Chinese Painting of the political theme - "History of Chinese
Painting of the three options," one of the
【Summary】 art and politics are closely related, in the West and China are true, while in China was especially intimate. Painter, often through the depth suggested that
the symbol, metaphor, personification, the homophonic variety of techniques works on the surface nice blending with the complex political significance. These involve a variety of meaningful relationship, such as political power between the border areas
with the central government, "within the court" and "outer court" between the rulers and ordinary people, between the civilian bureaucracy, between father and son between friends, etc. . These are manifested in the history of Chinese painting with the
common theme among the unusual. Further, many different political aspirations will certainly affect the painter of style choices. And humans, like other manifestations, drawing in large part through the practice and the link between the theme and style of
performance in every sense, the painter in choosing subject matter or style, often to the community or specific or general request some response. Thus, what is art and how art is not simply the decision by the artist.
【Abstract】 art history questions
【Key Words】 political themes / Chinese painting / practices / theme / style
In the West, when we think of "political art", we might think that it is expressed in his works the artist himself is often the criticism or protest political views. This situation is not entirely unknown in China, but the unique situation in the West and China is very different compared to, which is expressed in works of the themes and ideas more applicable to the sponsor's status and interests - in a broad sense " sponsor "can be
understood as works of recipients and users. As in other places, here refers to the understanding of the meaning of Chinese painting. In other words, we should change the current is always implemented in the artist's personal situation, or merely as works
of performance artists, the kind of personality research methods. We are talking about most of the paintings of this type, which is basically never in the past as aesthetic objects or personal feelings out of the performance of creative, on the contrary, it has a more specific motives and role. They may be used as gifts gifts for others, in exchange for political favors, or other aspects of the return, or looking forward to get these favors, or as a bribe rather than direct cash payments items, and in certain occasions, such as a Officials assume his new job away from home, they may be hanging room of
the house, or sent with others.
According to such a role and occasions, as well as paintings of the patron or recipient
status, the painter depicted determine the appropriate specific theme. Some works show the current actual situation, such as painting ZHENG Xia Song, "displaced map" (below, there was a debate), painted the capital of the bitter suffering of famine victims.
However, its performance means more of a symbol or implied. From historical or legendary characters and events of the images to "So Real" and known themes, which are considered suitable to reflect the contemporary situation. This is suggestive themes,
this approach continues until our times, from the paintings of The People's Republic of China in recent decades can cite many similar examples. They are not so open and obvious, is not compelling, but it was seen as related to the current problems of
intellectuals and often in an indirect way to evaluate.
Painting on China's political themes to classify, we can start from a number of major distinction. Painting the situation faced by those who may be the case the whole government, such as the palace of the paintings, or creative works commissioned by the court, or serving in government bureaucracy works of the literati. The first type of theme and the entire government-related, or with the support, or to legitimize imperial rule, the positive message, either with the negative criticism or a protest message. No matter what is the purpose of these paintings in a variety of visual rhetoric means to bring the viewer to form some sort of point of view: the Royal palace of art is usually used to make the viewer believe that the rulers and the rule of virtue solid and prosperity. The civilian bureaucracy created or commissioned the creation of the painting in general and their own aimed at making the viewer believe that their highly developed intelligence, their morality, their Utilitarian and material for the secular interests of indifference, and in using them believe that their devotion to duty. At a time like that they think that the Empire was very bad treatment or unfair treatment by the ruler or rulers do not listen to their words, their paintings have become a protest art. But such protests are usually must be extremely subtle, even obscure.
