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China's rural land on the multiplier effect of the farmers and age differences in the distribution of empirical research_4543

By James Ross,2014-10-30 12:43
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China's rural land on the multiplier effect of the farmers and age differences in the distribution of empirical research_4543

    China's rural land on the multiplier effect of the farmers and age differences in the distribution of empirical research

     Summary land to farmers have multiple effects, the effectiveness of the mean between the sort of age have a certain consistency; the effectiveness of the distribution is different, the utility in respect of age, some significant differences, some difference was not significant. Articles in Gansu, Hubei, Jiangsu and Shanghai, a statistical data analysis and the results verify these conclusions.

     Abstract title Land Economy

     Key Words Rural Land / Multi-Utility / Distribution / consistency / age

     Text

     1, of the problem

     What does it mean the land to farmers? It is about scholars and policy-makers

    concerned with the important issues. Deputy Director of the State Council

    Development Research Center, and Chen Xiwen, has repeatedly said that the land is the basic livelihood of the farmers the most reliable protection; ? are also being

    considered by some scholars that the land to farmers with basic living guarantee the

    effectiveness of (BAO Hai-jun et al, 2002; FAN Xiao-Gang, 2003; Yorimori in the ,

    2003; Li Yu-Fang, 2001; Liang, 2000; QIAN Zhong-good, 2003; Yuanchun Ying et al,

    2002; ZHANG Qi-chun, 1999; Zhu Mingfen, 2003; XU Qin, 2003); we study and

    propose land to farmers have multiple effects, and to study the of land for farmers to calculate the effectiveness of multiple methods (Liu Hongmei, etc., 2000; Wang Keqiang, etc., 2003), also studied the basic living from the land to protect the transition

    to the social insurance conditions and difficulties (Ke-Qiang Wang, 2005).

     In this paper, multiple effects of land to farmers and the mean relative size of the consistency between the age sorting, analysis of the effectiveness of the distribution, and

    test the effectiveness of the existence of age differences.

     2, Gansu, Hubei, Jiangsu and Shanghai, the basic situation of the investigation

     (A) the overall sample of

     In this survey, the country is divided into three parts: the eastern, central, west, on

    behalf of their provinces (municipalities), respectively in Shanghai and Jiangsu, Hubei, Gansu, and its effective samples were 46,146,436,900, the total effective sample of 1528.

     (B) the age and distribution of values of variables

     Respondents concentrated in the 25-year-old to 55 years, with an average age of 41

    years. In order to study the issue of convenience, we grouped respondents by age, less than 30 years of age for the first group, greater than or equal to 30 years of age and less

    than 45 years of age for the second group, more than 45 years of age for the third group, The corresponding values of the three groups, respectively 1,2,3. The distribution is shown in Table 1.

     Table 1 four provinces investigate the distribution of the sample by age group

     Grouping Variable Frequency Effective Frequency Frequency Cumulative frequency

     1 202 13.2 13.2 13.2

     2715 46.8 46.8 60.0

     3611 40.0 40.0 100.0

     Total 1528 100.0 100.0

     Note: The following will be Gansu, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shanghai, referred to as "four provinces and municipalities."

     Third, the effectiveness of the land to farmers and the average age of the consistency of analysis

     (A) Land for farmers total sort of multiple utility

     Farmers in four provinces of the overall statistical analysis, the total utility of land for farmers is 1, in which the effectiveness of protection of life (FA), employment opportunities for utility (FB), the direct economic utility (FC), the children inherit the

    effectiveness of (FD), can receive compensation for land acquisition utility (FE), so as not to pay large sums of money to regain the effectiveness of (FF), average values are 0.3751,0.1383,0.2269,0.0992,0.1067,0.0538. It can be seen on the Gansu, Hubei, Jiangsu,

    Shanghai in terms of the overall investigation, the most effective use of land for farmers is the effectiveness of protection of life, and the second is the effectiveness of direct economic benefits, the third is to provide employment opportunities for the utility and

    the fourth is land acquisition can be compensated after the effectiveness of the children inherit the effectiveness of the fifth, sixth is to avoid re-access to large sums of money

    when you dig utility.

     (B) land for farmers multi-utility analysis of the consistency of the mean age

     As the age of farmers across the country there are many commonalities, the land of the farmers of all ages the effectiveness of a certain common law, the utility averages

    are basically the same sort. We land right of all ages to sort the main effect.

