Chinese dialects in the instructions interjection
【Summary】 many Chinese dialects can be found in one or two instructions have the characteristics of both interjection function words, this is called "instructions interjection," such as the Guangdong dialect, "then" and "Na", Wu dialect, "Well", Changsha, then the "chatter" and so on. With other interjection, as they can in the first sentence that there can be a separate sentence, but at the same time have a clear indication. This paper examines the various regional dialects instructions interjection found that they all have two main uses: gestures use of (or on-site usage) and the
symbolic use of (or on-site usage). The former should be the original usage, the latter formed through the blur. Language typology study found that language tables from around the world are generally a means of instruction in order to noun, adverb or verb word-based, full-time instruction interjection used relatively rare. Chinese language this discovery, there should be inspiration for ordinary linguistics.
Abstract title】 Chinese Philology
Key words interjection / instruction word / discourse analysis / grammar-oriented
One from Guangzhou words "mean" and "Na" When talking about
Cantonese has an interesting phenomenon, namely the surface with a "mean" the
word in the sentence appeared in three different locations. See Example (1):
(1), then, the library That one Zhang do, Do not know Do drains come from? (Hey, a library that Mr. Zhang did not know that he did not visit one?)
Here the three "do", although the same form, function was different. The first one to remind, the second said the pause, and the third to question. Strictly speaking, the first "do" with the other two "mean" has essentially different. The former is relatively
independent, which is subordinate to the preceding phrase; the former express some features of discourse, which is a sign of topics and questions.
In order to distinguish between "it" in three kinds of usage, Zhuo Wen (1996) have
tried to put three syntactic position of the "it" are known as the beginning of a sentence particle, sentence particle and particle end of the sentence. The benefits of doing so is to facilitate the beginning of the sentence, "it" with other locations on the "mean" to distinguish. Appears in the beginning of the sentence, "it" is equivalent to interjection; appear in the sentence, "it" is equivalent to pause words (Chao, 1968; Zhu Dexi 1982); out end of the sentence is now the "it" is equivalent to other dialects of the sentence
Last particle. However, this approach also has its shortcomings, is a failure to highlight the beginning of the sentence, "it" with the other two "mean" the fundamental difference. With respect to their syntactic behavior, the beginning of the sentence
"mean" can a single that can be self-contained sentence. This is a general sense of the
particle with the difference. Take a look:
(2) it is only bird pictures there ah! (See, bird there ah!)
(3), then, wearing glasses That one microphone Amin Hello! (See, wearing glasses that
do not that Amin!)
Pragmatic features to consider, the "mean" role is to hearer's attention to certain things, so with the indicator. "Particle beginning of the sentence," the reference is also not well summed up this point. In addition to "mean", the Cantonese, there is a "Na"
(na  / la ), is also a table instructions, such as:
(4), Na, wearing glasses That one microphone Amin Hello! (See, wearing glasses that do not that Amin!)
(5), Na, Is 10 Wen! (〔〕 Hey when you buy something to pay, where 10!)
In addition, we note that there is also the Wu dialect, "Well," is also used to represent instructions and reminders. In Chongming, then as an example: ( "Well" said the instructions read no  or no , that when you read to remind no )
(6) Well, call one of sugar you eat. (Promise to give you a piece of candy)
(7) Here, a key cross-dial you barbarians. (Connaught, he handed over the keys to you)
(8) Well, one piece dress quickly leveled off the net. (Connaught, this dress quickly
(9) Well, Well, you see, pay for what a tone of a barbarian! (Connaught, for everyone to see, his attitude pair)
Cases (6) and patients (7) are the speaker to pass something to say. Cases (8) and patients (9) "Well," the listener's attention in front of people or things. The following two cases, the cases (10) said "Please", cases of (11) that reminded:
(10) Here, Yi fraud person [I] special. (See, he had shamelessly)
(11) Well, is a son of one year and something, you forget the de-[I] Special?
