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The Effect REBT Have on Procrastination in Middle School English Learners

By Mario Hunt,2014-05-28 19:40
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The Effect REBT Have on Procrastination in Middle School English Learners

    

     BACHELOR ’S THESIS

    The Effect REBT Have on

    Procrastination in Middle School

    English Learners

    理情行为疗法对中学生英语学业拖延的影响

    中文摘要

    学业拖延一直是困扰着中学生学习的一个不容忽视的问题,个体存在学业拖

    延的现象会令其感到沮丧,一长期的学业拖延会阻碍学习目标的达成,降低学习

    兴趣,所以制定有效的学业拖延干预方案变得刻不容缓。目前我国对中学生学业

    拖延的干预研究相对较少,而理情行为疗法在帮助个体认识自我及改善自我等方

    面具有突出的优势,这为对学业拖延干预的研究提供了一个新的思路。对于中学

    生的教育不能简单采取填鸭式方法,而应采取一种既生动又有效的活动方式,

    极心理学恰恰满足这一要求.因此本研究的目的便是为了探讨理情行为疗法对中

    学生学业拖延的改善效果.本研究在文献综述!实例研究以及个别访谈的基础之

    上!分析可以得出以下结论:理情行为疗法可以有效的改善中学生学业拖延的问

    题。

    关键词,理情行为疗法(中学英语学习者(学业拖延

    

     BACHELOR ’S THESIS

    The Effect REBT Have on Procrastination in Middle School English Learners

    Abstract

    It cannot be ignored that the problem of English academic procrastination is as common as flu for middle school students. Existence of this phenomenon will make students feel frustrated. Long-term delay will hinder the academic achievement of them and reduce their interest in learning English. Therefore, it becomes urgent that the development of REBT programs for academic Procrastination in English. Nowadays, But few thesis have done with academic procrastination in the middle school English learners, but REBT, as an effective way to help students in self-understanding, self-improving, has obvious advantages, which also provides a new way of interval academic procrastination in middle school English learners. The purpose of this study is to explore weather the rational emotive behavior therapy can really deal with procrastination of middle school English learners ,since we teachers can not simply take the spoon-feeding method, but should take a lively and effective method. And REBT exactly meets this requirement. Basing on the literature review, case studies and individual interviews, analysis, we can draw the following conclusions: certainly, rational emotive behavior therapy can effectively tackling procrastination.

    Key words: REBT(middle school English learners(academic procrastination

    

     BACHELOR ’S THESIS

    Contents

    中文摘要

    Abstract

    Contents

    Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 1

    1. The summary of theory ................................................................................................................. 1

    hat is academic procrastination? ....................................................................................... 1 1.1W

    1.2What's REBT ....................................................................................................................... 2

    2.Some typical style of procrastinators ............................................................................................. 2

    2.1The perfectionist .................................................................................................................. 2

    2.2The dreamer ......................................................................................................................... 3

    2.3The worrier ........................................................................................................................... 3

    2. 4The deifier ........................................................................................................................... 3

    2.5 The crisis-maker .................................................................................................................. 3

    2.6. The over doer ..................................................................................................................... 3

    3. Some Pitfalls in Tackling Procrastination ..................................................................................... 4

    4. One example of tackling Procrastination with REBT ................................................................... 5

    4.1Awareness ............................................................................................................................ 5

    4.2Goals .................................................................................................................................... 6

    4.3Commitment ........................................................................................................................ 6

    4.4Persistence ............................................................................................................................ 7

    5. Another case of tackling Procrastination with REBT ................................................................... 9

    5.1An analysis of the case ......................................................................................................... 9

    5.1.1. Limitation of his knowledge of English .................................................................. 9

    5.1.2. Couldn‘t resist the lure of entertainment ................................................................. 9

    5.2The psychological mechanism of procrastiatory behavior: .................................................. 9

    5.3Coping strategies ................................................................................................................ 10

    5.3.1strengthen the concept of time ................................................................................ 10

    5.3.2change the irrational concept................................................................................... 10

    5.3.3 companion's positive influence .............................................................................. 11 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 12

    References ....................................................................................................................................... 12

    Acknowledgment ........................................................................................ 错误,未定义书签。15

    

     BACHELOR ’S THESIS

Introduction

     Academic procrastination is a well-known phenomenon among students.

