By Vernon Hayes,2014-05-18 12:44
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    UNIT I


     1 .Species concept, International code of Zoological nomenclature, Taxonomical procedures, New trends in


     2 Acoelomata, Pseudocoelomata, Coelomata, Proterostornia and Dueterostornia

     3 Patterns of feeding and digestion in lower metazoan

     4 Feeding in polychaeta, Mollusca, Echinodermata

    5 Structure of Gill, lungs, trachea, Mechanism of Respiration

    6 Circulatory system in Annelids, Arthropods & Mollusca

    7 Advanced nervous system- Annelida, Arthropoda & Mollusca

    8 Larval forms of Crustaceans and Echinodermata


    1 Evolutionary time scale, Eras, Periods & Epoch major events in evolutionary time


    2 Vertebrate integument and derivatives, Skin structure and function, glands, scales,

     Horns, claws, nails, hoofs, feathers, hair

    3 Comparative anatomy of heart structure

    4 Comparative account of aortic arches and portal system

    5 Comparative anatomy of Respiratory organs

    6 Comparative anatomy of brain and spinal cord

    7 Organs of vision

    8 Organs of Hearing and tactile responses

    UNIT - II

    GENETICS 1.Concept of gene: Allelles, Multiple alleles (Characters, symbolism, ABO blood grouping, Bombay phenotype and Rh factor), pseudoallelles; Interaction of genes (lethal genes, complementary genes, duplicate genes) 2.Genome organization in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Microbial genetics (Methods of genetic transfers- Transformation, Conjugation, Transduction and sexduction), Human genome

    3.Gene mapping methods: Linkage-complete and Incomplete linkage; Linkage maps, Recombination, mapping with molecular markers, somatic cell hybrids

    4.Crossing over: Types (Somatic or mitotic crossing over and Germinal or meiotic crossing over), theories about the mechanism of crossing over, tetrad analysis, and cytological detection of crossing over.

    5.Mutations: Types (Spontaneous and Induced), causes and detection, mutant types (lethal, conditional, biochemical, loss of function, gain of function, germinal versus somatic mutants), Molecular basis of mutations.

    6.Chromosomal aberrations (deletion, duplication, inversion and translocation, ploidy and their genetic implications); Autosomal abnormalities (Down’s syndrome, Trisomy -13,- 18); Sex anomalies (Turner’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s

    syndrome, Hemaphroditism)

    7.Human genetics: Human traits, Human karyotyping (banding techniques), Pedigree analysis, Genetic disorders due to mutant genes (PTC tasters, Brachydactyly, Huntington’s chorea, Inborn errors of metabolism- Phynylketonuria,

    alkaptonuria, Sickle cell anemia

    8.Eugenics (Positive eugenics-Artificial insemination and sperm banks; Negative eugenics- consanguinity, genetic counseling); Euphenics (intake of missing enzyme, cure for inherited anemia, Increasing role of genetics to medicine) EVOLUTION: 1 Emphasis on Darwinism

    2 Neo-Darwinism

    3 Role of isolating mechanisms

    4 Models of speciation (Allopatric, sympatric and parapatric)

    5 A detailed account on destabilizing forces (i) Natural Selection

     (ii) Mutation (iii) Genetic drift

    6 Phylogenetic gradualism & punctuated equilibriun1

    7 Micro & Macro evolution

    8 Gene evolution and Amino acid sequence and phylogeny


    1 Instinct and Innate ,Patterns of behavior, Altruism,

     Kin selection, Biological clocks

    2 Visual Perception & Auditory perception

    3 Chemical Communication

    4 Olfactory Perception

5. Habitat selection-food selection, optimal foraging theory, antipredator


    6 Parental care in birds and mammals

    7 Homing& territoriality, bird migration, orientation and navigation

    8 Social organization, Advantages, Social organization in insects, primates

    9. Conditioning Learning (Classical and Operant conditioning) UNIT- III

    10 Cognitive Learning (Insight Learning, Sign Learning, Latent Learning) CELL BIOLOGY

    1 The Cytoskeleton .The Cytoskeletal elements, Microtubules, shaping of the cell and mechanical support,

    Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, cytoskeletal architecture (Red blood cells, platelets, fibroblasts, epithelial cells,

    endothelial cells)

    2 Mitochondria and Cell energetics

    Enzyme distribution in mitochondria

    Bioenergetics: Molecular organization, biogenesis and functions of mitochondria,

     Oxidative Phosphorylation, the chemical-conformational Hypothesis.

    The development and causes of cancer, tumor viruses, oncogenes and tumor

    3 Cancer suppressor genes, prevention and treatment

    4 Regulation of programmed cell death, caspases and apoptosis, cell death receptors

     and caspase activation, signaling cell survival.