(Connaught, is something the year before, you forgot)
Shanghai, then there is "Well," Bao-Hua Xu, Tom Pearl's "downtown Shanghai
dialect Chi" (1998) on revenue of that word. It has two readings: n  "that the
granting of", n  "that people pay attention to his referring to things" (357 pages). Nai-Qian-rong (1997) "Shanghai discourse Law" is also on record: (The following translation of five cases were added by the author)
(12) Well, off I Na Qu! (Well, give me Naqu!) (241) (13) Well, it allocated Lennon! (Well, back to you!) (241)
(14) Well, we should be able to dig and then dig faster hug! (Well, to dig it dug so fast!) (242 pages)
(15) Well, Nong Wu Shi put to a spicy here. (Well, you have to things to put here.) (242
(16) Well, speaking aside to listen to Shannon! (Well, tell you!) (242 pages)
Cases (12) to (15), the "Well" table instructions; cases (16) "Well," played the role of chapter markers.
If Suzhou, Wenzhou and other dialects, then there is "Well." The word in spoken
language in the frequency of very high, it actually harder to find in the text. A rare example comes from step-wei Yang, "a woman's autobiography," first chapter
"speaking about my own," the last one (step-wei Yang 1967:5):
(17) Do you want to know exactly how I like a person, you have to read my autobiography. Snow! The bottom is!
China Federation of Literature Publishing House in 1999, the "Miscellanies Zhao," p. 4, "Snow," the word changed to "Well." Bu Yang Wei in Shanghai, Chinese and
Western women privately run school, can speak Shanghai dialect. Her writing style was significantly affected by Zhao Yuanren the impact of a strong sense of spoken language. The above quotation in the "promise" is obviously the function of discourse.
Other examples include:
(18) Study on XIA Mianzun Ye Shengtao "Oncidium" 14: "Well, ? is said that the
entire sentence from the low and high."
(19) Sand set "mother": " 'wear her son went to the Royal Mile! Well!' She hands
Zhiyi Zhi Lin left a green plate." (Quote from "Chinese Dictionary" at 3 375)
Finally, it gives two examples of Changsha words:
(20) chatter, ko-ri placed three potted plant! (Well, here placed three potted plant! (Yongming 1991:573)
(21) chatter, on the other side, you risk to see呀? (Well, on the other side, you do not
see呀?) (Ibid., page 574)
Looking back at the Guangzhou words "mean" and "Na", to better see "Particle beginning of the sentence," the reference is not very good, because it makes it easier
with the end of the sentence particle, or tone of the word confused. Images can be seen from the above, Guangzhou words "mean", "Na" and the Wu dialect, "Well" and the Hunan dialect, "chatter" and so on syntax acts, it is similar but with the tone with the
interjection word Xiangyuan . And interjection, as they can be a single that can be a separate sentence, while the tone of the word can not,
(22) A: Only bird do? (Birds do?) (23) A: 10 Man acridine! (10 of money!)
B: it! (See!) B: Na! (Well!)
However, they are not identical with the interjection. First of all, their primary function in speech communication in the speaker and not the expression of inner feelings. More importantly, they have a clear indicator. "Mean", "Na", "Well,"
"chatter" feature instruction from their relationship with the gestures and eyes see it. The speaker said these words, must be accompanied by corresponding gestures or eye (such as pointing or look to something), otherwise the words would be meaningless. The
following two examples: (#, said the sentence can not be established.)
(24) A: This book edges to not work? (That book there?) (25) A: to serve glasses of water I acridine. (Please give me a glass of water.)
