Capacity Building on Implementation of Nepal Building Control System: ToT of Masons for the Housing Earthquake Safety Initiative (HESI)
1Shoichi ANDO Dr.
1 Coordinator, Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, UNCRD, JAPAN, Email: email@example.com
Key words: building control system, training of trainers (ToT), masons’ training, HESI in Nepal
The collapse of buildings and houses is the single largest cause of human deaths and economic losses resulting from earthquakes. Effective enforcement of earthquake resistant building codes and control system can reduce the loss significantly. Although many earthquake prone countries now have building codes, there is serious challenge for effective implementation of the codes because of lack of awareness, lack of institutional mechanism for implementation and insufficient capacity of implementing authorities. Against this background, United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) has launched Housing Earthquake Safety Initiative (HESI) in 2007 in four target countries: Algeria, Indonesia, Nepal and Peru. The project aims to improve the structural safety of houses to reduce impact of earthquakes in life and livelihood of people through effective implementation of building safety regulations.
UNCRD in partnership with Ministry of Local Development (MOLD), Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC)/ Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MPPW), and National Society for Earthquake Technology –Nepal (NSET) conducted a two–day workshop in
Kathmandu on 2-3 August 2007. One of the objectives of the workshop was to find country specific problems in effective implementation of the Nepal National Building Code (NBC). The workshop, attended by senior officials and engineers from Government of Nepal and municipalities all over the country, underscored the fact that capacity development of local authorities is necessary for effective implementation of the building code. A survey among the participants was conducted which showed that 91 percent of the participants were familiar with the building code before attending the workshop. The survey, however, showed that 53 percent of the attending municipalities do not have building bye-laws for implementation of building code and all of the municipalities expressed their desire to develop building control system in their municipalities.
FRAMEWORK FOR MUNICIPALITIES
A training workshop on “Building Code Implementation" was organized on 19-23 May 2008 for
engineers/planners/architects from Municipalities all over the country. The workshop is organized by UNCRD in partnership with DUDBC/ Ministry of Physical Planning and Works and NSET. The main objective of the training program is to prepare a framework for building code implementation in each participating municipality. After the completion of the program, the participants are able to:
; Be familiarized with various requirements of building codes, building regulations,
building/planning by-laws for ensuring safe building construction and proper city
; Be familiarized with building control system (building permit process) to ensure the safe
construction of buildings being in practice in few cities of Nepal and other countries and to
help review such practices by field visits; and
; Guide/facilitate in developing general broad framework for implementation of building
control system (ensuring building code compliance) suitable for large, medium, small
municipalities of Nepal based on the current and potential institutional system and capacity;
and suggest action plan.
The training program was followed by a half-day National Symposium open to public on Building Codes and Control System and two programs on Training of Trainers and Masons Training. The training was conducted as interactive learning training. Participants were asked to present their framework (proposed or existing) on implementation of NBC. A sample document was sent to the participants in advance for consistent format from all the participants. The framework was discussed with experts’ inputs during the training course and participants also benefited from experience of other
municipalities like Lalitpur and Kathmandu in building code implementation along with experience of building control system in other countries. Participants were also provided with opportunities to visit Lalitpur municipality and observe the process there. Site visit to few construction sites is also a part of the training program. After the experience of site visit, lectures and information sharing, the participants then discussed in groups about what needs to be addressed immediately for effective implementation of the code. In this way it can be assured that the outcome represents the real ground situation and envisages an achievable target for the municipalities. The revised action plan for each participating municipality was the main outcome of the training.
TRAINING OF TRAINERS (TOT)
It has been realized from long past and has been highlighted also in HESI workshop in Kathmandu (August 2007) that capacity building of technicians and masons is essential for effective implementation of Building Code. As Nepal has just started implementation of building code, there is urgent need of capacity development of masons throughout the country. In order to conduct masons training, engineers and architects have to be developed as trainers. As a pilot project, NSET conducted one Training of Trainers (ToT) and one Masons' Training in Nepal immediately after the Training Workshop starting from May 25, 2008. After completion of the training, NSET submitted training manuals, feedback of participants, review of the training and future action plan to UNCRD. Both the trainings are expected to be taken as pilot cases and shall be continued throughout the country
NSET conducted one Training of Trainers to Engineers/Architects from DUDBC and Municipalities in Nepal. The main objective of the Training of Trainers is to develop trainers capable of disseminating essential engineering know how and earthquake resistant construction technology to masons and local level technicians. A total of 25 technicians were trained as future instructors to conduct Masons' training. The total duration of the training is 5 days. Basics of earthquake-resistant construction and required skills for training the masons were taught by NSET master instructors to the potential instructors (engineers, architects, junior engineers from DUDBC and municipalities).
The outline of the training program is as follows:
; Target Audience: Potential instructors i.e. engineers, architects, junior engineers ; Duration: 5 days
; No. of participants for a course: 20
a. Cause and Effects of Earthquakes
b. Principles of Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction
c. Considerations for design and construction of masonry houses (including low strength
masonry and timber house)
d. Considerations for design and construction of RC frame houses
e. Repair and Strengthening of existing houses
f. Quality control and workmanship
g. Social and practical considerations for technology transfer
h. Introduction to mason training course, training course for self-builder and contractors
i. Exercise on training delivery (presentation)
; Mode of training: Lectures followed by exercises, presentation by participants ; Reference Materials: Participants Handbook, Manual for Mason Training Course ; Standard: passing score = 60% on all exercises and presentations
TRAINING OF MASONS
NSET conducted one Masons' Training as pilot training program which can be continued in country
wide scale by local resources or other resources. The objective of this training is to provide Masons
with earthquake resistant construction technology and know how. A total of 25 Masons from the
city benefited from this training. The training has to be conducted in coordination with local
municipal authorities and process has to be ensured to institutionalize the process. The total
duration of training is 5 days.
Graduates of BTT conducted mason training courses under the supervision of NSET master
instructors at the beginning and later they should be able to conduct similar trainings independently.
Outline of the training is as follows:
; Target Audience: existing skilled construction workers – masons, bar-benders
; Duration: 5 days
; No. of participants for a course: 25
a. Cause and Effects of Earthquakes
b. Earthquake-resistant construction of masonry houses (including low strength masonry
and timber house)
c. Earthquake-resistant construction of RC frame houses
d. Repair and Strengthening of existing houses
e. Quality control and workmanship
f. Social and practical considerations for technology transfer
; Mode of training: Lectures followed by hands-on exercises of model construction
; Reference Materials: simple reading materials to participants (leaflet, handbook)
The results and future direction of the HESI project are as follows; in case of Nepal, institutionalization of building code enforcement is expected to result in better coordination between the MPPW and municipalities that are responsible for code implementation. Institutionalization means more periodic and vigorous training activities for municipal engineers, which will have a direct impact on the effectiveness of building code implementation. The final results of HESI will be disseminated during in 2008 and 2009 through various international events including the nest Global Platform.