China's main education and research for 30 years Retrospect and Prospect
[Abstract] of the main subjects for children to carry forward the spirit of education and training of children of the main capabilities, shaping the education of children of
the main character, whose ultimate aim is to promote children's development and emancipation. Since the 20th century, 80 years since the study subjects experienced a探索与争鸣education, research deepening of reflection and summary three stages. With the development of the theory of the main education and improvement of the main education is gradually being community-wide understanding, acceptance and
recognition of the impact of their educational practice is also growing. However, there is still much in today's main education research space, which mainly are: To broaden the understanding of the core concepts of the main education; to strengthen the dialogue with other disciplines: theory and practice-oriented interaction;
transformation of education and research ways of thinking.
[Key words] reform and opening up; pedagogy; educational practices; the main education
1, the main idea of the formation and development of education
Along with China's reform and opening up the ideological liberation movement, the
main issue became the focus of a multidisciplinary problem. In the education sector, on the subject of sex education was first started in the 20th century, early 80s. "It's the rise of education, both inside and outside with the reality of the causes and theoretical basis. Particularly since the reform and opening up, the essence of education, the education, education and human relations discussions and the resulting constant renewal of educational concepts, but also a certain extent, the theoretical study of education as the main body made the ideological groundwork. "journey from research point of view, the main sex education was first started with Professor Gu Mingyuan in 1981 in the" Jiangsu Education "No. 10" published in the students is not only the object, but also education, the main "article. In this article, he proposed a rise to lively discussion academic education in a long time proposition that "students are the educational subject." Since then, the educational theories of education practitioners to start the
main discussion of the issue and eventually formed the theory and practice of education
have broad and deep impact of the main body of education theory. Subject of sex education in the past 30 years, the development of roughly three stages.
Subject of sex education探索与争鸣stage in time is mainly 20th century, 80 years, to
discuss the core of the main body of the student status. In recognition of differences, the academic community to a "Teacher of the main theory", "student body" theory "among the main object of theory," "double the main theory" and so on several different, and the scene of bitter clashes point of view.
Discussion of this period is extensive and in-depth, and to some extent, changed the
way people's views on the teacher-student relationship. But the discussion is focused on the handling of teacher-student relationship, and mainly in the field of teaching theory, epistemology areas carried out. Because teaching is not just the process of cognition,
but also to promote the practice of student development process. Therefore, the confined areas of study of teaching epistemology obvious limitations. To break this situation, the 20th century, some 80 academics began late in the education level of the
basic theory of thinking "students are the subject of education," started from an educational perspective the main body of the main body of the students problem. This may typically include the two Guowen An Wang Chun and Professor of "education for
students to truly become the main" proposition. In "Let the students to truly become the subject of education," this article, they are not only the connotation of the student body were analyzed, but also on the student's performance and implementation of a
systematic exposition of the conditions. Since then, the educational theory on the subject of sex education research community towards a new level.
(B) to study the deepening phase of
The 20th century, 90 years, the main education and research into the enhancement phase. Compared with the previous period, this period of the main education and research has shown an "upright" posture. Specifically, during this period apart from the main body of education beyond the large-scale experiments, in theory, research also
has the following features.
1. A clear guiding ideology of
For the main advocate of sex education, many people are skeptical, fearing people would mistake the wrong path of bourgeois liberalization. Some people even believe
that the discussion of human subjectivity is the bourgeois liberalization ideological roots or specific performance, we must adhere to socialism, we must deny her own right. In order to eliminate doubt, to clarify understanding, Wang Chun and Professor
Guo Wenan pointed out: submission and construct the main educational theory, not an attempt to reject the original pedagogical theory, but try to study from a perspective of educational theory, deepen reform, hoping to explore the out of one of our country's
education more scientific, more practicality, more Chinese socialist characteristics of the path of God. Therefore, the main education research must adhere to Marxism as our guide. ~ Shashi in Hubei Province in 1997 (now the Shashi District, Jingzhou City),
at the "the country's second session of the main educational seminars," the guiding ideology of sex education on the subject also made clear that: "Marxism in practice, will be the basis of subject and object , unified mind and matter, subject and object the
establishment of a scientific theory, to refute the mechanical materialism and idealism of the main objects of the theory. We have studied the main educational theory must be based on the theoretical basis of Marxist philosophy, but not to the idealism, where to look for According to. "In a clear guiding ideology of Marxism, the main idea of sex education researchers to obtain the liberation of the main sex education has been further prosperity and development.
