By Connie Morris,2014-06-23 18:25
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W: Hello?

    M: Hi, Amy. This is Bill Johns.

    W: Oh. Hi, Bill. You weren't in engineering class today, were you? M: I have the flu. I was wondering if you could tell me what went on. W: Actually we had an interesting class. Doctor Colin talked about a new type of fuel. M: Oh, yeah?

    W: Uh hum. It's called dimethyl ether or DME.

    M: Oh. I remember reading something about DME. It's mostly used in spray cans, right? W: Right. DME doesn't destroy the ozone so it's been environmentally friendly. M: But doesn't DME pollute the air if it's burned in an engine? W: No. Doctor Colin says something about its exhausts being clear that it doesn't release as many pollutants as diesel fuel. And he mentioned something about DME being more efficient than other alternative fuels.

    M: So when will it replace diesel fuel?

    W: Not for a while. It's not economical to mass produce.

    M: Well, thanks for the information. I guess I won't need to borrow your notes. W: Well, maybe you should look at them. We are having a test next week. M: Okay, could you give them to Mike Andrews? I think he is in your psychology class. He is my roommate.

    W: Sure. I hope you're feeling better soon.

    M: Thanks. Me too. Bye!

    W: Bye!


    engineering: n. 工程?学?

    flu: n. 流行性感冒

    dimethyl ether (DME): 二甲醚

    ozone: n. 臭氧

    exhaust: n. 排气,排气装置

    pollutant: n. 污染物

    diesel fuel: 柴油机燃料,柴油

    alternative: adj. 选择性的,二中择一的

    mass produce: 大规模生产

    四个人名!Amy 艾米,Bill Johns 比尔?约翰斯,Colin 科林,Mike Andrews 迈克?安德




    W: Hi, Jim. What are you doing?

    M: Oh. Hi. Linda. I'm working on a report on energy resources for my environmental

science class. But I'm having trouble finding enough information.

    W: You know we were talking about sources of fuel in my class today. M: Yeah?

    W: Prof Collins. He is all authority on energy sources. He was telling us about a new way of getting fuel oil from coal.

    M: I didn't know that was possible.

    W: He said something about coal being set on fire and blasted with a mixture of steam and oxygen. This process produces a gas made up of hydrogen and carbon, the, um, the basic elements of oil.

    M: And then they do something to change that gas to oil?

    W: Right. First. Since coal contains fewer hydrogen atoms than oil, they have to add some extra hydrogen to the gas. Then impurities are washed out with methanol. I think before this gas is sent on to reactors where it's changed into oil. M: Since coal is so plentiful, I guess it won't be long till this new type of oil will be available all over the place, huh?

    W: I doubt it. Prof Collins said something about the process not being economically enough to use in this country. At any rate you really ought to talk to him. He'll be able to help you more than I can and he's got office hours all afternoon today. M: Thanks! He's over in Anderson Hall, right?

    W: Right.


    1. environmental science: 环境科学

    2. authority: n. 权威

    3. blast: v. 爆炸

    4. hydrogen: n.

    5. impurity: n. 杂质,混杂物

    6. methanol: n. 甲醇

    7. plentiful: adj. 许多的,大量的,丰富的



    Our electric car is the way of the future. Automobile manufactures are under the pressure to develop cars that do not pollute. One powerful motive is a California law requiring that by the year 2000, ten percent of the new car sales in the state be so-called zero-emission vehicles. These cars must put no pollutants whatsoever into the atmosphere. California is a huge market for the automobile companies, so they are working hard to meet these standards. So far the electric car seems to be the best alternative. So the biggest advantage of electric cars is that they don't pollute. However, they will be in competition with gas-powered cars. And that's where the weaknesses come out. The big problem is that the batteries in electric cars weigh a lot relative to the amount of power they deliver. For instance, in one electric

    car, the batteries weigh four hundred kilograms and they provide enough energy to go 250 kilometers before recharging which take 8 hours. Compare that to a moderately fuel efficient conventional car, it can go 600 to 700 kilometers on a tank of gas. And refilling takes just minutes. If there are other drains on an electric car's batteries besides a motor headlights, air-conditioning or a heater, its already limited range would be significantly reduced. So automobile engineers are trying to make more powerful batteries that would increase the car's range and make them more attractive to buyers.