     : (1) The three age groups of farmers, land of the effectiveness of social protection of farmers are the largest, and more than 36%, six utility, the ranks first. (2) The three

    age groups of farmers, land of the farmers the effectiveness of direct economic benefits in excess of 20%, the effectiveness of the six are ranked in second place. (3) The three age groups of farmers, land to provide employment opportunities for farmers in the

    effectiveness of 12% ~ 15%, the effectiveness of the six are ranked in third place. (4), three age groups of farmers, the land can be compensated after the effectiveness of 9% ~ 13% in the six utility, placing in the fourth or fifth place. (5) of three age groups of

    farmers, the children inherit the effectiveness of both 9% ~ 12%, in addition to the variable for the two groups of families came in fifth place, the other is ranked in fourth place. (6), three age groups of farmers, to avoid re-acquire large sums of money when

    you dig the effectiveness of both the smallest, at between 5% ~ 7%.

     Fourth, the usefulness of the land to farmers, on average, distribution and age difference of

     (A) Land effectiveness of social security for farmers and age differences in the

    distribution of

     Of land for farmers social security utility is a .3751 average. Of land to farmers greater proportion of the effectiveness of social protection, more likely through the establishment of community-based social security in lieu of the land of social security for farmers, the more likely to make it to abandon the land transfer to non-agricultural

    industries. If you land on the effectiveness of the social security of farmers is less than 20% of the farmers turned to non-agricultural industries, and would enable the 7.20%

    of the farmers off their land; if the land to the farmers the effectiveness of social protection less than 30% of the farmers turned to non-agricultural industries, and

    would enable the 49.28% of the farmers off their land, which will greatly enhance our country's level of industrialization and urbanization levels, Table 2.

     Table 2 of the four provinces and cities in the land to farmers to protect the effectiveness of the distribution of basic living

     Utility value of cumulative frequency frequency frequency

     ? 0.1 9 0.59 0.59

     0.1 ~ 0.2 101 6.61 7.20

     0.2 ~ 0.3 643 42.08 49.28

     0.3 ~ 0.4 370 24.21 73.49

     0.4 ~ 0.5 55 3.60 77.09

     0.5 ~ 0.6 253 16.56 93.65

     0.6 ~ 1.0 97 6.35 100.00

     Total 1528 100.00

     Land of the effectiveness of protection of the basic livelihood of the farmers there exists an obvious age difference. We have "Land of the effectiveness of protection of the basic livelihood of the peasants" in the age of non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and

    median test, found no significant difference in age, as shown in Table 3.

     Table 3 of land to farmers the basic livelihood guarantee the effectiveness of the age difference between the test

     Chi-square degrees of freedom was significant

     Kruskal-Wallis test 2.171 2 0.338

     The median test 1.210 2 0.546

     (B) the land to provide employment opportunities to farmers the effectiveness of the distribution and age differences in the situation

     Of land to provide employment opportunities to farmers is the mean utility of 0.1383. The utility came in third place, than the social security effectiveness and usefulness of direct economic benefits significantly lower (see Table 4). The usefulness

    of the land to farmers, provide employment opportunities for the utility is not the major, the main reasons are: (1) Agricultural income is too low, the major income of farmers come in non-agricultural sector, and therefore seen in the employment

    contract on the ground not be very heavy, are mainly the elderly, women engage in regular agricultural production, the young labor force is engaged in seasonal agricultural work. (2) The contracting of land too small to meet the employment of

    labor, surplus rural labor force, mainly in non-agricultural sector employment.

     Table 4 four provinces of land to provide employment opportunities for farmers the

effectiveness of the distribution of

     Utility value of cumulative frequency frequency frequency

     ? 0.1 625 40.90 40.90

     0.1 ~ 0.2 364 23.82 64.73

     0.2 ~ 0.3 394 25.79 90.51

     0.3 ~ 0.4 115 7.53 98.04

     0.4 ~ 0.5 29 1.90 99.93

     "0.5 1 0.07 100.00

     Total 1,528,100,100

     Of land to provide employment opportunities to farmers there exists an obvious age

    difference effect. We are on the "effectiveness of the land to provide employment to farmers" in the age of non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and found that at 0.05 level,

    the age difference was not significant; for median test and found no significant

    difference in age, such as the Table 5 below. Therefore, we can consider the land to provide employment opportunities to farmers the effectiveness of the age difference is not significant.

