Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. In specifically economic contexts, it refers almost exclusively to the effects of trade, particularly trade liberalization or "free trade". Between 1910 and 1950, a series of political and economic upheavals dramatically reduced the volume and importance of international trade flows. In the post- World War II environment, fostered by international economic institutions and rebuiliding programs, international trade dramatically expanded. With the 1970's, the effects of this trade became increasingly visible, both in terms of the benefits and the disruptive effects
Transnational Corporation 中文为跨国公司(又称多国公司！Multinational
Corporation，、国际公司 ！International Corporation，、世界公司！World Corporation，
等。跨国公司是随 着国际分工以及国际贸易的发展二逐渐形成和发展起来的。16 世纪的英
国东印度公 司是世界上最早的跨国经营公司。到 20 世纪初(跨国公司开始大量出现。目前
的总 产值已超过世界总产值的 1/3(跨国公司内部及相关贸易占世界贸易的 60%以上。跨 国
English for the transnational corporations, also known as multi-national companies (Multinational Corporation), International (International Corporation), World (World Corporation), etc.. Multinational companies are the international division of labor with the development of international trade as well as the two gradually formed and developed. 16th century British East India Company was the world's first multinational operating companies. To the early 20th century, substantial emergence of
transnational corporations beginning. The current output value has exceeded the world's total output value of 1 / 3, multinational companies and related trade of world trade accounted for more than 60%. Transnational
corporations with their generous financial and material resources, human superiority and advanced technology and management experience in international economic and trade activities, plays an important role.
A firm which owns or controls production facilities in more than one country through direct foreign investment. Although multinationals grew most rapidly in the 1960s, the foundations were laid in the inter-war period, notable examples being Ford, Vauxhall, and Philips. In the mid-1980s transnationals accounted for 14% of UK employment and 30% of UK exports. The corresponding figures for France were 24% and 32%.
Transnationals are made possible by improved international communications which provide rapid containerized transhipment and foreign travel, easy communication of information, and international mobility of capital. When one market is saturated, the multinational can rapidly develop others, since foreign investment cuts transport costs, and makes possible a rapid response to local markets. It also eases tariff barriers—the UK has been an attractive location for many Japanese manufacturers,
for example, because it is within the
European Union, but has opted out of the EU's social charter.Transnationals can compare costs at different
locations, and can switch activities to different areas as appropriate.
TNCs are probably the major force affecting world-wide shifts in economic activity, since the largest have a turnover greater than the GNP of many less developed nations. Although a developing nation may benefit from the construction of a plant for a TNC in terms of jobs and markets, it has been argued that the price is a loss of local control.
Yeung (Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 23) has argued that most TNCs are, in fact, not so transnational: most board seats are held by home-nationals 50% of the assets and employment of IBM, Du Pont, and General Electric remain in the United States, and 66% of all sales of UK, Japanese, German, and Canadian TNCs are in the home country.
A corporation that has its facilities and other assets in at least one country other than its home country. Such companies have offices and/or factories in different countries and usually have a centralized head office where they co-ordinate global management. Very large multinationals have budgets that exceed those of many small countries.
Sometimes referred to as a "transnational corporation". Says: Investopedia Says Nearly all major multinationals are either American, Japanese or Western European, such as Nike, Coca-Cola, Wal-Mart, AOL, Toshiba, Honda and BMW. Advocates of multinationals say they create jobs and wealth and improve technology in countries that are in need of such development. On the other hand, critics say multinationals can have undue political influence over governments, can exploit developing nations as well as create job losses in their own home countries.