2. Research vision gradually broadened
This is a concrete manifestation of the students from the main body of advocates to explore the nature of education in her own right. Why the subject of research and education? Wang Chun and Professor Guo Wenan said: "Education is the subject of
education, essential features of education reflects the nature of the special features and power, education, micro-and macro-education runs at a core and power. Only reveal
the education, subject to this characteristic, in order to constantly improve education, to enhance the educational nature of power. "After that, they are subjective and from the perspective of students conducted in-depth argument. In fact, the educational
practices, including training and promotion of individual development of students in
the process of micro-educational activities as well as built on the basis of macro-
education management, which were two levels of activities are the main activities are the main issues. Therefore, education on the subject of the educational process,
including education and management of the subject and the subject of two aspects. Beijing Normal University, Professor Wang Cesan in the "main educational theory is a kind of educational philosophy" and based on the "education of the main
philosophical" concept, and he elaborated: "The main philosophy of education is that education is the main advocate of education philosophy. from both the macro and micro levels, in a double sense of world view and epistemology. can be said that
education is the main body. Education is the objective reality of a thing, a social practice. In education and the political, economic, cultural, scientific technology composed of the whole social structure, it has the dominant position of its relatively
independent. at school or any educational institution, the educator is the main body, the educated are also the main, they are also an interactive educational activities undertaken by an independent educational activities, their own movement. education
primarily as a spiritual activity, as a 'reflector', on the political economy, a reflection of social existence, but also take the initiative, and can only be a reflection of the main activities. "Thus, With the expansion of research horizon to study the rich content and
ideas to improve positioning, the main theory of maturing education.
3. Research Perspective diversify
Education theory, the rise of the main philosophical circles from the domestic debates on the humanitarian and human subjectivity issues. With the deepening of the study, the main theoretical basis of sex education philosophy from the past extended to people, psychology, sociology, anthropology, Culture and chemistry disciplines. Academics began to explore the perspectives of different disciplines were the main
subject and sex education. Such as: Professor Wang Kunqing from the main body of the relationship between humanity and manpower, the spiritual dimension of human development proposed is a fundamental objective of the development of subjectivity,
combined with the human self-emancipation of the study and analysis of real education,
discussed the main idea of the theory of educationWorth. Professor Xiao Chuan of "human nature is good" as the default value of subjective moral view that in moral
education, human nature is good only for the value of default, we may be the result of education held by the bright optimism and expectations in order to establish people's confidence, confidence in education. Professor Shi Zhongying from a cultural studies
perspective to the subject the nature and purpose of sex education for analysis. Professor Wang Qikang of the main education from a psychological point of view to explore, in his view of the main education research is one of the main shortcomings of
psychological analysis is not enough focused, coherent and consistent. To give a definite subjectivity Definition of appropriate, in giving instructions, it should be appropriate to their psychological characteristics linked.
(C) Reflection and Summary Stage
Into the 21st century, the main education and research into the phase of reflection and summary. With the previous stage of "lively" "complex," compared to the main education and research at this stage appears relatively "deserted." Some scholars thus
believe that the individual subjectivity is moving toward dusk, the main sex education is outdated.
In our view, the characteristics of this stage show does not explain the main education is outdated, it embodies the main education and research into the phase of reflection and summary. As the Di-Na Pei professor put it: "the main sex education as
an open, development, and dynamic generation of educational theory, must be constant reflection, summary, criticism, in general and to enhance the implementation of self-
transcendence, thereby maintaining its vitality. "Objectively speaking, the main sex education is in continuous self-criticism and reflection to grow to maturity. The 20th
century, 90 years of education for review and summary of the main articles had appeared, but this period is not a lot of critical research. Into the 21st century, the right to challenge the main education, reflection and summary of articles a sudden increase in exploration and more comprehensive and systematic. Apart from individual
researchers to reflect on and summary of the main education, the academic theory of education is also on the main development issues organized a large-scale discussion. In
2002, the main educational theory and experimental study of the Sixth Annual
Conference held in Wuhan, the meeting is an important question, which is positioned on the subject of sex education, the main idea and mode of operation of sex education, "15" period of the main theoretical framework of sex education and so on. In 2004, Di-
Na Pei, headed by Professor, "the main education and modernization of basic education in China theoretical and experimental study" Task Force held in Harbin Normal University, "the first national seminar of the main educational theory", the
participants in the 10 years the main Reflections on educational research, based on the principal education, a number of important theoretical issues in-depth discussion, and
education in the new situation, the main development issues under the multi-
dimensional exploration. In 2005, the "National of the main educational theory second session of the Symposium theme," held at the University in Henan province. Education on the subject of development, the Conference concluded: "Subjectivity and the main
sex education is not towards the evening, but relying on 13 years of education on the basis of experiments began a more in-depth research; subject of education in our
country as well as a future period of time, is still a topic of renewing. "
2, the main results achieved in education
After 30 years of exploration, research and experimentation, the main sex education is gradually being community-wide understanding, acceptance and recognition of the
effectiveness of the performance of their access to the following aspects.