    Approximately 70% of students is reported procrastinating academic tasks

    (Schouwenburg 1995), such as writing term papers, studying for exams or

    reading texts. Instead, they engaged in a wide range of alternative and often more

    pleasant activities, such as watching TV, sleeping or talking with family members

    or friends Steel‘s(2007)definition of (academic) procrastination is ―to voluntarily

    procrastination an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for

    the procrastination‖ (p. 66). Indeed, academic procrastination has been proven to

    result in harmful consequences, such as stress or lower grades (e.g. Tice and

    Baumeister 1997). Therefore, it is not surprising that up to 60% of students

    reported a desire to reduce their academic procrastination (Solomon and

    Rothblum 1984).In light of these findings, two questions arise: Why do students

    procrastinate at all? And how to deal with academic procrastinate effectively?

1. The summary of theory

    1.1What is academic procrastination?

    The concept of academic procrastination is a derivative in the study of procrastination,

    academic procrastination‖ is based on the ―procrastination‖, academic procrastination only

    refers to "procrastination" of certain person or with certain scene limitation, so if we want to

    have a accurate understanding of ―academic procrastination‖, we must first make sense the

    essence of "procrastination‖. ―Procrastinationderives from the Latin word ―procrastination‖

    which meansdefer till the morning‘ and can be described as putting off until later what our

    better judgment tells us ought to be done now and thereby incurring unwanted consequences

    through such dilatory behavior.

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1.2What's REBT

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a pioneering form of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) of the twentieth century, and although it‘s very popular among practicing

    clinicians as well as members of the public, it has been relatively neglected in the professional and scientific literature. The core of the theory is ABC theory of personality. A refers to thing's antecedents; B refers to the beliefs of us.C refers to the consequences of things. If there are antecedents, there will always be consequences, but under the same situation (A), different people will have different concept and interpretation (B1 and B2), there will always be different results (C1 and C2). This is due to different evaluation, beliefs and interpretation of us. Founder of emotional ABC theory Ellis said: it is because we often have some irrational belief, leading to our emotional distress. In the course of time, these irrational beliefs can lead to emotional disorders. People usually think evoked event A led directly to the person's mood and behavior results in C, what happened to cause different kinds of emotional experience. It‘s easy to find different people will experience different

    emotion when facing the same situation. The further development of the theory of ABC, an increase of part D and E, D (disputing) refers to the intervention and resistance to non theoretical belief, E (effective) refers to the use of rational belief effective or appropriate emotional behavior instead of irrational beliefs and inappropriate emotional behavior.

    2.Some typical style of procrastinators 2.1The perfectionist

    Theyre reluctant to start or finish a task in case it proves to be less than perfect and therefore is seen to fail in his own and/or others‘ eyes;

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2.2The dreamer

    They want life to go smoothly and avoids difficult challenges. Grandiose ideas are not translated into achievable goals. Ill at ease with daily reality, she retreats into fantasy; 2.3The worrier

    They fear things going wrong and being overwhelmed by events (lots of What if…?‘

    thinking); risk or change is avoided and he has little confidence in his ability to do task that is concerned with English.

    2. 4The deifier

    Theyre resistant and argumentative towards others‘ instructions because this means he is

    being told what to do or other people are trying to control him. An indirect form of defiance is passive-aggressiveness such as saying ‗yes‘ to English teacher‘s request when the student

    really means ‗no‘ because she is not willing to take on the responsibility of doing the task within the allotted time;

    2.5 The crisis-maker

    They like to display bravado in declaring he cannot get motivated until the 11th hour or

    living on the edge‘ gives him an adrenaline rush. He has this is when he does his best work;

    a low threshold for boredom in his life. Leaving things until the last minute often means that they dont get done on time or opportunities are missed;

    2.6. The over doer

    They take on too much English task without establishing what her priorities are; time is managed inefficiently leading to some task not being done or done poorly or finished late.