    1. automobile: n. 汽车

    2. manufacture: n. 制造,加工

    3. motive: n. 动机,目的

    4. zero-emission vehicles: 零排放车辆

    5. pollutant: n. 污染物质

    6. whatsoever: 无论什么

    7. gas-powered cars: adj. 燃气汽车

    8. battery: n. 电池

    9. recharge: v. 充电

    10. tank: n. (盛液体, 气体的大容器)桶、箱、罐

    11. refilling: 加油

    12. drain: 消耗

    13. air-conditioning: n. 空气调节装置

    14. heater: n. 加热器



    Ok, so in our last class we were discussing big bands swing music. You remember, this was a kind of dance music with a steady rhythm. But today we deal with that sort of music played by smaller jazz bands. It's called bebop. Now bebop makes use all sorts of new types of rhythms, some of them very irregular. We will talk more about that later. But first I wanna talk about some of the social elements that I believe contributed to the development of bebop music. To do this, we have to look at when bebop arose and started becoming so popular which was from the late 1930s through the 1940s from the time of the Great Depression right into the 2nd World War. Now one factor that certainly helped create the environment for bebop music was the decline of the United States economy. During the Great Depression, the economy suffered tremendously, and fewer people had money to spend on entertainment. Then during the 2nd World War, the government imposed a new tax on public entertainment, what you might call performance tax. The government collected money on performances that included any types of acting, dancing or singing, but not instrumental music. So to avoid this new tax, some jazz bands stop using singers altogether. They started relying on the creativity of the instrumentalist to attract audiences. This was what

    bebop bands did. Now remember a lot of big bands had singers. So the instrumentalists simply played in the background and had occasional solos while the singers sang the melody to the songs, but not bebop bands. So the instrumentalists had much more freedom to be creative. So they experimented playing the music faster and using new irregular sorts of rhythms.


    1. swing music: 摇摆舞音乐

    2. rhythm: n. 节奏

    3. bebop: n. 爵士音乐的一种

    4. irregular: adj. 不规则的,无规律的

    5. arose: arise的过去式,引发,激起,唤起

    6. Great Depression: 大萧条

    7. the 2nd World War: 第二次世界大战

    8. decline: n. 下降,衰退

    9. entertainment: n. 娱乐

    10. impose: v. 征税,强加

    11. performance tax: 演出税

    12. instrumental music: 器乐

    13. creativity: n. 创造力

    14. instrumentalist: n. 乐器演奏家

    15. solo: n. 独奏曲

    16. melody: n. 适于歌唱的诗



    It may seem strange that we're discussing music from a Broadway production in this class. The Lion King especially since it's based on a popular Hollywood movie. I mean music performed for Broadway theater in the heart of New York city surely would seem to be in the western tradition of popular music and not have much in common with the music we have been studying in this course such as gamelan music of Indonesia or Zulu chants of South Africa music that developed outside the western tradition of Europe and America. But in fact, musicians have a long-standing tradition of borrowing from one another's cultures. And this production's director intentionally included both western and non-western music. That way some of the rhythms, instruments, harmonies typical of non-western music contrast with and complement popular music more familiar to audiences in North America and Europe, music like rock, jazz, or Broadway style show tunes. So I want to spend the rest of this class and most of the next one on the music from the show The Lion King as a way of summarizing some of the technical distinctions between typical western music and the nonwestern music that we've been studying. Now, the African influence on the music is clear. The story takes place

    in Africa. So the director got a South African composer to write songs with a distinctly African sound. And the songs even include words from African languages. But we'll get back to the African influence later. First, let's turn to the music that was written for the shadow puppet scenes in The Lion King music based on the Indonesian music used in the shadow puppet theater of that region.


    1. Broadway: 百老汇

    2. The Lion King: 狮子王

    3. Hollywood: 好莱坞

    4. gamelan: 加麦兰(一组印尼的民族管弦乐器)

    5. Indonesia: 印度尼西亚

    6. Zulu: 祖鲁人的

    7. chant: n. 旋律,歌曲

    8. long-standing: adj. 长期的,长久的

    9. intentionally: adv. 有意地,故意地

    10. tune: n. 曲调,调子

    11. composer: n. 作曲家

    12. shadow: n. 影子

    13. puppet: n. 木偶

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