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Highlights

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Highlights ...

    ? JOHNSON & JOHNSON

    1 Cooperative Learning And Preventing Bullying ; Summer Schedule For Training Sessions

    2 Translated Books ; Cooperative Learning And Conflict Resolution SIGs

    3 Honors ; Web Site: www.co-operation.org

    The Newsletter of

    The Cooperative

    Learning Institute

    Volume 23 • Issue 1

    The Cooperative LinkMarch, 2008

    Cooperative Learning

     Editors: David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Edythe Holubec

     graduate students from Germany) as

    well as North America (excellent team

    of five from Wyoming ) and teachers

    from all age groups, kindergarten to

    university level. There were more Greetings! It has been a good year for David W. Johnson & Roger Johnson

    than 75 people in four different cooperative learning. The

    trainings. All of you who were here international interest in cooperative There are three types of participants

    are invited back. learning continues to grow. We involved in bullying: the bully,

     keynoted the Japanese Educational victims, and bystanders. A bully is a

    The summer institute is July 14-18. Psychology Association meeting in person who repeatedly inflicts

    We are expecting another group of Tokyo in September. We worked with unprovoked physical, relational, or

    cooperative learning scholars to gather several Universities and the Japan verbal harm on another, weaker

    in Minneapolis. We will have more Association for Language Learning as person. There are two types of

    than five different countries well. We were impressed with the bullies--antisocial (an individual who

    represented and educators from all many gracious and interested Japanese engages in a variety of anti-social

    over the United States. We would educators we met. behaviors, including bullying) and

    love to see you there. strategic (an individual who uses

     We also made presentations on bullying to gain a high position in the

    Of special note is Karl Smith at cooperative learning in Turkey and dominance hierarchy or to

    Purdue University is occupying the Australia. In Turkey a United Nations demonstrate their power to

    first Chair in Cooperative Learning in project is using cooperative learning to bystanders). A victim is a person who

    the world. Karl continues to be a train legal professionals and educators is the target of harm-intended

    major force in educating engineers. to reduce violence against women. In aggression. Often they are isolated

     Australia we gave a keynote address individuals without any (or very few)

    We wish you the best in your on preventing bullying. friends. Bystanders are chance

    implementation of cooperative onlookers or observers (i.e., the

    learning and once again assure you We continue to host visiting scholars audience). Since most bullying is

    that you are on the right track for from different countries (Japan, conducted to impress an audience,

    making positive differences in Germany, and Italy) who are doing bystanders are almost always present

    students’ academic and personal lives. research on cooperative learning. Five when bullying occurs. The prevention

    Hang in there! more of our books have been of bullying depends on influencing the

     translated into other languages this behavior of victims and bystanders as

    Roger and David year. well as bullies.

    In last summer’s training session, we Anti-social bullies tend to alienate

    had a great group of people from all their peers and experience diminished

    over the world (excellent team of 2 well-being. They tend to be more

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JOHNSON & JOHNSON

    lonely, sad, and anxious than most attention to preventing bullying needs anti-social behaviors such as bullying), students. As adults, they tend to be to take place. and academic achievement

    depressed, have low self-esteem, and (increasing academic involvement, prone to engage in criminal behavior. academic interest, grades, Preventing Bullying Strategic bullies, on the other hand, standardized test scores, IQ, school

    There are many interventions aimed at are often popular (but not necessarily competence, utilization of abilities,

    separately changing the behavior of liked), as they bully outgroup and participation in class). bullies, victims, and even bystanders. members to gain status in the ingroup

    It is more efficient, however, to dominance hierarchy. In Columbine Given the power of positive peer

    prevent bullying in the first place. To High School, for example, where the relationships in affecting all aspects of

    prevent bullying, educators need to: most famous United States school bullying, the issue is how are positive

     shooting incident happened, a member relationships among students

    1. Build positive relationships among of the top clique in the High School promoted. The best answer is through

    all students. was quoted (Time, Gibbs, N., & maximizing the use of cooperative

     Roche, T. [1999, December 20, p. learning and minimizing the use of

    2. Maximize the engagement in 154]): competitive and individualistic

    prosocial behavior. learning. Compared to competitive

     “Columbine is a good clean place and individualistic efforts, cooperation

    3. Maximize academic engagement. except for those rejects. Most kids tends to promote (a) greater didn’t want them there. They were interpersonal liking, group cohesion,

