Chinese film in the history of the development period of three industries
Abstract title】 Culture and Market
Recalling the centuries-old Chinese film history, not difficult to find, every glorious rise and fall will be accompanied by the arrival of a period of industrial development. It is recognized that the golden age of Chinese cinema in the thirties of last century, 1949, ten years after the founding of the "memorable 1959" and the new era of reform and opening up another film renaissance together constitute the history of Chinese film three times brilliant.
"Star", "Lianhua", "Tianyi" Three's surface constitutes a tripod.
The first Chinese film industry, period 1922 - 1937. In the second year of the birth of
world cinema, the film appeared in 1896 in Shanghai, China local film industry begins with commercial release underway. After budding toddler after a period of 20 years to the last century, has begun to privatization of industrial development, when the assets
of the community within the industry to prepare the environment and the growing maturity, national industry and commerce was an unprecedented opportunity to the rapid development of the individual / social capital, more precisely, "hot money" the gradual filling, making a lot of capitalists began to target investment objective of the film in this emerging industry. In this industry, talent and technical reserves are plentiful, Zhang Ishikawa, Zheng autumn Luoming You, Lai Man-wai, and later Shaw
Brothers movies and a number of people are the cradle of view came from a pioneer in their respective different extent, studied under which the film-line creation, production
or distribution, showing several areas, the accumulated experience down into two or three decades of the last century on behalf of the backbone of the film. Technically, the initial equipment used and produced by the process must rely on foreign technical staff, but has, like LAW Wing-cheung, Dong Ke-Yi, Wu Wei-yun, the first group of technical
personnel to join us, this situation soon be broken. With the above-mentioned
conditions to Star was founded in 1922 as a symbol, the film company's rapid growth to 1924-1926 reached its peak, according to statistics the country has opened a total of 175
studios, one in Shanghai alone there are 141.
Ebb Tide in the process, the "star", "Lianhua", "Tianyi" Three's surface constitutes a tripod. The long-established "stars" was established in Shanghai, a major event in the
history of cinema, it has always been doing my part and occupies the top spot, the
individual capital, the way they operate to an extreme; in 1930 established "Lian Hua" owns cinemas in congenital conditions, form a "cinema industry and film production industry of the first United Front." Luoming You take the lead in a private company to
achieve a system - hair - let a dragon, his business ideas seem in today's advanced, he tried to end of the Chinese film's personal capital, operating times, to enter the monopoly financial capital of the advanced stage. However, when the fire ahead of the
concept of a war monk in swaddling clothes in the financial system, only been described in the paper the bright prospects for Luoming You have become a tragic figure; in 1925 established "Tianyi" company in order to win the number of remarkable style of
course, but it succeeded in developing the Southeast Asian market, developed to today's "Shore," for nearly 80 years, its lifeline long enough to prop up an independent thread to the development of a private company Living History. At the same time, the three
companies have different strategies for the Chinese film studios offer a variety of art forms, "star" is "is full-length drama" originator, "Lianhua" is "art film" the source, and "Tianyi "put the" book of anecdotes / fantasy film "a pulse on its head, these types of films are still continued until today.
Three is the movie industry chain, the upstream production sector representatives, with simultaneous development of the middle and lower reaches distribution and
showing the industry to be outdone. In Shanghai, the first cinema was operated by the West, the Spanish Ramos is the first of Qinglian Court fixed a film screening, and subsequently built their own a "theater." 1926 Ramos left here for home, his movable
and immovable property the sum total of no less than one million, enough is known as "Movie King." Ramos to grow old and return home, Zhang Ishikawa, and EMI's manager, Chang-fu last until they were ready, immediately leased in March 1926 had
Reye's five cinemas, the composition of the central shadow theater company to the original large central cinema as a lead Theaters , but also absorbed the "Chinese", "peace," the company directly under the central shadow play seven cinemas. This films cinema producers involved in the formation of a sign showing the industry the same time, China started a new movie theater division. In the north, Beijing started operation in 1918, True Light film company Luoming You will be that its three theaters, in 1927 and operate the distribution business in Western movies British Chinese, Lu Ping, chairman of the root Film Co., Ltd. under the three cinemas the joint venture, known as the North China film company. 1929 North film companies to enter the golden age. In addition to the above Luoming You control the first round of cinema, two Chinese and foreign film exhibition, but also to Beiping and Tianjin as the center, in Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Zhengzhou, Jinan, Qingdao, as well as Shenyang, Harbin, owned directly or indirectly under the jurisdiction of the theater, while carrying out domestic The agency issued outside the film business, just a few years time control of the northern region of the Film Circulation and Projection, operating theaters up to 20 more than the operating theater has a monopoly of foreign companies blanket
exclusion has become a veritable theater industry, "Northeast Wang. " Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
The face of China's huge market and huge returns, Hollywood influx of eight
companies, in Shanghai and has offices in North China, respectively. With regard to the number of films will be shown at that time, there are figures showing American films each year the number of imported films accounted for an average of 80% or more
of the absolute advantage in control of Chinese film markets, and even determine the cinema industry, of their livelihood. Although the total production volume of Chinese-
made films entered the amount of imported films is only 1 / 3 or 1 / 4, but on the
national screening rate and the audience groups, the influence of Chinese-made films
are not inferior to the United States, mainly foreign films films .
After 1937, the Shanghai film industry, fluctuations due to changes in the current situation in order to "star" dies, "Lianhua" disintegration, "Tianyi" migrated to the
south as a symbol, the gradual demise of the old studio. Chinese film in the history of a golden age and industrial boom period of the sound of screeching halt gunfire in the
Former Soviet Union as a model, to basically completed in 1956, the "independent and complete film production base" as the main objective of institution-building tasks.