B: # it! (However, do not hand-eye movement) B: # Na! (However, do not hand-eye
Cases (24) and cases (25) in the B words, because of a lack of accompanying gestures and eyes, have become difficult to understand, while the interjection in general there is no such requirement. Therefore, we believe that "mean", "Na", "Well," "chatter" and in complying with the instructions on the pragmatic functions of word closer. Their main role is not in the beginning of a sentence, said the tone, but in the form of small independent sentence to guide the listener's attention on something. (Note: The
Cantonese dialect "mean" and "Na" has a certain division of labor. To put it simply, "it" more focused on things that lie, and "Na" there are often delivered or given in this endeavor. (Such as pay when you say that "Na" no say "it.") But since the focus of this paper is to investigate the direct interjection of dialects in Chinese, so do not have the personality of the Cantonese dialect short on details. here comes the point that "it" in Cantonese dialects have different pronunciation, Cao Bang and the soaring notes can
be. voice tones in particular, the instability is the interjection of the characteristics of words and tone, others have already discussed this point.) of the current academic grammar of these words have not yet fixed argument, we might call "instructions interjection." (Note: Li Yongming (1986) "Hengyang Dialect Grammar," received the "chatter" and "blanket" two words, the author referred to as "fat words." Ouyang Wei-hao (2000) and Lu Jing-ray (1996), as to " initial particle "(initial particles) named after the Cantonese dialect words. This type of understanding of the word, with their different views. Ouyang Wei-hao (2000) focused on" start particle "with the sentence
and the end of the sentence Modal contact point with the landing light lens (1996) has done. with the same Lu, Ouyang Wen also proposed to "start particle" to cover "fat words" and the "interjection" approach, this approach, although they achieve the the distinction between instruction and other types of interjection interjection purpose, yet the tone words and interjection two major categories mixed, and the price is too drastic. Ouyang Wen also talked about "mean" and "Na" and so on the instructions of the role of However, the emphasis on "directed" (deixis), or use of this site said, without involving other usage, in particular, discourse, chapter and so on. In addition to "mean", "Na" foreign Ouyang Wen also referred to the complex The "start particle" (including "Vanilla", "feed it", "dare to do"). But these combinations except "Vanilla" for external use much, if necessary, can also be handled in accordance with this article.)
2 Usage instructions interjection
There are two main direct interjection Usage: gestures use (gestural usage) and
symbolic use (symbolic usage) (Fillmore 1971). Use gestures and symbolic usage, equivalent to the basic usage and extended usage, the literal usage and metaphor usage, or direct and indirect usage of usage. For the convenience of explanation, the following
instructions interjection into these two uses, called on-site usage and off-site usage.
"Live" refers to the words and the listener can see each other directly, while the listener can also directly see the speaker referred to things; that is, when to speak and
the listener, when conducting face to face communication . Other than the use of face to face communication, all call-site usage (such as telephone conversations or written
In the previous section illustrate the main is on-site usage. From the examples can be
seen, Guangzhou interjection words expressed in two directions are mainly "see" means. Called the listener at the scene to see something, is equal to the other side's attention to the things that cited. On-site usage conditions, the speaker noted that guide
the listener and the listener must be what the two sides in verbal communication in on-
site can see things. See "see" or "attention" is directed interjection the most basic and original meaning.
Look at the object may be in kind, it can be something else, such as something, some reason, or some situations. The speaker can be directed to the hearer interjection points out that a situation both sides can see the emergence of a previously made decisions or
actions caused, by inference, the speaker has long been anticipated that the decision as or actions that will bring about such an outcome. Such as: (The following four cases are taken from Li Xin-Kui, etc. 1995:590-591) (Note: Li Xin-Kui et al (1995) also noted that
"acridine" and "Na" can be used in conjunction. At this time they must appear in the end of the sentence that the other party to seek the views of the meaning of the book cites this example:
(1) your way, then hit acridine-Fu Wu Di Na arrival? (590-591 pages) (2) an official of
the Well, to do so passive that are tied DAN啦, if you have the Department of Mi-
acridine Na? (599 pages)
(You say that not to strike where A Fu?) (An officer fills like this as inappropriate啦,
you say is not it?)
The position of the Na, must be with "acridine" used in conjunction, and the end of the sentence looks more like a tone of words, we have discussed it with the instructions of this interjection dealt with separately. )
(26) then, I would have if ritual Jiala! (You see, I had already said no to the!)
(27) Na, I would have if ritual Jiala! (You see, I had already said no to the!)
(28) Na, Is that ah, and gorge on microphone was Hello! (You see, is not ah, this can be had!)
(29) Na, broken啦! (You see, that does not do bad!)