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     BACHELOR ’S THESIS

    Above all, individuals always display a mix of procrastination styles: some are more prominently displayed than others. Underpinning these various procrastination styles there are likely to be found ego disturbance and discomfort disturbance beliefs. Ego disturbance relates to the demands that we impose on ourselves and the consequent negative self-ratings that we make when we fail to live up to our self-imposed demands. An ego disturbance belief likely to be found in perfectionists is ‗I must do the task very well or else I‘m a failure.‘

    Discomfort disturbance is related to the domain of human comfort and occurs when we make dogmatic commands that comfortable life conditions must exist. A discomfort disturbance belief likely to be found in dreamers is ‗I shouldn‘t have to work hard to fulfill my dreams. I

    can‘t stand having to get my mind around all those boring details.‘ Of course, clients can

    have both types of beliefs underpinning their procrastination. For example, with perfectionists, as well as fear of failure, some may have discomfort disturbance beliefs related to their need to reach their high standards effortlessly(e.g. ‗I shouldn‘t have to

    struggle!‘).

    3. Some Pitfalls in Tackling Procrastination The teacher may focus on the consequences of student‘s procrastination and explore his

    feelings about it, (e.g. ‗I feel really pissed off and guilty about missing the deadline for the

    paper. I‘m such a failure because I couldn‘t deliver on time‘), which unwittingly perpetuates

    the student‘s procrastination in teaching as spending time helping student ameliorate

    disturbed feelings through cognitive restructuring (i.e. belief change). While this is helpful and may be necessary as a first step if the student is very upset about his inaction, nevertheless the key issue remains uncovered: what held the student back from getting on with the task? This focus on outcome results in what Bishop (2000) calls thePost-BC‘s‘, i.e.

    the Beliefs and Consequences related to the continuing procrastination which is treated as an Activating Event. ‗In contrast, it is usually better to treat the [procrastination] as a C and to

    focus on the A‘s and B‘s that preceded the C, hence, the Pre-AB‘s‘(Bishop 2000, p. 137). In

    the above example, to discover what the client said to himself at the time in order to

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    procrastination finishing the English task on time. What can seem perplexing to the teacher is when student is asked how he would feel if he got on with the task and replies ‗Great‘, but no

    action is forthcoming. Why is the student depriving himself of this feeling by his continuing inaction? Anticipating feeling ‗great‘ is insufficiently motivating because the student still has

    To face starting the task which usually means a discomfort phase to contend with which currently acts as a deterrent to action (e.g. ‗There is so much information to sift through. I‘ll

    feel overwhelmed, get angry and frustrated and give up‘). So it is important for the teacher

    not to take feeling ‗great‘ at face value and thereby expect constructive action to

    occuremotional disturbance still blocks the way! Even if his student forces himself to complete this particular task and is relieved once it is finished, his disturbance-inducing thinking is likely to be unmodified (e.g. ‗I hated doing do it. I felt terrible. I shouldn‘t have to

    put myself through that again‘). As Grieger and Boyd (1980, p. 36) point out, focusing on

    practical problems before emotional problems tends to rob students of their motivation to solve their emotional problems, leaving them more comfortable yet still disturbed‘.

    4. One example of tackling Procrastination with REBT

    Dryden (2000a) specifies four key stages to overcome procrastination: (1) becoming aware of one‘s procrastination; (2) developing goal-directed behavior to carry out currently avoided

    tasks; (3) making a commitment to tolerate short-term hardship in order to achieve longer-term gains; (4) being persistent in maintaining an anti-procrastination outlook. I will use a student I‘ve coached? To illustrate his progress through these stages.

