey:

     ?C 28 activities rated from "dislike very much" (0) to "enjoy a great deal" (10).

     Marital Satisfaction (4 studies)

     Activities with one's children top the list (ranks 1-4) ? Grocery shopping and cleaning the house at the bottom (ranks 27 & 28) ? But??.

     Top-down vs. Bottom-up

     Direct Ratings

     How much do you enjoy ??(10 = pos)

     Why?

     Global and episodic reports result in different rankings ? Likely key contributors:

     ?C Organization of memory ?C Memory bias ?C Social desirability

     Momentary Affect

     Positive minus negative Note: Numbers not comparable ! Socializing Eating 8.6 8.3 7.8 5.4 4.7 Watching TV Preparing food Grocery shopping Taking care of your children Housework 2.6 2.5 3.6 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.8

     Socializing Taking care of your children Eating Watching TV Grocery Shopping Housework

     8.9

     Organization of Memory

     Activities are encoded and represented by their key goals and features

     ?C Cooking while the kids are present is still ??cooking??

     Salient Memories

     Global reports are based on memorable episodes

     ?C Memorable episodes are rarely typical ?Cthey are more extreme.

     What??s recalled for ??kids?? are kid-focused activities

     ?C Reading stories, watching movies??

     Activities that are not kid-focused are missed

     ?C But make up most of the time spent with kids

     The DRM??s episodic reports are based on the specific episodes of yesterday

     ?C Avoids memory bias

     5

     Social Desirability

     Negative global judgments are less acceptable than negative episodes

     Conclusions

     Global and episodic reports paint different pictures ? Assessments should be based on specific and recent episodes ? DRM does so and combines affect reports with time use data, providing a rich characterization of people??s daily experience

     Compare

     ?C ??I don??t like being with my kids?? (global) ?C ??My kids were a pain last night?? (specific episode)

     Event Reconstruction Method (ERM)

     Does not focus on yesterday ? Asks for the last instance of an activity

     ?C E.g., last time you went out for dinner

     Reproduces the DRM affect profiles

     ?C provided the episode is recent

     Does not provide time use information

     ?C Which can be taken from other sources

     Has lower respondent burden and can capture less frequent activities

     6

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