(A) the right to change the child's correct understanding of educational theory and practice "arrogant" situation
The fundamental problem of education is a human problem is people's self-
understanding, what kind of person would have the image of what kind of educational theory, and hence what kind of educational practice. Therefore, to explore the root of the real educational issues have to go back to the person's self-awareness among the
same token, would like to have a real education is inseparable from the fundamental solution of the image of human reflection, criticism and reform. As the object of school education for children, so education depending on people's awareness of the problem
domain is the concept of children's issues. What is the child? This is a worldwide problem plagued people for centuries. In the past, some people may be accustomed to children as processing and transformation of an arbitrary object, and education is that
children need to build a national talent. Since ignoring the children in educational activities and self-development in the dominant position of children's learning has become mechanical indoctrination, blind duck's passive acceptance, education and the
awakening and liberation from human degenerated into a depression and constraints on people. In response to this situation of neglect the education of children, the main education clearly pointed out: the main body of students in education, autonomy,
initiative and creativity of its fundamental characteristics. Correct understanding of children's respect for children, the Free the Children premise. "The rise of the main educational theory, so that people come to understand the dynamic of the social body to
train with an independent personality and subjectivity of the modern man, we must fundamentally change the traditional passivity of the educational philosophy and model of dynamic educational concepts and models, the most important is to adhere to the
status and role of the main body of students, care for and carry forward the initiative of students. "We can say that the liberation of the main sex education for children has opened up a new path. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
(B) of the main education a series of new concepts. The formation of a new series of propositions and enriched the educational theory, enhance the taste of the pedagogy of disciplines
Education is a study of educational phenomenon, reveal the issues of education and
adventure education law subjects. Facing life as a subject, in the innovation-based
nation-building, education is the role played by other disciplines can not be replaced, and its development prospects as well-known philosopher, Mr. Li Zehou put it:
"Education - Research persons the overall growth and development, forming and
shaping of science, could become the center of the future society of the most important subjects. "However, the reality of education has been questioned, some scholars out of
dissatisfaction with their own pedagogy, the pedagogy known as the "Lost Pedagogy," unfortunately believe that education has come to the "end" the edge. Repeated criticism of China's education is an important reason is that transplantation of foreign
theories, copying other disciplines, from the educational practices and other issues. To address these issues researchers need to change the concept of education, strive to education of pedagogical issues, education issues Chinese.
Sex education is a kind of liberation of the main child-Zhi, and very original with
Chinese characteristics, sex education theory. Addresses the reality of the shortcomings of educational theory and practice, the main sex education a series of targeted concepts
and propositions. This series of new concepts and propositions are the result of ideological emancipation, and these new concepts and propositions further liberation of the emergence of the idea of educational researchers, a strong impetus to China's
original theory of the development of pedagogy for the construction with Chinese characteristics , Chinese style and Chinese style of play a significant role in promoting education.
(C) Education of the main presentation of the relative independence of education to
find a solid theoretical basis for real education reform, pointing out the direction for the deepening of
In the past, a lot of the failure of educational reform is not correctly understand and grasp the education law, specifically, the relative independence of educational neglect. As Professor Guo Wenan put it: "Traditional education to community-based,
depending on the political, economic and fundamental to society; regard education as a political and economic dependency and tools, and its role in pointing people; As for the people, although people are not talking the negative product of the environment and education, he can change the objective world, but the specific discussion, especially in dealing with the three relations which always insisted on: social determinants of education, educational decisions, and this seems to have become a golden rule. Of course, this contributes to reform of the education needs of the community and create new, socialist construction. But this one-dimensional mechanical determinism, will
inevitably lead to dependency-based education, tools, systematization and
simplification and narrowing, thus distorting the education of this True characteristics and the overall function, suppression of education relative independence and
autonomy, has seriously affected the role of education and quality of people is bound to bring up a tool, enslavement, physical and chemical. become a conservative, do not think of innovation and change Yong people. "In order to reverse this situation, the
main education theory" education Subjectivity is the essence of education characteristics "of this proposition. Education subjectivity proposed to explore the nature of in-depth education also changed the way people on the "human education for
the community," the relations between knowledge, this relative independence of education to find a more solid theoretical foundation for practical education the deepening of the reform indicate the way forward.