     Table 5 of land to provide employment opportunities to farmers the effectiveness of

    the age difference between the test

     Chi-square degrees of freedom was significant

     Kruskal-Wallis test 5.960 2 0.051

     The median test 3.761 2 0.153 reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

     (C) land the effectiveness of direct economic benefits to farmers and age differences in the distribution of

     The direct economic benefits to farmers of land mean utility is 0.2269, came in second place, but higher than social (life) to protect the value was lower (see Table 6). The main reason is the relatively low efficiency of China's agriculture is generally the

main income of the farmers from non-agricultural industries.

     Table 6 four provinces the land of direct economic benefit to farmers the

    effectiveness of the distribution of

     Utility value of cumulative frequency frequency frequency

     ? 0.1 332 21.73 21.73

     0.1 ~ 0.2 209 13.68 35.41

     0.2 ~ 0.3 581 38.02 73.43

     0.3 ~ 0.4 221 14.46 87.89

     0.4 ~ 0.5 139 9.10 96.99

     "0.5 46 3.01 100.00

     Total 1,528,100,100

     The direct economic benefits to farmers of land the effectiveness of the existence of

    age differences? We are direct economic benefits to farmers of land utility of age, non-

    parametric Kruskal-Wallis test found significant differences in age; if there median test and found that there are significant differences, as shown in table 7. Therefore, we can effect that the significant difference in age.

     Table 7 the direct economic benefits to farmers of land the effectiveness of the age

    difference between the test

     Chi-square degrees of freedom was significant

     Kruskal-Wallis test 8.184 2 0.017

     Median Test 10.450 2 0.005

     (D) Land on the effectiveness of children of the farmer can be inherited and age differences in the distribution of

     Children can inherit the land for farmers is the mean utility of 0.0992; but the distribution of opinion, there are two peaks, one is located near the utility value of 0,

    the other is 0.1 ~ 0.2 hours (see Table 8). For the former, the following reasons: (1) Some non-agricultural industries have been dominated by farmers on business interest

    in agricultural land, water down, they do not want their children work in agriculture, and therefore lighter than our children's inheritance rights; (2 ) land a small scale, for those who have a relatively stable non-agricultural income and non-agricultural

    employment, farmers, the value of the asset can be ignored. Of course, there are five main reasons why the farmers of this effect as less important: (1) China's collective land ownership in the collective, for micro-farmers in terms of only a contract right

    and the right to use the number of years and this permission by government regulations, and now extended for three decades, and we survey the majority of farmers in the lifetime can enjoy the end of this authority, the children can not be

    inherited; (2) At present, most areas continue to implement "by an increasing population, the reduction of people by land" approach, the practice of succession to the exemplary role of small farmers; (3) At present, the "Rural Land Contract Law" has

    pointed out the land contracted by farmers can be inherited, but the specific provisions on how the succession did not make the practice of inheritance difficult to operate, farmers inherited lack of awareness, of course; (4) Farmers founding of new China

    when the socialist transformation of ownership of land has a more in-depth

    understanding of the land that the state intervention is normal, they inherited the land is not high expectations ; (5) of the current law is the promotion of land use right

    inheritance, land ownership of the de facto successor to the lack of publicity, and no clear legal provisions, resulting in some farmers on the land, inheritance is not enough to understand.

     Table 8 provinces and cities in the land of the four children of the farmer can be

    inherited the effectiveness of the distribution of

     Utility value of cumulative frequency frequency frequency

     ? 0.1 834 54.58 54.58

     0.1 ~ 0.2 428 28.01 82.59

     0.2 ~ 0.3 197 12.89 95.48

     0.3 ~ 0.4 52 3.40 98.89

     0.4 ~ 0.5 13 0.85 99.74

     "0.5 4 0.26 100.00

     Total 1,528,100,100

     Their children can inherit the land for farmers the usefulness of the existence of age

    differences? The utility of our age, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests found no

    significant difference in age; for median test and found that there are significant differences, as shown in table 9. Therefore, we can not think that the children can

inherit the effectiveness of the farmers about the age difference was not significant.

