Unit 12 Book 4
文化背景，education; university life; teacher and student
语言知识，end up in; claim; concern; defer; grim; round off; pursue;
1. Difficult Sentences
1. (LL5-7, Para. 1)
He would wander around the laboratory pleased with the progress all the students were making in drawing the involved and, so I am told, interesting structure of flower cells, until he came to me.
What does “the involved” refer to?
; Here it refers to the picture of plant cells that is obtained from observation.
Paraphrase this sentence.
; He would move about in the laboratory, obviously delighted at the fact that all the students were making progress in drawing the complex and interesting (so they said) structure of flower cells. His delight used to end when he reached me.
2. (LL16-17, Para. 1)
You were supposed to see a vivid, restless clockwork of sharply defined plant cells. What does this sentence mean?
; Everybody was expected to see clear plant cells in smooth, regular, “mechanical” motion.
3. (LL18-19, Para. 1)
This, he claimed, was the result of my not having adjusted the microscope properly, so he would readjust it for me, or rather, for himself.
What does “for himself” imply?
; It implies that the author would never see the flower cells no matter how correctly the microscope was adjusted, so the professor was actually doing it for himself.
Paraphrase the sentence.
; He said that this was because I had not focused the microscope correctly, so he used to refocus it for me, or to put it more accurately, for himself.
4. (LL1-2 Para. 3; L1, Para. 4)
…with every adjustment of the microscope known to man.
What is this clause repeated? What effect does it have?
; It reflects the seriousness of the professor and also stresses the potential negative result of
5. (LL 4-5, Para. 3)
He cut off abruptly for he was beginning to quiver all over, like Lionel Barrymore. What does this sentence mean?
; He stopped suddenly because he was trembling all over like the film actor Lionel Barrymore (1878-1954), a well-known American actor.
6. (LL5-6, Para. 3)
… and he genuinely wished to hold onto his temper, his scenes with me had taken a great deal out of him.
Paraphrase this sentence.
; He really wanted to keep his temper. His confrontations with me had left him somewhat emotionally drained.
7. (LL 1-4, Para. 4)
With only one of them did I see anything but blackness or the familiar lacteal opacity, and
that time I saw, to my pleasure and amazement, a variegated constellation of flecks, specks,
Paraphrase the sentence.
; After one particular adjustment of the microscope, instead of seeing blackness or the indistinct milky substance which had become familiar to me, I was finally pleasantly surprised to see a group of tiny dots in different colours.
8. (L6-7, Para. 4)
What’s that?” he demanded, with a hint of a squeal in his voice.
What does this sentence mean?
; “What is that?” he asked; there was a suggestion of surprise, even panic, in his voice.
9. (LL6-7, Para. 5)
None gave him more hints, in answering questions, or asked him simpler ones than the economics professor, a thin, timid man named Bassum.
Paraphrase the sentence.
; The economics professor, who was a thin and shy man called Mr. Bassum, gave Bolenciecwcz the most hints when asking him questions and asked him the simplest ones.
8. (L18, Para. 5)
“Toot, toot, too-tooooooot!”
“Ding, dong, ding, dong,”
“Chuffa, chuffa, chuffa chuffa.”
What are these expressions? Why does the author use them?
; Onomatopoeic words. Onomatopoeia is the formation of a word by imitating the natural
sound associated with the object or action involved. Here the onomatopoeic words, all
connected with trains, are used to give hints to Bolenciecwcz to help him to find the
9. (LL21-23, Para. 5)
Somebody else gave a fine imitation of a locomotive letting off steam. Mr. Bassum himself
rounded off the little show. “Ding, dong, ding, dong,” he said, hopefully.
Paraphrase the sentence.
; Somebody else mimicked the sound of a railway engine when it releases steam, and Mr.
Bassum ended the whole “performance” by saying “Ding, dong, ding, dong”, expecting
Bolenciecwcz to give the correct answer.