There are two well-known examples, these two paintings depicting enlightened
through the grace to praise the rulers rule, they are spread so far two exquisite
paintings. Details of the microscopic description, technical methods varied, the artist's skill and extremely time consuming and the idea of drawing, painting some of these are messages, thus shows a system of governance. It is this system, nurture and bring these qualities of the palace of art. Chuan-Wei Yin for five generations by a painter, painting,
its age may be an early Song Dynasty. Figure painting is a flour market, in order to Turbine-driven, built on a canal in a sluice. With regard to painting, the Shanghai Museum (collection units) have been discussed by Cheng. He believes this is commended the Government for the period of political turmoil for the industrial technology and water funding, such as in this period of financial support will bring
great benefits (Note: Zheng as "gate drive cars Chart Volume" (the hand-rolled
reproduce Canal lock on a waterwheel), "Heritage" Phase II (1966), p. 17-25 pages.).
The other one is the famous "Qingming Riverside" volume, it was shown that it is safe
under the rule of the late Northern Song Dynasty capital of Kaifeng; but in reality may be the early Southern Song Dynasty, the northern capital has been abandoned with the invasion of the Jin, Jin a court and painted by the artist out of homesickness.
Another theme is the small traders, court painter, and sometimes painting the subject matter, very few artists outside of the court circle painting (style, superior court, except copies). This kind of material with paintings depicting the boundaries of the
construction are closely related. The best example is the existing Southern Song artist Li Song's work, his paintings often make circles. Another is active in the Lvwen Ying Ming Painting Academy, and perhaps (depending on style, OK) served the Yuan court
in Wang Zhenpeng (Note: The Freer Gallery of Art 11.16e; see James Cahill, "Chinese Painting Album" (Washington, DC, 1961), p. 22, the book notes as Wang Zhenpeng made. James Cahill, Chinese Album Leaves (Washington, DC, 1961), 22.). Some people
think that this theme is benevolent rule, another metaphor, in which the performance of small vendors is the emperor himself, "heaven and earth a Tam" and will bring prosperity and the general public. (Note: this view is the new Beijing National Palace
Museum Yang University of California at Berkeley in 1983, a seminar class concerned. Yang also in the upcoming Chinese folk paintings for the exhibition catalog, discussed this issue and related topics significance.)
Foreign envoys come to the palace directly to the Chinese emperor tribute or carrying valuable items as tribute, it is often drawn into the court painter of these works. In foreign relations, these paintings used to safeguard the country's authority and prestige. There are two existing works, is allegedly a court painter Yan Liben the Tang Dynasty, when China completed its control over most areas of Asia, the great achievements in the two pieces of works are praised, one of which is the first painting Tubo envoy Tang emperor Taizong received. The relative size between the two -
Taizong sat on the emperor's carriage, surrounded by obsequiousness varying maid, in the composition is two feathers on the Celebrex and canopy surrounded, and she stood alone Tibetan envoys, bow him Soon, in front of a large open space - to make this look
more like the performance of a political concept rather than record a historical event (Note: There is also a tribute map manuscripts level, the Taipei Palace Museum, is said to Yan Liben to make, painting is a tribute barbarian Western Regions. "Forbidden 300 kinds of famous paintings," Volume I (Taichung, 1959), p. 1.). Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
Special historical circumstances have a special request, the artist would react to it.
