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SARM Aircrew Trainingdoc - AETC ISD

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SARM Aircrew Trainingdoc - AETC ISD

    AIRCREW

    SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND RESOURCE

    MANAGEMENT (SARM) TRAINING

    BENEFITS OF SARM TRAINING

     SARM learning objectives for the key SA Judgments and RM Decisions

    associated with each maneuver and procedure in a training curriculum.

     SARM learning objectives for deficiencies in SA Judgments and RM

    Decisions that resulted in aircraft accidents or incidents.

     SARM Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) for each maneuver and

    procedure in a training curriculum.

     SARM Flight Simulator Scenarios for each existing Flight Simulator

    Mission.

     SARM Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) Flight Simulator Missions

    based on aircraft accidents and incidents.

    Dwight C. Hageman, Ed.D.

    Knowledge, Skills, and SARM Attitudes

    Knowledge and Skills are required for the effective and efficient performance of aircraft maneuvers and procedures and for the effective and efficient operation of aircraft equipment.

    Ability to cognitively generate internalized data that are required to perform aircraft Knowledge

    maneuvers or procedures and to operate aircraft equipment.

    Ability to physically perform the motor skills that are required to perform aircraft Skills

    maneuvers or procedures and to operate aircraft equipment.

    Proactive Situational Awareness and Resource Management (SARM) Attitudes are essential for the safe performance of aircraft maneuvers and procedures and for the safe operation of aircraft equipment.

    Attitude towards making proactive SA Judgments and RM Decisions in response to SARM

    unsafe conditions that occur during performance of maneuvers or procedures and Attitude

    during operation of aircraft equipment.

     1Situational Awareness (SA) Judgments

    PERCEPTION of key cues associated with the performance of a maneuver or

    procedure or the operation of equipment. Judging what key cues to perceive.

    INTERPRETATION of cues as indicators of an unsafe condition. Judging what cues

    are indicators of an unsafe condition.

    PROBABLE CAUSE of each unsafe condition. Judging the probable cause of each

    unsafe condition.

     1Resource Management (RM) Decisions

    PRIORITIZE strategic corrective actions and generate the results expected in

    response to each unsafe condition. Deciding what strategic corrective actions to

    perform and the results expected upon completion of the corrective actions.

    APPLICATION of tactical corrective action steps in response to each unsafe

    condition. Deciding what sequential tactical corrective action steps to perform.

    RESULTS EXPECTED after application of strategic and tactical corrective actions.

    Validating the results expected after application of corrective actions.

    Note: If the results are not as expected, make RM decisions for NEW prioritized

    strategic corrective actions, NEW tactical corrective action steps, and NEW

    results expected.

     1. PIPPAR Analysis 1998, Dwight C. Hageman, Ed.D.

     2

    KNOWLEDGE 1 MEMORIZATION COMPONENT OF TASK PERFORMANCE

LEVELS OF LEARNING KNOWLEDGE LEARNING BEHAVIORS

    Facts and Concepts associated with a Procedure or Procedural Fact Learning

    Segment.

    Rules for Performance of a Procedure or Procedural Segment. Rule Learning

    Steps for Normal Performance of a Procedure or Procedural Procedure Learning

    Segment.

    Key Equipment and Operational Environment Conditions to Discrimination

    observe prior to and during performance of a Procedure or Procedural Learning

    Segment.

    Troubleshooting Procedures associated with the performance of a Problem Solving

    Procedure or Procedural Segment.

    Individual ability to identify statements, and to describe from memory the knowledge that is associated with the performance of a job task. Knowledge must be retained in long-term memory (cognitively internalized) prior to performance of a job task (Skill). Knowledge Learning Objectives can be trained using Interactive Courseware (IMI) media. The degree of individual cognitive internalization of required knowledge can be evaluated by:

Criterion-Referenced Computer-Based Knowledge Recognition Tests (multiple choice or

    matching tests) with time and error performance standards that measure individual ability to

    recognize representations of the knowledge that is required to perform maneuvers and

    procedures.

Criterion-Referenced Declarative Knowledge Performance Tests (written, short answer, or

    oral tests) with key word and phrase performance standards that measure individual ability to

    describe or state the actual knowledge that is required to perform maneuvers and procedures.

     1. MIL-HDBK 29612 (2a). Instructional Systems Development/Systems Approach to

    Training

     3

    SKILLS 1 PHYSICAL COMPONENT OF TASK PERFORMANCE

    LEVELS OF LEARNING SKILL LEARNING BEHAVIORS

    Perceive Sensory Stimuli. Perception (Encoding)

    Perform a complex physical Skill requiring manual dexterity. Gross Motor Skill

Readiness Be Ready to take a particular action.

    Perform a complex physical skill requiring compensatory Continuous Movement

    movements based on feedback.