2. Words and Expressions
1. (L4 Para. 1) “I can’t see anything,” I would say.
(L7 Para. 1) “It takes away from the beauty of flowers anyway,” I used to tell him.
Would and used to are both used to indicate a constant or frequent practice in the past. Would differs from used to in the following respects:
1. Used to can be used to express the existence of something in the past which no longer exists now, but would cannot.
*Many tall modern buildings stand in the place where there used to be slums.
*There used to be some peach trees and apple trees in the Longs’ garden, weren’t there?
2. Used to is frequently used to begin a series of occurrences, whereas would is usually not so used.
*They used to play hide-and-seek when they were living in that lane.
*They would gather round in front of the big building down the lane when dusk fell.
3. When used to expresses a discontinued habit, it cannot be replaced by would.
*When he lived in that small damp room, he used to suffer from rheumatism.
4. Would is generally used with a time phrase (such as “every day”, “each month”, etc.), but this is
less true of used to.
*The old woman would go to the park every day and shadow-box (or “do her taijiquan”).
*He didn’t use to smoke as much as he does now.
2. (L10-11 Para. 1) end up in: finally be or do something
*If you do that, you’ll end up with egg on your face. (=你要是做那件事！必将以耻辱告终。)
*Wasteful people usually end up in debt. (=挥霍浪费者最后往往负债。)
*You could end up running this company if you play your cards right. (=你要是处理得当,
3. (L11 Para. 1) claim: vt.
1. say that it is true or that it is a fact, though there is no proof
*He claimed that it was he who had found a solution to the problem.
*Wang claimed that he was from Jiangxi, though he spoke with a distinct Anhui accent.
2. demand as being one’s due or property
*Did you claim on the insurance after your car accident? (=出了车祸后！你向保险公司索赔
3. to get or take sb’s attention
*The matter claimed our serious attention. (=这件事需要我们认真注意。)
an assertion of a right or sth. that is true
*He set up a claim to the throne. (=他自称王位是属于他的。)
*The government would not even consider his claim for money. (=政府甚至不考虑他的赔款
4. (L12 Para. 1) concern: vt. have to do with or be relevant to
*These problems concern all of us.
be concerned with: be involved or interested; be about
*The Brown sisters don’t seem to be concerned with women’s liberation.
*His new book is concerned with romanticism in English literature.
be concerned about/for: be anxious/worried/upset about
*She was greatly concerned about her son who had not written home for months. *Dora’s colleagues were all concerned for her ill health.
n. something that interests you because it is important or affects you *How much money I earn is none of your concern.
5. (L16 Para. 1) maladjustment: n. the condition of being unable to adapt properly to your
environment with resulting emotional instability
*Many special educational programs receive pressure from various sources to serve students
who exhibit social maladjustment.
adjust: vt. change sth. slightly in order to make it suitable or more effective for a purpose
*Turn this knob to adjust the volume of the radio.
*The new desks can be adjusted to the height of any pupil.
*John has just moved to this neighbourhood, but he has already adjusted himself to the new
1. a small change made to sth. in order to correct or improve it
*I’ve made a few adjustments to the design.
2. a change in the way a person behaves or thinks ？思想、行为的，调整(适应
*She went through a period of emotional adjustment after her marriage broke up. (=婚姻破
More words prefixed with “mal-”:
malformation: state of being badly formed or shaped; a part of the body that is not formed
malfunction: (of a machine, etc.) to fail to work correctly malnutrition: a poor condition of health caused by a lack of food or a lack of the right type of
malpractice: careless, wrong or illegal behavior while in a professional job
6. (L1 Para.2) a deferred pass = a postponed pass
pass: the completion of a university course with an examination standard that is acceptable but
not good enough for honors
defer: vt. delay sth. until a later time
*She had applied for deferred admission to college. (=她已申请延期入学。)
*I shall defer replying till I hear from home. (=我将等接到家信以后再给你答复。)
defer to sb./sth.: submit or yield to another’s wish or opinion 遵从(听从(顺从
*We will defer to whatever the committee decides. (=我们遵从委员会作出的任何决定。)
deference: n. (written) behavior that shows that you respect sb./sth.