In February 1949, after a short-term preparation, in early April on the eve of the
founding of the film Peking Authority was established under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee Propaganda Department, the director-Yuan Muzhi. Film Bureau
after the establishment of the first task is to establish a national film studio.
During this period has established the Northeast Film Studio, Peking Film Studio, Shanghai Film Studio three major state-owned enterprises in the history of the film
when the turning point for the new Chinese film industry out of the first step. In the
new China's film industry in the planning, distribution, showing the same position significantly, to achieve a system of nationalization is the first program, but also the ultimate goal. Thus, throughout the film as the manager of the company's establishment of the War of Liberation of the score one victory from advancing to the Central Plains, outside of customs, in the timetable, with the creation of state-owned
studios can be said to be the two wings of hand. According to statistics, the old China has 678 cinemas, more than half concentrated in Shanghai, Tianjin, Peking, Guangzhou, Wuhan, Shenyang and other big cities, medium and small number of small cities.
In June 1954 to September, the film studio, affiliated to the Council and the leading cadres composed of a total of nine accidents in Jiangsu delegation, after up to 3 months of study, and after returning to the CPC Central Committee reported the "film-makers
to go to Su-mission report on the work. " Central Committee in 1955 approved the "Report", the Film Factory (department) would have started a large-scale institution
building and adjustment, the former Soviet Union as a model, to basically completed in 1956, the "independent and complete film production base" as the main The task of institution-building objectives. In 1959 completed a total of 82 feature films, production increased by declining artistic quality, excellent and more excellent films nearly 30, accounted for the total number of 1 / 3 strong, this year in the new development of Chinese film history, has been termed as "a memorable 1959."
New China 17 years of film history into a variety of ways, on the film industry's development is concerned, can be divided into two major periods: from 1949 to 1957, founding the first Five-Year Plan the end of the national economy, in order to start,
start-ups and construction phase; in 1957 and after 1959's "Decade of gift," the climax to the 1965, "Ministry of Culture rectification" and 1966's "Cultural Revolution" for stability, development and transformation stage. Chinese film has experienced 17 years of building, the already have a huge industry, we have healthy firm and strong.
"Boats sailing through the water," the Chinese film has finally try to forward to the next the sea, and began to learn to swim.
The third period of Chinese film industry, in terms of time and form with the former two are different. "Cultural Revolution" after the undone, the new era of reform and opening up soon to save the brink of economic collapse of the film, but also to usher in
yet another revival of Chinese cinema. However, for decades to form of the chronic
problems plaguing the film industry's development, television and the impact of a variety of entertainment is more to the film industry business is deteriorating, reforms
are necessary. With the continuous deepening of reforms nationwide, the film industry began to re-examine the role and power of the market. 90s of the last century a series of "breakthroughs" like a domino effect, contributed to institutional changes, all are in
the process of promoting market forces carried out. Therefore, this time period, the arrival of industry in terms of the previous two, in the consciousness reflected more consciously.
Into the 21st century, for the film industry market-oriented identification and
understanding has been reached in the whole industry, the ideological unity, but objectively speaking, it is gone through a process. In 1993, 10 "split large" in the introduction and the 1999 Sino-US negotiations are concluded, the countdown has
begun to enter China's accession to WTO, these two events are indeed still in the silly to the film industry among Chinese on the "market" in a lesson . Dances with Wolves, is a Chinese film has to make choices, in the midst of the continuous run-in in order to
gradually touch the pulse of the market. "Breaking the horizontal regional boundaries, breaking the fragmented state of the industry, in large markets, large-scale,
comprehensive and industry-wide, based on the longitudinal joint venture assets,
thereby restructuring the market, to achieve in line with the law of development of a new pattern of the film." In 2001, the As the market concept enjoys popular support, "theaters" system construction plan was put on the agenda, December 18 issued a
"screening mechanism for film distribution on the reform of the implementation details," After two years of 2002,2003 strong push to the In 2004, "China has built 36 cinema lines, adding theater has reached 1188, the screen number 2396, an increase of
more than the early days of cinema theaters and 316 screens 815. ticket sales have more than 20 million yuan theaters 5, and over 1000 million or above has reached more than 15. "
Chinese film industry to determine the direction of the market after the formation of
the planned economy era, production, supply, and marketing relationships urgent need to re-"shuffle." In the film industry itself, breaking the single subject of state-owned
enterprises, private capital and foreign capital began to enter, from the film production
industry and gradually extended to the distribution and showing industry, showing a trend of diversification. In 2001, the Chinese-language film "Crouching Tiger," burst
into the Oscar, gains numerous awards, which gives the Chinese people to make a large
Chinese with unprecedented opportunities and confidence. 2001 to 2003, with overseas and local investment in the dual background of "Big Shot's Funeral" "Hero" "Heaven and Earth Hero" "Cell Phone" one after another, "Hero" won a 250 million at the box
office. In 2004, the fund has the same combination of "House of Flying Daggers" "Kekexili" "A World Without Thieves" and "Kung Fu" in the box office standings, respectively occupy the top three, "Kung Fu" is 170 million, "House of Flying
Daggers" was 1.6 million, "A World Without Thieves" as 120 million. "Boats sailing through the water," the Chinese film has finally try to forward to the next the sea, and began to learn to swim.
For China, a large population and unbalanced development of the country, state-
owned enterprises, private and foreign capital constitutes the film industry, the development of the three forces, each with strengths and weaknesses complement each other. Between them, the organic integration of the rationalization of industrial
structure, the layout of the film will be more feasible. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://