     Table 9 children can inherit the land of the farmers the effectiveness of the age difference between the test

     Chi-square degrees of freedom was significant

     Kruskal-Wallis test 3.602 3 0.165

     The median test 6.257 3 0.044

     (5) land for farmers whose land is requisitioned after the utility can be compensated and age differences in the distribution of

     To farmers whose land is requisitioned land can be compensated after the effectiveness of the mean is 0.1132. However, the peak in the distribution of the utility value of less than or equal 0.1 (see table 10) is used. In remote areas, away from the city's residents in rural areas, where land has been expropriated is unlikely, even if the acquisition, the value of compensation is also little or little chance of compensation, so they do not value this utility. Construction land from the city and the places where the

    more recent, the greater the effect.

     Table 10 provinces and cities in four of the farmers whose land is requisitioned land can be compensated after the distribution of the effectiveness of

     Utility value of cumulative frequency frequency frequency

     ? 0.1 804 52.62 52.62

     0.1 ~ 0.2 457 29.91 82.53

     0.2 ~ 0.3 177 11.58 94.11

     0.3 ~ 0.4 29 1.90 96.01

     0.4 ~ 0.5 60 3.93 99.93

     "0.5 1 0.07 100.00

     Total of 1.5281 million

     To farmers whose land is requisitioned land can be compensated after the

    effectiveness of the existence of age differences? The utility of our age, non-parametric

    Kruskal-Wallis test found significant differences in age; for median test and found that there are significant differences, as shown in table 11. Therefore, we can effect that the

    significant difference in age.

     Table 11 can be compensated by land after the age difference between the effectiveness of inspection

     Chi-square degrees of freedom was significant

     Kruskal-Wallis test 11.969 2 0.003

     The median test 6.496 2 0.039

     (Vi) land to farmers so as not to re-access to large sums of money when you dig the

    effectiveness of the distribution and age differences in the situation

     Of land to farmers so as not to re-access to large sums of money when you dig the

    effectiveness of the mean is 0.0538. However, the effectiveness of distribution to see peaks at the value of less than or equal 0.1 (see Table 12). The areas in remote, they want to get right to contract land few cases, we believe that the importance of this effect is not; Nongzhuan Fei as the urban population to return to the original case of a collective increase in rural areas of this utility level of acceptance than in remote regions.

     Table 12 four provinces and municipalities so as to avoid the land for farmers to re-

    obtain large sums of money when you dig the effectiveness of the distribution of

     Utility value of cumulative frequency frequency frequency

     ? 0.1 1212 79.32 79.32

     0.1 ~ 0.2 238 15.58 94.90

     0.2 ~ 0.3 54 3.53 98.43

     0.3 ~ 0.4 10 0.65 99.08

     0.4 ~ 0.5 12 0.79 99.87

     "0.5 2 0.13 100.00

     Total of 1.5281 million

     Re-acquisition of land to farmers so as to avoid large amounts of money when you

    dig the effectiveness of the existence of age differences? The utility of our age, non-

    parametric Kruskal-Wallis test found significant differences in age; for median test and found that there are significant differences, as shown in Table 13. Therefore, we can

    consider the land to farmers so as not to re-obtain large sums of money when you dig

    the effectiveness of age differences exist.

     Table 13 re-acquisition of land for farmers so as not to dig large sum of money when the age difference between the effectiveness of inspection

     Chi-square degrees of freedom was significant

     Kruskal-Wallis test 8.423 2 0.025

     The median test 8.464 2 0.015

     V. Recommendations

     From the above conclusions can be drawn from the following inspiration:

     1. Must be a comprehensive understanding of "Land is the lifeblood of farmers." Simply can not be one-sided land understood as the main source of income of the farmers, or to provide employment opportunities for farmers. Both for the young or

    the old farmers farmers, should be the case, I could not get on any pretext against the interests of farmers. Some places, such as in the land acquisition process, for young farmers, does not protect the interests of minors, it is wrong; some places in the land

    acquisition process, the effectiveness of older farmers are only partial compensation for the expense of other effective compensation, was also wrong.

     2. Because of all the effectiveness of the land to farmers in respect of age, some

    significant differences, some difference was not significant. In the development of the land policy process, there are differences on the effectiveness of different ages according to the situation, formulate effective policies more effectively to promote rural

    economic development. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://

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