    4. Ensure conflicts are managed into witchcraft. They were into and esprit-de-corps, (b) valuing of

    constructively. voodoo. Sure we teased them. But heterogeneity, and (c) task-oriented

     what do you expect with kids who and personal support. It is difficult to

    Positive Relationships come to school with weird hairdos and overemphasize the importance of horns on their hats? . . . If you want to these research results. Friends give a The first key to lowering the get rid of someone, usually you tease person a developmental advantage and likelihood of bullying, reducing the them. So the whole school would call not having friends places a person at number of potential victims, and them (names). . . .” risk for a wide variety of negative creating proactive bystanders who will experiences and action patterns (such discourage bullying is building as being a bully, victim, and a passive Bullying And Competition positive relationships among students. bystander). Positive relationships affect all three Bullying is by its nature a competitive participants in bullying. Students tend activity. There is a winner and a loser. Isolation from schoolmates is not to bully schoolmates they know The bully is competing for dominance associated with high anxiety, low self-and like. Students who are known and over another person or for a position esteem, poor intrapersonal skills, liked tend not to be victims (victims of high status in the peer group. emotional handicaps, and tend to be isolated or rejected Generally, the more competitive the psychological pathology. Students students). Bystanders tend not to student, the more frequently the who engage in antisocial behavior allow schoolmates they know and like student tends to bully others. The such as bullying tend to be rejected by to be bullied. more competitive (or individualistic) the normal peer group. Rejected the class and school, the more frequent students are characterized by In addition to preventing bullying, the bullying, negative relationships, disruptive classroom behavior, hostile positive relationships have numerous and rejected and isolated students. behavior and negative affect, other positive effects on individuals’ increased risk of depression, negative well being. Positive relationships Transition Years attitudes toward other students and increase physical health (reduces school, lower levels of academic Bullying occurs more frequently mortality rates, speeds recovery from engagement, and greater frequency of during transition years (such as the illnesses, improves the function of academic and behavioral problems move from elementary to middle immune systems, and helps in coping and academic difficulties. school) when status and dominance with stress), psychological health hierarchies have to be recreated, (increases well-being, happiness, Positive peer relationships tend to perhaps because of the combination of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, occur in cooperative situations. The developmental crises and effective functioning, successful more cooperative learning is used in environmental challenges students coping with negative events, your classroom, the more positive the face at that time. It is during the adaptation during life transitions, relationships among students will be transitional years of middle and high career success, and prosocial behavior and the less likely it will be that any school, therefore, that the most while reducing mental distress and

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JOHNSON & JOHNSON

    student will end up isolated and The fourth key to lowering the more prosocial behavior is created.

    rejected by their classmates. likelihood of bullying, reducing the The result is mutual influence through

     number of potential victims, and seeking joint benefits rather than

    Cooperative learning ensures that all creating proactive bystanders who will influence through physical or verbal

    students are socially integrated into discourage bullying is to promote domination.

    networks of peer relationships. The students’ competencies in resolving

    three types of cooperative learning all conflicts constructively. The more Related to positive relationships and

    contribute. Formal cooperative constructively conflicts are managed, prosocial behavior, cooperative

    learning groups ensure all students get the less the bullying and victimization learning experiences result in more

    to know each other when membership will tend to take place and the more accurate perspective taking and

    is rotated and every student in time likely bystanders will be to intervene empathy (i.e., understanding how a

    works with every other student in the to stop bullying from occurring. victim or bystander is feeling), higher

    class. Cooperative base groups ensure There are two types of conflicts that levels of cognitive and moral

    that long-term relationships exist, occur in cooperative situationsreasoning, an identity as a moral

    especially when procedures such as academic controversy and conflicts of person, the inclusion of all

    the base group grid are used to ensure interests. The former is resolved schoolmates in one’s moral

    students get to know each other on a through the constructive controversy community, and seeing all

    personal as well as a task level. procedure and the latter is resolved schoolmates as deserving of justice.