    4.1Awareness

    Lee , who wanted to enrolled on some courses to learn more about English and what further knowledge he needed to acquire. Having completed the task in school, he continually put off writing compositions sayingmaybe I need more reference, maybe I‘m running before

    I can walk‘. As Lee says in relation to generating awareness regarding one‘s present behavior:

    ‗How do you know when you need to stop doing one thing and start doing something else

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(1998, p. 68). One clue to answering this question was Lee‘s agitation about notgetting on

    with it‘(i.e. writing a composition) which his rationalizations and specious reasons for the

    procrastination could not ease. Imagery is a good technique tobypass defenses of

    rationalization and intellectualization‘ (Weisharr 1993, p.117) and therefore I asked Lee to

    imagine making an immediate start in writing a composition and how did he feel in doing so? He said he felt ‗strong anxiety‘ related to theconfidence issue‘. Driving the anxiety was his

    irrational belief: ‗I must be confident about my English writing abilities before I start because if I can't write something good in English, then I was a failure.‘ In REBT terms, a rigid

    demand (must) leading to an extreme conclusion (self-depreciation) if the must is not met which is likely to be the case as musts are infrequently met (Neenan and Dryden 2002b).Lee was able to see how his irrational beliefs maintained his procrastination: he was demanding to feel confident before taking on coaching clients instead of realizing that confidence develops over time through repeated English writing practice. In other words, he was putting the cart before the horse. However, awareness does not necessarily lead to action as Lee had already read a book on procrastination which he said was very insightful butsomehow the

    book didn‘t give me the kick-start I needed‘. Practicing writing would show him how to

    self-administer the ‗kick-start‘ and how to keep the process of change going.

    4.2Goals

    In order to develop an action plan for change, Lee needed to pinpoint a clear, specific, measurable goal that was within his control to achieve. Initially, he said his goal was ‗to

    become a coach‘ but this was a general directive for change and, if left in those terms, likely to encourage more procrastination by Lee as his gaze would be on the distant future rather than focused on what needs to done in the present to get his anti-procrastination plan underway. After discussion, the short-term concrete goal was to ‗write at least three

    compositions within the next week‘.

    4.3Commitment

    When a student states his goals for change, this does not automatically mean that he has committed himself to carrying out the hard work to achieve these goals. In English learning, some clients want a largely effort-free progress towards their goals. Grieger (1991, p. 60)

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states that effecting change is ‗a 24-hour-a-day,7-day-a-week thing‘. While this view may

    sound extreme, it can be used as a yardstick by students to measure their level of effort. If students want to make gains, then they need to embrace hardworking now in order to feel relatively pleasure later about continuing the work of change .Lee was taught to dispute (D), the next step after the ABCs of the problem have been established, and his irrational beliefs by examining their rigid and extreme nature and replacing them with rational beliefs to help reduce the frequency, intensity and duration of his anxiety and thereby manage better his uncertainty about the quality of his writing skills: ‗I would like to feel confident right now

    about my English writing abilities but I realize that my confidence and ability as a English learner will develop over time with practice . If that happens, what I won‘t do is call myself a

    failure; instead I will accept myself as a fallible English learner.‘ This rational alternative to

    his irrational belief was lengthy and elaborate as it needed to take a rounded view of his development as a learner in stark contrast to the all or nothing quality of his irrational beliefs. In time, Lee condensed his wordy rational belief to the terse: ‗Confidence comes with doing,

    so get on with it!‘ An orderly sequence of goal-directed action steps coupled to timely

    completion dates was agreed with Lee such as reading some model articles, preparing a brochure to making, focusing on teacher and coach's lessons. Lee said he would ‗try‘ to carry

    out these steps. When students say they‘ll ‗try‘, this suggests little effort or responsibility on

    their part to effect change and lacks the commitment that ‗doing‘ denotes. A way to teach students the difference between trying and doing is to ask them if at the end of the session they will try to leave the room or actually leave it. Trying will keep them in the room indefinitely while doing means they will have left it in seconds. Doing, coupled with a careful review of what has been done and what needs to be done next, is much more likely to bring results than trying which can become a vicious circle of constantly reviewing failed attempts at task completion. Lee made himself a doer by implementing his action plan and ‗trying‘ slipped out of his vocabulary after the first few sessions of coaching.

    4.4Persistence

    It can be easy for some students to think that an initial surge of productivity in tackling their procrastination heralds the end of their ‗I‘ll do it tomorrow‘ attitudes. They can easily

    run out of steam after several days of effort and then find themselves reaching for their familiar excuses for inaction. The power in people‘s ‗‗willpower‘‘ consists of their strong

    determination to change themselves plus persistent work and practice to carry out this

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