*The women wore veils in deference to the customs of the country. (=这些妇女戴着面纱是
*The flags were lowered out of deference to the bereaved family. (=降旗是出于对死者家
7. (L3 Para. 2) brown as a berry: very sun-tanned
as + adjective + as + (the/a) + noun
These idiom comparisons are not, however, as widely used in writing as before and are often
regarded as clichés. They would probably not be used in a “serious” utterance.
Fill in the following blanks:
as black as pitch/soot as busy as a bee
as blind as a bat as cheerful as a lark
as cool as a cucumber as poor as a church mouse
as deaf as a post as quick as lightning/a flash
as dry as dust as regular as clockwork
as fit as a fiddle as tough as leather
as obstinate as a mule as vain as a peacock
as light as a feather as white as a sheet
8. (L1 Para. 3) grimly: adv. in a rigid manner严肃地
*“It won’t be easy,” he said grimly.
1. looking or sounding very serious
* Her face wore a grim, set look. (=她脸上显出严厉、木然的神情。)
2. unpleasant and depressing
* We face the grim prospect of still higher unemployment. (=我们面临着失业率进一步上升
* His expression was grim when he told them they had lost their job. (=当他告诉他们说他们
3. (of a place or building) not attractive
*The house looked grim and dreary in the rain. (=这房子在雨中显得阴森凄凉。)
4. [not before noun] (Br. Informal) of very low quality
* I’ve seen her so-called paintings; they’re fairly grim, I can tell you! (=我看见过她那所谓
9. (L4 Para. 3) cut off: cease, stop; make a break in; remove by or as if by cutting
* We were cut off in the middle of our conversation.
* Just when she had reached the most important point we were cut off.
* He cut off the flowers at the stalk with a pair of scissors.
Cf. cut out
1. to make sth. by cutting裁剪
*She cut the dress out of some old material.
* Please cut out my overcoat according to this pattern.
2. delete or remove
* I cut out the paragraph in this article.
* I would cut out the bit about working as a waitress. (=我想删掉有关做女服务员的那
3. to block sth., especially light
* Thick overhanging branches cut out the sunlight. (=浓密的树枝垂下来遮住了阳光。)
4. If a motor or an engine cuts out, it suddenly stops working.
*A motor just cut out in front of the building as I was crossing the road.
10. (L5 Para. 3) hold onto
1. to keep sth. that is an advantage for you; not to give or sell sth. to sb. else
*She took an early lead in the race and held onto it for nine laps. (=她赛跑一开始便冲到
*John told Jack to hold onto his oil shares. (=约翰叫杰克不要卖掉石油股票。)
2. to stay in control of; not to lose
*I’ll hold onto your mail for you until you get back. (=你回来之前我将一直替你保管邮
* Mary was frightened at the sight of the hungry lion in search of his prey, but she
managed to hold onto herself and didn’t scream.
11. (L2 Para.4) opacity: n. the quality of lacking transparency不透明; figurative obscurity of meaning？喻，晦涩(难解
*Thinner paints need black added to increase opacity. (=薄的画需要加点黑色来减少透
*It’s difficult for many people to understand the opacity in some theoretical works.
1. not clear; not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy
* This is an opaque cup.
*This is a form of opaque or dark-colored diamond used for drills.
2. not clearly understood or expressed
* I felt his report was deliberately opaque. (=我觉得他的报告故意含糊其词。)
*The jargon in his talk was opaque to me. (=他谈话中使用的行话对我是一团迷雾。)
12. (L3 Para.4) constellation: n.