(D) of the main experimental exploration and promotion of education in promoting change in educational practice, while also changed the traditional paradigm of educational research
Since the 20th century, since the 90s, the main theory of education from the
academic research began to infiltrate the practice of school education, and from the initial focus of the main features of a particular developed into an overall comprehensive study of subjectivity. After 20 years of tireless efforts and hard to
explore, the main education continuously from the abstract to concrete, from theory to practice. Of the main experiment in advancing education reform towards in-depth
development of China while also gradually changed the position of education for
academic researchers and research orientation. Some scholars have been dedicated to this generalization: First, Marxism on the meaning of human development, new understanding, enhance their consciousness of promoting quality education; second, to promote education, the concept of change in time for the current existence of Chinese education disadvantages, conversion research topic, and to find a foothold of China's educational reform; and third, to the main body of educational theory as a basis for transformation of educational theory and the cornerstone of China's modern education reform and building a theoretical system has played an important breakthrough, especially the development of modern teaching theory has played a substantive role in advancing; Fourth, to explore with Chinese characteristics, education, experimental research, promoting China's scientific and educational research methodology has important implications.
Third, on the deepening of the main education and research Thoughts
With the development of society, the times change, the main education research should advance with the times, from the current perspective, the main education research there is still much room for. To make it jump towards the direction of
development, education researchers should pay attention to the following aspects.
(A) broaden the understanding of core concepts of the main education
Subjectivity is the main subject and the core concepts of sex education, but education that arise from the day, it is this understanding is more chaotic. "At present, the academic philosophical circles in particular, some people think that the reference to the subject and the subjectivity out of date, mainly in the promotion of the class body to
deny the individual subject, to promote inter-subjectivity to deny her own right. This
trend in the education sector also produced a greater impact. "To overcome this confusion, the main sex education is an important task is to further clarify the content
of the subject and subjectivity. Subject is singular or plural? An isolated entity, list of
individuals, or at a certain social relations of rights and duties of the actors? Subjectivity is positive or neutral? Subjectivity and intersubjective relations What is it?
by the dynamic nature of whether it is the main body of performance? how to deal with the main body of the initiative and by the dynamic nature of the relationship? how to make the subject of independence, for my sexual and social, dependent coordinated?
these modern situation in the education issues will be the main focus of attention among researchers the future.
(B) to strengthen the dialogue with other disciplines
Education is a face of life's disciplines, is a very humanistic spirit of the subjects.
The face of the uncertainty of development of human society, education must be open to other disciplines, and dialogue with other disciplines. As a contemporary pedagogical theory, the main sex education in philosophy, psychology, sociology, cultural studies,
anthropology and other disciplines under the influence of development and growth, but the subject of sex education can not be mature and improve over-reliance on other
disciplines, educational researchers need to build their own theoretical system, so as to
have a dialogue with other disciplines of knowledge platform. In addition, educational researchers concerned about the development of the relevant disciplines, we must continually improve their own theoretical grounding and related disciplines in order to
start a real dialogue and exchange of equality. Only in true dialogue, the subject of sex education it may be able to expand space for development.
(C) a focus on theory and practice of interaction
Promoting children's education is the main body of the main spirit of the main children's ability to develop and shape the children of the main character as a mark of educational theory, with the ultimate aim is to promote children's development and
emancipation. To achieve this purpose, the main sex education in addition to closely linked to the pulse of the times, pay close attention to the development of related disciplines, we should also be two-way interaction of theory and practice. Because the
theory is rational analysis of practice and sublimation, practice is an extension of the theory and development of the society contribute to the development of the final form. To achieve effective interaction theory and practice, and even "cross feeding", we must
methodological breakthroughs in research and innovation. In the study to do so, "it is necessary to pay attention to theoretical study also emphasizes empirical research and field surveys, the method combined with induction and deduction, where studies and
concluded the same time, using an object-oriented methods, engineering methods, to
ensure that the level of research and effectiveness. "
(D) education and research into ways of thinking
The theory put forward the main education is mainly aimed at solving the
traditional education "arrogant" of shortcomings. Dualistic way of thinking but deeply rooted in the question whether the Who became the main core of the discussion. Into the 21st century, by the impact of intersubjective philosophy, education, education of
the main theoretical circles gradually get rid of the problem of either-or situation, but
coexistence and mutual survival into the new world - from the teachers and students of
the subject turned to teachers and students how to A total of as the main body, that is,
intersubjective harmony and cooperation. This thesis reflects the shift from subject-
object model of teacher-student relationship to the main main mode steering. In fact, people are not lifeless, "materialized object", nor is it list-style individual, but at a
certain network of relationships in the unity of rights and obligations of the main body of social practice. Therefore, educators in the study, when the main sex education must
change ways of thinking from dualistic thinking entity into focus the relationship between cooperation and exchanges of ideas. In the relational paradigms, the main sex education can get rid of "the main body of the evening," the impact, which has - a more
broad horizon. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://