Attention to science and technology, society and environment: An Analysis of Canadian science curriculum model
【Summary】 Canada in science, technology and social studies curriculum(STS)Based on the proposed new scientific-Technology-Social-Environmental Curriculum
Model(STSECourse)Emphasized that science education in schools should focus on science and technology, socialand the relationship between environmental issues. This paper describes the Canadian macro-policy background STSE curriculum
development based on the analysis of the STSE curriculum focused on the objectives, significance, content and its implementation.
【Abstract】 foreign education questions
【English Abstract On the basis of Science-Technology-Society (STS) curricula,
Canada has put forward an approach to achieving scientific literacy known as Science-
Technology-Society-Environment (STSE). It emphasizes the interrelationship between
science, technology, society and environment. This article introduces the policy background of the development of STSE approach and concentrates on its goals, dimensions, contents and processes.
Canada Key words / STSE curriculum / Science Education
Canada / STSE approach / Science education
After World War II, science and technology revolution to increase awareness of the status and role of science education, while also increasing interest in science and technology, the impact on society. The Government of Canada believes that science
education in schools should focus on science and technology, social and environmental problems the relationship between the original science, technology and society curriculum model (STS), based on the proposed a new curriculum model, that Science -
Technology - Social - Environmental curriculum model (Science-Technology-Society-
Environment Approach, STSE, below, using the initials). This is the "Canadian school science education, new outline" (Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes) of the base, becoming the provincial science education outline the guiding principles, the country has been vigorously promoting.
1, STSE curriculum development policy context
Has been Canada will be very concerned about science education. As early as 1966,
the Canadian federal government set up a Scientific Committee (Science Council of Canada), is mainly responsible for the federal government and the public to provide scientific and technical advice and information. In 1984, the Commission issued a
report "for every student of science: In order to foster a Canadian citizen tomorrow's world" (Science for Every Student: Educating Canadians for Tomorrow 's World) is Canada's school science education reform milestones. Report highlights the students to understand scientific concepts and master skills, the importance of scientific exploration that school science education is to cultivate students involved in the technical community's political and social activities, in-depth study of science and
technology capabilities, develop their intellectual and moral, so that they become rational independent entity, in order to modernize ready. 
Canadian Education Committee of Ministers (Council of Ministers of Education) in 1997 introduced a "K-12 science learning goals of public Outline" (Common
Framework of Science Learning Outcomes, K to 12, K refers to kindergarten). This is Canada's first national science education framework to a certain extent, limited the provinces in the autonomy of science education to require a unified provincial science
curriculum, to cooperate in order to make maximum use of the national high-quality
learning resources. At the same time, the document also marks the new model of science curriculum STSE was established.
2, Canada STSE curriculum ideas and objectives of
1, STSE course the basic idea
Canada's education sector generally agreed that the students in a particular situation to get first-hand experience and knowledge to properly apply what they have learned to live with their learning outcomes will be best. Science education curriculum implementation is the real teaching situation, because it determines the planned curriculum and are consistent between the actual curriculum. Canadian scholar Glickman (Carl Glickman) has pointed out that "effective teaching is not an ordinary teaching methods. On the contrary, it is based on the actual conditions of teachers to make decisions about teaching. Teaching the teachers will not be in every well - a lesson
in both use the same teaching methods ... ... And they will continue to reflect on their teaching duties to observe the extent of their mastery of knowledge, and then adjust the teaching method. "  All of the teaching methods should reflect the nature of science
and for children to learn scientific methods, to create a teaching situation for students, give them the opportunity to explore and solve problems and make decisions, the ultimate understanding of science and technology, social and linkages between the
environment. "Science learning objectives outline the public," pointed out, STSE curriculum development of knowledge include the following: 
* To understand the complexity - from simple understanding of the specific concepts
to understand the abstract concepts;
* Construction of knowledge - from the local understanding of the science to deeper
and broader understanding of science and the world;
* The use of scenarios - from the individual situations in which the local situation to social situation, the global situation;
* Variables and perspectives to consider - from the perspective of one or two simple
to more complex multiple perspectives;
* Critical judgments - from simple to complex evaluations to determine right and
* Make a decision - based on limited knowledge and from the instructor decided to go to based on extensive research, without the guidance and independent decisions.