1. a group of related ideas, things or people
* They are constellation of Hollywood talents. (=他们是好莱坞的一群才俊。)
2. a group of stars that form a shape in the sky and has a name 星座
* My constellation is Great Bear. 我的星座是大熊星座。
13. (L6 Para.4) squeal: n. a loud, shrill cry or sound, often indicating terror or pain 尖叫(大声的、
*She made a squeal of delight. 她发出快乐的尖叫。
*He stopped with a squeal of brakes. 他嘎的一声把车刹住了。
1. to give forth a loud, shrill cry or sound
* The pigs were squealing.
* The car squealed to a halt. (=汽车嘎的一声停了下来。)
2. to speak in a very high voice, especially when you are excited or nervous
* He squealed the words out. (=他吼叫著说出那些话。)
3. to confess to a punishable or reprehensible deed, usually under pressure 告密
* He squealed on his friends. (=他把朋友给告了。)
*Someone must have squealed on him.
14. (L5 Para.5) lenient: adj. inclined not to be harsh or strict; merciful, generous, or indulgent不苛
* In your case, we are prepared to be lenient. (=根据你的情况！我们拟予从宽处理。)
* The laws are altogether too lenient with them. (=法律对他们太宽大了。)
* Imposing a lenient sentence for such a serious crime sets a dangerous precedent. (=对这样
15. (L12 Para.5) pursue: v.
1. go in search of or hunt for
*The police are pursuing an escaped prisoner.
2. carry out or participate in an activity; be involved in
*The government is pursuing a policy of non-intervention. (=政府正奉行不干预政策。)
*She wishes to pursue a medical career. (=她希望从事医学工作。)
3. follow or chase sb./sth., especially in order to catch them追逐(跟踪(追赶
*She left the theatre, hotly pursued by the press. (=她离开剧场！被记者穷追不舍。)
*Police pursued the car at high speed. (=警察高速追赶那辆汽车。)
16. (L22 Para.5) rounded off: end in a satisfactory way; finish off nicely; put the finishing touch to
1. bring to a highly developed, finished, or refined state
* He decided to round off his trip to Europe with a brief visit to Germany.
2. make round
* A year or two here will round off some of his rough corners. (=在那里呆上一两年会使
3. express as a round number
* Let’s round off these figures to the nearest hundred. (=我们把这些数字用近似的百位整
17. (L24 Para.5) furrow: v.
1. make a rut, groove, or trail in (the ground or the surface of sth)(
*John’s face was furrowed with tears. 约翰的脸上印满了道道泪痕。
2. mark or be marked with lines or wrinkles caused by frowning, anxiety, or concentration;
tighten one’s forehead
furrowed fields 犁过的田 furrowed brow 皱着的眉头
*A look of concern furrowed his brow. (=担忧的表情使他额头上出现皱纹。)
*His brows furrowed in concentration. (=他双眉紧锁！全神贯注。)
1. a long shallow trench in the ground (especially one made by a plow)
*Truck wheels had dug furrows in the track. (=卡车车轮在小路上留下了车辙。)
2. a deep line in the skin of the face
*Suddenly he looked tired and there were deep furrows in his brow. (=突然他显出倦容！额
18. (L1 Para.9) ’lowance = allowance: n.
1. an amount allowed or granted (as during a given period)
* They show great anxiety concerning their retirement allowance. (=他们对自己的养老
2. an amount of money that is given to sb. regularly or for a particular purpose 津贴！补
* The scholarship includes an allowance of 80 dollars for books. (=奖学金包括八十美元
* It’s time you jacked up my allowance. (=您该给我增加点儿零用钱了。)
3. make allowance(s) for sth.: to consider
* She failed one of the exam papers, but we ought to make allowance for the fact that she
was ill. (=她有一门不及格！但我们必须考虑到她当时生病了。)
1. Useful Expressions
1. 观察显微镜 see through a microscope 2. 大发雷霆 end up in a fury
3. 表示关注 be concerned with
4. 植物细胞 plant cells
5. 克制自己 hold onto his temper 6. 电力驱动 electrically-propelled 7. 放出蒸气 let off steam
8. 结束 round off