    Perform a complex physical skill with confidence and Mechanism

    proficiency.

    Perform a complex physical skill to accommodate a new Adaptation

    situation.

    Perform a new complex physical Skill to accommodate a new Origination

    situation.

    Individual ability to physically perform the actions that are required for performance of a job task. Skill Learning Objectives can be trained using Training Devices or Operational Equipment that has

    the capability to employ real-time simulated operational scenarios for demonstration, practice, and

    evaluation of Skill performance.

    Criterion-Referenced Skill Performance Tests with time and error performance standards can be administered in Training Devices and Operational Equipment media for evaluation of Skill

    performance. Skill Performance Tests measure individual ability to apply physical skills in the

    operational environment.

1. MIL-HDBK 29612 (2a). Instructional Systems Development/Systems Approach to Training

     4

    ATTITUDES

    1 JUDGMENT AND DECISION-MAKING COMPONENT OF TASK PERFORMANCE

LEVELS OF TYPE SARM LEARNING BEHAVIORS

    LEARNING

    Situational Receiving PERCEIVE key cues associated with the performance of a

     Awareness maneuver or procedure or the operation of equipment.

    Judgment

     Situational Responding INTERPRET cues as indicators of an unsafe condition.

     Awareness

    Judgment

     Situational Valuing PROBABLE CAUSE of each unsafe condition.

     Awareness

    Judgment

    Resource Competence PRIORITIZE Strategic Corrective Actions and generate the

    Management Results Expected in response to each unsafe condition.

    Decisions APPLY Tactical Corrective Action Steps.

    RESULTS EXPECTED validation after application of strategic and

    tactical corrective actions.

    Resource Innovation IF NEW UNSAFE CONDITION CUES ARE OBSERVED:

    Management PRIORITIZE NEW Strategic Corrective Actions and generate the

    Decisions Results Expected in response to each unsafe condition.

    APPLY NEW Tactical Corrective Action Steps.

    RESULTS EXPECTED validation after application of strategic and

    tactical corrective actions.

Training for making appropriate Situational Awareness Judgments and Resource Management

    Decisions in response to unsafe conditions can be provided using Category 3 or Category 4 IMI

    incorporating computer-generated emulations or simulations of operational scenarios. Criterion-

    Referenced Declarative Knowledge Performance Tests (oral tests) with key word and phrase performance standards can be used to empirically measure individual cognitive SA Judgment and RM Decision-Making abilities.

Training for making appropriate Situational Awareness Judgments and Resource Management

    Decisions, and for physically applying Corrective Actions in response to real-time unsafe conditions

    can be provided by simulator training devices incorporating high-fidelity simulations of the

    operational job environment. Criterion-Referenced Skill Performance Tests using time and error

    performance standards can be used to measure individual physical SA Judgment and RM Decision-Making abilities.

    1. MIL-HDBK 29612 (2a). Instructional Systems Development/Systems Approach to Training

     5

    Criticality of Situational Awareness Judgments

    and Resource Management Decisions

    Situational Awareness Judgments and Resource Management Decisions are the most critical cognitive human factors for the safe performance of aircraft maneuvers and procedures. This criticality was

    highlighted in a study summarized by the Flight Safety Foundation in February, 1997.

    The Flight Safety Foundation study reported that over 80% of the 786 commercial jet transport approach and landing accidents from 1958-1995 were a result of human error due to deficiencies in Situational Awareness Judgments and Resource Management Decisions.

Summaries of NAWCTSD Aviation Team Training Research, May 22, 1997, reported that an analysis

    of 216 Naval Aviation mishaps that were attributed to human error revealed that

     "Inadequate Situational Awareness was the causal factor in 70% of the entire sample,

    and in 88.2% of the helicopter mishaps."

     "Inadequate Resource Management was the causal factor in 56% of the entire

    sample."

    A Human Error Approach to Accident Investigation: The Taxonomy of Unsafe Condition Operations (Shappell, S.A., and Wiegmann, D.A., 1997), determined that a hierarchy of human performance factors led to U.S. Navy and Marine Corps aircraft accidents and incidents. As depicted in the graphic on the following page:

     Unsafe Conditions that occurred during performance of maneuvers and procedures require:

     Proactive Situational Awareness Judgments (Perception of key cues,

    Interpretation of cues as indicators of unsafe conditions, and judgment of the

    Probable Cause of the unsafe condition cues)

     Proactive Resource Management Decisions (Prioritizing strategic corrective

    actions, applying corrective action steps, and validating the Results Expected after

    application of the corrective actions).

     Deficiencies in proactive Situational Awareness Judgments and Resource Management

    Decisions in response to the Unsafe Conditions resulted in Unsafe Acts (deficiencies in

    application of corrective actions).

     Unsafe Acts resulted in aircraft accidents and incidents.