There are many cases in the early Southern Song Dynasty is the first century AD 12 (Julian Yamu Lei's work is the subtlety of such best one of the studies) (Note: Julia Ya Mulei "as artist and patron of the Emperor's Song: Dynasty ZTE's theme, "(for"
Artist and Patron "seminar and to make the papers, are reflected in its introduction to Note (1))." Restoration of the Southern Song dynasty, the role of art, "" Song and Yuan Dynasties Research Bulletin "No. 18 Series (1986) No. 41-59 pp. Julia Murray,
"Sung Kao-tsung as Aritist and Patron: The Theme of Dynastic Revival" (Paper for "Arists and Patrons" workshop, see Intro. Note I). "Ts Hsün and Two Southem Sung History Scrolls, "Ars Orientalis 15 (1985): 1-29." The Role of Art in Southem Sung
Dynastic Revival. "Bulletin of Sung Yüan Studies, no. 18 (1986), 41-59.), which When a
series of court painting is about the ZTE and the legitimacy of the content of the Song Dynasty. In the Jin Song Dynasty capital of the armed forces invade in 1127 and
imprisoned Huizong Bianliang emperor and his royal family members, the ninth son of Emperor Zhao Gou Huizong fled to the South, in 1138 in Hangzhou, the establishment of the court, continued to rule the southern half of the country, and this is the Emperor
Gojong . He must make him rule his subjects to be believed revival of the Southern Song court is legal, and thus claimed the right to rule all of the North and the Jin Dynasty of China to compete. Gojong to achieve the legalization of the Southern Song
Dynasty imperial court as part of the new plan seems to be a delegate or funding a range of side rule to preserve his paintings. Some of this type of painting works on the inscription under the Emperor's own handwriting. Li Tang on the primary court
painter painted a famous historical painting "Lunar map." Figure Boyi, Shu Ch'i two brothers in the early Zhou dynasty, would rather starve and never change their loyalty to the former dynasty, nor the effectiveness of the new rulers. This week, Wang had
outrageous behavior: He does not mourn his late father, but also committed the sin of Regicide. The painting will be faithful expression of this idea. It is behind a postscript, the intention of this painting is the criticism of those who in turn loyal to Jin Han.
To be the same one countless artists, he also painted the "Duke Wen of Jin Fu country map" scroll is now Tibet, New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Wengong is a king
of the Eastern Zhou period is the ninth son of Jin Xian public, he lost the throne after
the exile over, and sometimes and the "barbarians" to accompany a living, and later returned to their country, restore its hereditary rule. His situation is somewhat similar to a result and Gojong was Empress Dowager to the Emperor's pointed out that such
similarities, but also urged him to ascend the throne. Therefore, the performance of the theme of the painting dynasty renaissance, in which the meaning is the Emperor's rule of legitimacy. This is reflected not only in subject matter but also in the style of aspects:
to some extent with the ancient style, style, reminiscent of the Tang Dynasty, is the desire of his Emperor's rule and the early Tang period, compared to a powerful monarchy. Hand-rolled form is archaic, that people recall earlier scroll painting,
writing in front, as illustrated in the post screen (Note: In writing about this and the Southern Song dynasty, ZTE and other topics, I made reference to Murray's writings and Flora Fu's research paper, this is for me the spring of 1985 under the auspices of
"Chinese Painting of the political theme of" seminar and made, Fu's paper "as a political discourse style of choice:" Duke Wen of Jin Fu States Figure roll "," explore the themes of these paintings in the style of its political significance, very insightful.).
Similarly, this is the form of a hand-rolled, purported to be drawn according to Hsiao
Li Tang disciple "ZTE Ruiying map" is presented in Tibet at the Shanghai Museum and the Tianjin Museum. A total of 12 paragraphs in this volume, from the Emperor's
palace to sit before the birth until the accession to the throne. The hand roll was intended to show the world declared that God would send Gojong Rui Zhao and also pass the throne with him, and probably in the throne after the abdication and painted
to commemorate (Note: this group of paintings on the imitation of this, see "Tianjin Art Selected paintings from the museum "(Beijing, 1963) Figure 1-6, and the Ink
series," Tang Dynasty Song and Yuan Dynasties Name Set "(Shanghai, 1957) Figure
65-81." Ts' ao Hsün "(note 5). ).
"Wang Yin Ying driving map" vertical shaft, now collected in the Shanghai Museum, have no money. From the style, it appears from a late 12 century or early thirteenth century court painter Painting hand, such as the Song-year or Li Song. The painting
can also be attributed to the Southern Song court painting on the theme of the Restoration columns. Shanghai Museum, according to researchers at the point of view, painting is the Xuanzong avoid chaos, has again returned to the Sichuan capital of
Chang'an, welcoming his son drive the thing (note: see Shen-yu-made "Shanghai
Museum", New York, 1981, Figure 120 and Notes, p. 225. Taipei's National Palace Museum, Mr. Li Lincan has depicted a scene for which an explanation could be
considered. according to his view, this painting displayed in the Han Dynasty emperor Han emperor Liu Bang with his elderly father to their place of birth, some people here have been moved to the capital, he is too weak, unable to parade around. see Li Lin-
tsan, "Song" Wang Yin Ying driving map "," income "Chinese painting research", Taipei, 1973, p. 103-106 page.).