    Informal cooperative learning ensures through problem-solving negotiations that every student will interact with and peer mediation (i.e., Teaching Academic Engagement

    every other student during class time Students to be Peacemakers Program). The third key to lowering the when students are frequently asked to likelihood of bullying, reducing the find a new partner. Summary number of potential victims, and creating proactive bystanders who will In order to prevent bullying and harm-Prosocial Behavior discourage bullying is to promote intended aggression, positive The second key to lowering the students’ academic engagement. relationships in which students

    Academic engagement is reflected in frequently engage in prosocial actions likelihood of bullying, reducing the

    number of potential victims, and the findings that more positive must be developed among students. creating proactive bystanders who will attitudes toward the academic task and The more positive the relationships discourage bullying is to promote the experience of working on the task among students (and the fewer the

    isolated and alienated students) and students’ engagement in prosocial tend to be found in cooperative than in

    behaviors. Prosocial behaviors are competitive and individualistic the more frequently students engage in actions that benefit other people by situations. Students working prosocial behaviors the less likely helping, supporting, encouraging their cooperatively (compared to those bullying and victimization will be and goal accomplishment or well being. working competitively or the less likely bystanders will be Cooperative experiences and individualistically) tend to be more passive and allow bullying to take cooperative predispositions tend to involved in academic activities and place. Cooperative learning ensures increase the frequency with which tasks, attach greater importance to that all students are socially integrated

    academic success, and engage in less into networks of positive peer participants engage in prosocial

    behavior. apathetic, off-task, disruptive relationships characterized by

     behaviors. Academic engagement prosocial behavior, engaged in the When students participate in typically results in academic success, academic program of the school, and cooperative learning groups, they have as cooperative learning tends to result skilled in constructive conflict the opportunity to help and assist each in higher academic achievement than resolution.

    other (i.e., engage in prosocial actions) do competitive and individualistic

    and are expected to do so. Engaging learning. The more academically

    in prosocial behaviors in cooperative engaged students are, the less likely

    groups has numerous consequences, they are to seek status and dominance Members of the American Educational such as increased commitment to the through physical or verbal bullying, Research Association should make relationship and the wellbeing of the the less likely they are to be victims, sure they are members of the person being helped. Being the and the less likely they are to be Cooperative Learning and the recipient of prosocial behavior results passive bystanders. Conflict Resolution Special Interest in such feelings as gratitude, Groups. appreciation, obligation, and desire to Constructive Conflict Resolution reciprocate. A spiral of increasing positive relationships and more and

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JOHNSON & JOHNSON

    Minneapolis, Minnesota Arabic editions of “Teaching Students David received the 2008

    July 14 to July 18 to be Peacemakers,” “Creative Distinguished Contributions to

    Foundations Of Cooperative Learning Controversy,” and “My Mediation Research in Education Award from

    Advanced Cooperative Learning Notebook.” the American Educational Research

    Creative Conflict (Teaching Students Association. The award is given to

    To Be Peacemakers, Constructive Dutch edition of “Joining Together.” honor a meritorious contributor to

    Controversy) educational research; its purpose is to

    Leading Cooperative School Danish and Chinese editions of publicize, motivate, encourage, and

    Foundations Leadership Training “Learning Together and Alone.” suggest models for educational

     research at its best. It is considered to

    Contact: Linda Johnson, Revisions of “Creative Controversy,” be the premier acknowledgement of

    Interaction Book Company and “Cooperation in the Classroom.” outstanding achievement and success

    (952) 831-9500, (952) 831-7060 in education research. Previous

    FAX: (952) 831-9332 winners include Jean Piaget, B. F.

    Johns010@umn.edu Skinner, Jerome Bruner, James, S.

     Coleman, Urie Bronfenbrenner,

     Donald Campbell, and John Goodlad.

     As of June 1, 2008 Interaction Book

    Company will be:

    5028 Halifax Ave. S.

    Edina, MN 55424

    Phone numbers are the same.

Interaction Book

    Company

    7208 Cornelia Drive

    Edina, MN 55435

    (952) 831-9500

    FAX: (952) 831-9332

    4

JOHNSON & JOHNSON

     Interaction Book Company Interaction Book 7208 Cornelia Drive Company Edina, MN 55435 7208 Cornelia Drive (952) 831-9500 Edina, MN 55435 FAX: (952) 831-9332 (952) 831-9500 FAX: (952) 831-9332

    5

JOHNSON & JOHNSON

    Interaction Book Company

    7208 Cornelia Drive Edina, MN 55435

    (952) 831-9500

    FAX: (952) 831-9332

    6

JOHNSON & JOHNSON

    Interaction Book Company

    7208 Cornelia Drive Edina, MN 55435

    (952) 831-9500

    FAX: (952) 831-9332

    7

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