     6

     UNSAFE

     CONDITIONS

     PROACTIVE PROACTIVE

     RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS DECISIONS JUDGMENTS

     Unsafe Condition Unsafe Condition Apply Prioritize Key Cue Cue Interpretation Probable Cause Corrective Actions Corrective Actions Perception + Results Expected > Strategic Corrective > Physiological, Equipment, > Probable cause of > Tactical Steps > Physiological, Equipment, Actions and Aural, and Position or Flight Unsafe Conditions > Results Expected Aural, and Position or Flight Results Expected Path Unsafe Condition Cues Path Key Cues RM DEFICIENCIES SA DEFICIENCIES

     UNSAFE ACTS

     DEFICIENCIES IN

     APPLICATION OF

     CORRECTIVE ACTIONS

    Mistakes Violations

     Unintentional deficiencies Willful deficiencies in application of Corrective Actions in application of Corrective Actions > Corrective Action Step Errors > Corrective Action Step violations > Results Expected errors > Results Expected violations > New Corrective Action errors > New Corrective Action violations

    AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS

     7

    Current Cockpit/Crew

    Resource Management (CRM) Training Programs

    Federal Aviation Administration Part 121 and DoD Training Programs

    This section provides a brief overview of four current CRM training programs:

     Federal Aviation Administration Crew Resource Management Training Program, as

    described in FAR Part 121, and Advisory Circular 120-51.

     United States Air Force Cockpit/Crew Resource Management Program, as described in

    AFPD 36-22, Military Training, 20 June 1994.

     U. S. Navy Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) program.

     Federal Aviation Administration Advanced Qualification Program (AQP), as described in

    SFAR 58 and FAR Part 121, and Advisory Circular 120-51, Crew Resource Management

    Training.

    Federal Aviation Administration Part 121 Program

    Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular No. 120-51B, 9/8/95, and FAR Part 121, Subpart N require that the following topics be included in CRM curricula, but do not provide guidance on the criteria for CRM performance, or for integrating CRM training with technical flying skills:

    1. Communications Processes and Decision Behavior

     Briefings

     Inquiry/Advocacy/Assertion

     Crew Self-Critique (Decisions and Actions)

     Conflict Resolution

     Communications and Decision-Making

    2. Team Building and Maintenance.

     Leadership/Followership/Concern for Task

     Interpersonal Relationships/Group Climate

    3. Workload Management and Situational Awareness.

     Preparation/Planning/Vigilance

     Workload Distribution/Distraction/Avoidance

    4. Individual Factors/Stress Reduction

    The FAA recommends Operator In-House Courses, Training Center Courses, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line-Orientated Flight Training (LOFT), and CBT media for CRM training.

     8

    USAF Cockpit/Crew Resource Management Program

    The United States Air Force Cockpit/Crew Resource Management Program (AFPD 36-22, Military Training, 20 June 1994), specifies the following CRM concepts be included in CRM curricula:

    1. Situational Awareness * Error Source Identification and * Definition Error Prevention

    * Factors Affecting the Individual Input Errors

    * Cognitive Aspects Decision Errors

    Attention Management Output Errors

    Perception

    Memory 2. Team Performance Factors

    Prediction Flight or Crew Composition Probability Estimation Experience and Proficiency Prioritization Personality Traits Information Processing Effects of Individual Decision- Response to Warnings Making and Risk-Taking * Technological Aspects Effects of Command Authority Controls Stress Impacts Displays Cognitive Errors Associated With Alerting and Warning Systems Decision and Risk Management * Enhancing SA * Loss of SA 3. Individual Performance Factors Impact Attention Resources Recognition Task Saturation and Task Associated Errors Prioritization * Performance Assessment Models Channeled Attention Mission Distraction Environment Inattention Aircraft Considerations Situation

    Aircrew factors

     9

    U.S. Navy Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT)

ACT programs provide instruction in the seven team process behaviors that research has shown are

    related to effective performance in the cockpit:

Aircrew Coordination Skills:

    * Decision-Making

    * Assertiveness

    * Mission Analysis

    * Communication

    * Leadership

    * Adaptability/Flexibility

    * Situational Awareness

    Loss of Situational Awareness

    Causes/Symptoms of Loss of Maintaining Situational Regaining Situational

    Situational Awareness Awareness Awareness

     Fixation or Preoccupation Experience and Training Verbalize Loss of Situational

    Awareness Ambiguity Hone Flying Skills

     Deal With Unanticipated Complacency Spatial Orientation

    Problems Euphoria Personal Health

     Return to Conscious Gut Feeling/Confusion Attitude

    Monitoring Distraction Crew Coordination

     Overload and Underload

     Poor Communication

     No One Flying the Aircraft or

    Looking Outside

     Failure to Meet Targets

     Improper Procedures

     10

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