Direct interjection there are even more abstract usage, which usage of information extraction and chapters can be divided into two major categories of instruction. Each example.
The so-called information extraction, it means the speaker signal, inviting listener to find and extract from the memory at this stage in his speech to communicate in order to communication and awareness of the need to be referred up the information (usually the current to create a new topic). To extract the information may be the common
experience of both sides talk, perhaps the speaker has reason to believe Before this listener through a variety of ways (education, reading, social experience, etc.) access to knowledge. Take a look:
I is not quite satisfied - do, do jack prime time! - Two television stations have reported
the same thing. (I am not very happy - Connaught is the prime time ah! - Two
television stations reported the same thing.)
A: it, and one when the microphones, it should have a registered office - (Connaught,
at that time is not to say there should be registered at)
B: Oh, crown. (Ah, the crown.)
A: Large crown ah. (Large crown ah.)
Well, I am to go to eat at that place last week in a restaurant ah. (Connaught, we went for dinner on Sunday that restaurant ah)
From the above examples, we can see that in the case of off-site, "it" often can play a
role in attention or a reminder. The so-called "attention" or "reminder" of the specific
content is the speaker to indicate the interjection as a means to listener's attention to a topic, the aim is to establish in order to facilitate continuing topic of conversation activities and information exchange. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download
Directed interjection of the second comparison with the usage of the abstract structure of chapters, we call this use chapter markers (discourse marker). Speaking people in a matter or a narrative reasoning are often preceded by the first plug in a mark to
indicate impending words, it will be a longer (more than one), and a more complete words (generally the "beginning - middle -- - end "like structure). Chapter marker is
intended to let people know obedient to temporarily do not rush the replies, the
response would be to leave it until the end of the narrative or reasoning say so. Therefore, the chapter markers will enable the conduct of the session better.
Direct interjection is able to do to make chapter markers? This all goes back to their
original usage (ie, on-site usage) talking about. As mentioned above, indicating the essential role of interjection is to listener's attention from one thing to another things, the. Never noted that attention from do not see to see that the middle of a change in
direction interjection marks the emergence of such a change. In the session / episode in the course, participants often need to enter from one paragraph to another paragraph, or from one topic into another issue, when the speaker may need to be obedient
people's attention from one topic to another on the topic. From the discourse structure, in two relatively independent of the topic in the middle is a fault (disjunction). The emergence of direct interjection marks a topic on the end of the beginning of the next
topic. Perhaps it is through such a process, the direct interjection mark function, which leads to the structure of discourse. Next, a few examples of Cantonese dialect words.
(33) (Topic: Philately)
Na, to bear in May on a set of Tsing Ma Bridge, generosity, sets out the end over there after that, June 1 it would set the Paralympics was generous. (Connaught, on the set of the Tsing Ma Bridge in mid-May to issue the set of after it, then June 1, we have
disabled the Games.)
(34) (Topic: Buy Wedding)
Na, do you rent out to not even ping La, the text must be thousands, exhausted after the return is also important to serve counters. (Snow, you rent out is not cheap ah, but also thousands of dollars, exhausted but also back to him.)
(35) (Topic: online)
Na, you have Internet access per month 100 text, 2 text-degree per hour, catch up to
buy a fax modem, hundreds of text. (Connaught, you 100 a month online money, about two dollars per hour, and then to buy a fax modem, a few hundred dollars.)
(36) (Topic: looking for work)
Na, when I really graduated嘞5 lines, if the entire English exchanges along these lines I think I will be great trouble La, but the department prevails, I would read IKEA U, a
good bit, no咁scared. I think that but requires too much嘞. (Connaught, it really is the
5 when I graduated, if all the exchanges along these lines in English, I think I will not cope, but also how to say I graduated from university, a little better, not so afraid of. I
think he is too demanding it.)
3 Chinese dialects instructions interjection
We are direct interjection of other dialects in the Chinese not know much about the overall situation, mainly because it is the information is not easy to find. People
interjection has been relatively little study, even specializes in interjection does not necessarily mean a direction function of interjection noted. Despite this, we were able to find many examples. (Note: the text of the Wu dialect and Yunnan dialect material
provided by Mr. Zhang Huiying.)