    5 Cell signaling: Models of cell-cell signaling (steroid receptors, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide)

    6 Functions of cell surface receptors (G-protein coupled receptors, Tyrosine kinases, cytokine receptors, receptors

    linked to other enzymatic activities)

    7 Pathways of intracellular signal transduction (c-Amp pathways, cyclic cGMP,phospholipids and Ca2

    +, Ras, Raf

    and MAP kinases)


    1.Molecular nature of Genome: Watson and Crick Model; Types of DNA; Properties of DNA (C- value paradox, Cot


    2. Nuclear and mitochondrial genome , Structure of gene (Cistron, Muton, Recon, Cis-trans test), DNA damage and repair:

    Biological induction of repair, photo reactivation, Excision repair, Recombination repair, SOS repair, and Mismatch repair.

    3.Replication : Replication in Prokaryotes: Geometry of DNA replication,

    4. Enzymology of DNA replication: DNA Po1ymerases ; Replication of Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Eukaryotic DNA


    5.Replication of Chromatin. Discontinuous Replication: Fragments in Replication fork and detection of fragments; Events

    in in the replication fork; De novo initiation and covalent extension. Bidirectional replication, Termination of replication

    6. Transcription and Translation :Transcription: Types of RNA, enzymes and molecular mechanisms involved in

    transcription. Processing of rRNA, tRNA and RNA in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Ribozyme Translation:

    Genetic code, Polypeptide chain initiation, elongation and termination Post translational modification; Role of antibiotics

    in protein synthesis

    7. Gene expression : Genetic regulation: Induction, Repression, Lac Operon, Lambda Operon Tryptophan Operon.

    8.DNA sequencing, DNA finger printing, Polymerase chain reaction. cDNA library, Genomic library.



    1 Outline classification of organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids)

    2 Order of protein structure, Ramachandran plot, (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary)

    3 Glycolysis, TCA cycle and their Biomedical importance

    4 Pentose phosphate pathway, Gluconeogenesis

    5 Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism (Glycolysis and TCA cycle)

    6 Redox Potentials, Mitochondrial electron transport system, Oxidative

     phosphorylation, High energy Phosphates in energy capture and transfers.

    7 Beta-oxidation of palmitic acid; Biosynthesis of long chain fatty acids.

    8 Oxidative deaminaiton, decarboxylation and transamination of amino acids.

    9 Biosynthesis of Urea and detoxification of Ammonia

    10 Biosynthesis of Nucleotides


    1 Aim and scope of physiology; General physiological functions and principles

2 Feeding mechanisms and regulation

    3 Comparative physiology of digestion

    4 Respiration and Metabolism

    5 Circulation of body fluids

    6 Patterns of nitrogen excretion among different animal groups

    7 Osmoregulation in different animal groups

    8 Homeothermic animals, Poikilothermic animals

    9 Biological rhythms

    10 Bioluminesence & Catecholamines (Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Dopamine and 5-HT) 11 Contractile elements, cell and tissues among different phylogenetic groups UNIT V 12 Muscle structure and function correlation

    13. Bioelectrical properties of neurons -Neuronal excitability DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 14 Synapses: Structure and IntegrationUltra structure of synapse chemical transmission; 1: Origin of germ line cells, Origin and mechanism of cell lineage, migration of 15 Synthesis -storage-release and inactivation mechanisms and functions of the following neurotransmitters; germ cells to genital ridges, embryonic stem cells, Nuclear transplantation Acetylcholine experiments, Transgenics in analysis of development.

    2: Production of gametes and establishment of polarity and symmetry.

    3: Leydig cells function; Endocrine regulation of spermatogenesis and vitellogenesis.

    4: Fertilization: Cell surface molecules in sperm egg recognition molecular events

     of post fertilization.

    5: Cleavage, Blastula, Gastrulation in different animals, Molecular mechanisms

     determining germ layers formation; fate maps.

    6: Induction, competence, determination and differentiation.

    7: Developmental gradients in Hydra

    8: Axes and Pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick.

    9: Organogenisis Vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans; Eye lens induction,

     limb development.

    10: Regeneration Types of regeneration, Axial patterning during regeneration. 11: Metamarphosis Hormonal regulation of metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. 12: Environmental regulation of normal development.

    13: Sex determination in animals (The mechanism of mammalian primary sex

     determination Secondary sex determination: Hormonal regulation of the sexual


    14: Aging and scnescence Reactive oxygen and cell scnescence, Dietary

     restriction and anti aging action., Genetic control of longevity, Age related



     1 Classification and chemical nature of hormones

     2 Biosynthesis and secretion of hormones corticosteroid hormones-peptide hormones- catecholamines

     3 Hormones in female sexual cycle

     4 Hormonal control of spermatogenesis

     5 Nature of hormone action

     6 Hormone receptors receptor structure and signal

    transduction mechanism-G-protein family

     7 Structure and function of nuclear receptors organ receptors

     8 Growth hormones and factors-somatotropin and somatomedin-insulin, prolactin placental lactogen Neurotrophic growth

    factors-hematopoietic growth factors.

     9 Hormones and homeostasis (Ca2+, glucose, P04, water, temperature)

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