These paintings (if space allows also to discuss several other works) to form a complete set of its meaning and purpose and its relationship with the history of that time were
relatively clear. In addition there are a number of paintings is not so clear, but there are still associated with political themes. This includes horses and the painting, Emperor's inscribed, "Mao Shi map" hand-rolled series, Julia Ya Mulei, and other
scholars have done research on this (Note: Julia Ya Mulei "Song Gaozong, horses, and with those "Mao Shi Figure" Volume: "Book of Songs," illustrated "(doctoral thesis, Princeton, 1981). Julia Murray, Sung Kao-tsung, Ma Ho-chih, and the Mao Shih
Scrolls: Illustrations of the Classic of Poetry (Ph. D. diss., Princeton, 1981).); there, "Farming and Weaving", the original writing farming and sericulture, or silk industry in poetry, which is illustrated (note: the first is basic to the present The "Farming and
Weaving" Research is the Pelliot wrote "A Propos de Keng tche t 'ou", Memoies concernant l' Asie orientale 1 (1913) :65-122. For all the book was a brief discussion, see
Joseph Needham "Science and Civilization in China," Volume IV, "mechanical
engineering" the first 166-169 pages. Joseph Needham et. al., Science and Civilization in China 4 pt. 2, Mechanical Engineering, 166-169.).
The latter, that is, "Farming and Weaving", there are many different book, if we look
at literature, you will find these paintings are not accidentally themes to attract artists, drawn at random, but rather follow a schema , and does not ambiguous. The earliest record in the book is a named House? Official painting, and he in the Southern Song
capital Hangzhou, a place near the office. He dedicated his paintings into the Emperor's, and then mold this to someone else. Later, in 1210, these paintings by the Stele Rubbings, spread wider. In addition there are some documented and the existing
book, either the late 12 century court painter Liu Song paintings, and some from the Yuan court initially dedicated to the hands of a court painter, and some belong to the Qing Dynasty court painter name. So, these paintings there may be something behind
the motivation behind it?
Peasant farming and textiles are the professional, both are subject to operating procedures over several months to complete. Because they can under the conditions fixed, and therefore reflects the Chinese ideal of a stable agricultural society, which is
more mobile and nomadic way of life uncertain In contrast. For the Emperor's, these paintings are intended to maintain its relative Jin wise in terms of political domination. Although the rule of Jin Han to take way, but there are still nomadic backgrounds, and
thus the interests of farmers can afford rather be in doubt. Gojong in adopting the means to these visual rhetoric is like a politician, farmers require compliance with the old, stable and conservative values, and against their political opponents (in this case
means the Jin rulers - the translator) did not understand the concerns of farmersThing.
Gojong complete the book during the long non-survival, but its composition and
residual copies may be saved in this being. We now have a complete set of Photos of the
earliest seems to be a painter by the early Yuan Dynasty (Note: on this book, the old question LIU Song-year, see Thomas Gordon Slough "Chinese portrait" (Washington, DC, 1973), p. 54 -- 57. Thoma Lawton, Chinese Figure Painting (Washington. DC,
1973), 54-57. Liang Kai, a remnant of this hidden in the Cleveland Museum of Art; see "eight-generation left Jane," Figure 61, attached to Mr Ho Wai-Kam-written essay.
Heilongjiang Museum recently awarded one, the article see the "Heritage" No. 10 (1984).). During the early Yuan Dynasty Chinese Mongol worked so hard to believe that they are the legitimate rulers of China in support of Chinese agriculture and other
occupations, so they draw support a set of "Farming and Weaving" also can be used to maintain this understanding. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://