Putonghua "Well" no35
Beijing dialect (Note: Beijing if they have any instructions interjection does this mean? Pronunciation of people's sense of language is very different. Some people think that
yes, some people not think so. 1:00 this problem not been resolved, had to be left to future research.) "Kh" m [ 55] / m , "hey" / "Oh" ei  / ai , "hey" / "Hey" ei  / hei 
Baoding words "Well" no  Shanghai dialect, "Well" no  / no  Suzhou
words "Well" no
Chongming words "Well" no [55/53], "Well" no , "Well" no  Shantou, then e 
Huaiyin words ni , bawl, Shaanxi Fufeng words "whine" tsiA 
Jiangsu Suqian words "pinch" nie , Lanzhou, then tie  (to something)
Guangzhou words "mean" ne / le [55/35], "Na" na / la  Hubei Huanggang if br
Changsha words "chatter" tie , "chatter" tie  Jiangxi, then e
Twin Peaks words "chatter" de , "Na" na  Yunnan Luxi words "Well" no ,
"Well" noi 
Hengyang words "chatter" tie , "blanket" le  Kaili, Guizhou, then la
Hakka me , a , Hainan, then ni
As far as could see the materials, we get such an impression: Chinese dialects, most of the instructions are 1-2 interjection.
4 proximal and distal refer to
The dialect known as direct interjection of these words there is another reason: with the demonstrative pronouns, as direct interjection often near and far that refers to the difference. Yunnan dialect, "Well," for example, because of distance difference tone is different. "Yunnan Chi Chi Chinese Dialects," 503: Western Yunnan Luxi dialect films, the demonstrative pronoun "Well" [no ], Well [noi ], close to that and far refer to the other, the equivalent of Mandarin The "this", "that", "Here," "there." Dialect is used in voice (tone) change to distinguish the near or far that means. For example:
(37) Well [no ], you Kan Ma, there are a lot of people. (Where, you Kan Ma, there
are a lot of people.)
(38) A: Which of your pen something? (Where is your pen?)
B: Well [noi ]. (Here)
"Well" is the term generally used alone. Near that, when used alone, sometimes with the verb "hold" means. To the listener waiting to give him a pen, you can say, "Well!"
5, the definition of direct interjection
Based on the above discussion, we defined direct interjection summarized as follows:
i) can be a single, said; ii) the site must have the use of gestures or eye contact with; iii)
independent of other parts of speech (as opposed to other parts of speech of the active
use or re-class); iv) a direction function.
Direct interjection whether it is Chinese (or Sino-Tibetan languages) features? The
similarities and differences with other languages of Chinese, is a topic well worth exploring. According to our preliminary observations, in English and French seem to have not a full-time instruction interjection. In these languages, using a verb or adverb.
In English, for example, the main tool is a verb look, listen, adverbs here, there, or used in conjunction verb adverb, such as the look here:
(39) Look, I 've got to go in 10 minutes. Can I give you a call tonight? (Hey, I am within 10 minutes to go, and I call you tonight, please?)
(40) Listen, I 've got to go in 10 minutes. Can I give you a call tonight? (Hey, I am within 10 minutes to go, and I call you tonight, please?)
(41) Here, take this. (Well, holding her.) (42) There you are! (Well, holding her!)
(43) Look here, children, you mustn 't run around like this. (Hey, kids, you can not run around everywhere like this in!)
In French, the give you the money or the delivery of things, they often say Tiens!. Yes Tiens verb "take" in a form, not an independent instructions interjection.
Jingpo language but added that similar words (see Dai Xia, Xu noted the difficulties 1992:318):
(44) mo ! Ndai  lang  u  (something that should be handed over to the other side)
To the end of the sentence you use the word
"To you, you use this, right?"
(45) mok ! Nang  n  re  ai  ma  sha  (indicated to the material when the angry tone of voice)
Give you (the Pan-movement) of people
"Give! You are such a person"
In addition, we found that Japanese-ri's "ほら" may also be a direct interjection.