2, STSE objective of the course
STSE curriculum is school science education in Canada specific, so it reflects the
goal of science education goals. "Science learning objectives of public Outline" scientific literacy is defined as "an evolving, and science-related attitudes, skills and
knowledge integration. Students need to train them to explore the ability to problem-
solving ability and decision-making capacity, become a life-long learners, and used to
maintain a curiosity about the world around them feel. based on the Outline of the rich learning experiences will provide students with a number of exploration, analysis,
evaluation, synthesis and appreciate the opportunity to understand the science, technology, society and will affect their personal life, career and future environment interactions. "
"Outline" provides for STSE curriculum at all grade targets. To the end of grade 3, students should be able to survey the environment in which things and events, and community; display and elaborated with materials and tools to solve scientific and practical problems; explanation of science and technology on life and the surrounding biological effects; to take action to care for environment, in order to contribute to collective decision-making. To the end of Grade 6, students should be able to explain the use of science and technology investigations world in new ways, to understand their history and role, clearly they are in real life use and describe their lives and environment of positive and negative effects. To the end of Grade 9, students should be able to describe the nature of science and technology in people's understanding and solve problems by using different methods to explain the linkages between the two, express their personal, social and environmental needs of science and technology in action and reaction, analysis the use of science and technology-related social issues and
sustainable development from different perspectives explain the pros and cons of the conditions. To the end of 12th grade, students should be able to describe and explain the different disciplines and interdisciplinary approach to distinguish between science and technology objectives, results and standards of different, analysis of individuals, society and the environment in the social and technical aspects of inter-linkages, and
the social problems assessed. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://
3, STSE curriculum model of the implementation of the
1, STSE curriculum practice strategy
In the "Program" under the influence of Albert, Canada, including Ontario and in
several provinces, including science education in their respective schools, curriculum reform and developing a new curriculum, the STSE courses in science education. Canada's Atlantic provinces (Atlantic Canada) identified the type of school STSE
curriculum is divided into the following five integration method: 
Mode 1: The STSE content to stimulate students learning motivation (Motivation by STSE Content). Integration in this way, STSE content of the introduction of science courses designed to increase the fun, so that abstract scientific concepts, principles and social reality or the occurrence of specific things the students around linking to inspire students to study science courses motivation and enthusiasm, they are not as academic
Mode 2: STSE content into the temporary introduction of the scientific content (Casual Infusion of STSE Content). This approach is characterized by integration, not to the introduction of science topics closely related to the social nature of (scientific
internal or external), but the necessary teaching aids available basis, in order to enable students to learn and understand the scientific use of , in the traditional science curriculum content themes to add into the temporary short-term (from 30 minutes to
two hours) of the STSE learning content. Academic evaluation of the main elements involved in pure science, while the content of STSE in a subsidiary role, for example, usually only examine a number of memory tasks.
Mode 3: STSE content of the introduction of the scientific content of the destination among the (Purposeful Infusion of STSE Content). This integration approach is characterized by short-term (from 30 minutes to two hours) of the STSE learning
content has been introduced to the traditional science curriculum into themes designed to enable students to conduct systematic exploration and learning. The STSE was formed as an integration with nature themes. Academic evaluation, to a certain extent, to examine student perceptions of these STSE content understanding. STSE content and the relative weight of the scientific content can be STSE content accounted for 10%, 90% of the scientific content. Clearly, the above three kinds of integration in the traditional way of teaching science curriculum is also frequently used.
4 way: Through STSE content of an integration of scientific disciplines (Singular Discipline through STSE Content). The content and sequence of science to a large extent is based STSE content selection and organization, that is, STSE content into a
unified whole subject of scientific disciplines, its range of pure science subject and a third type displayed similar. This approach is characterized by integration, curriculum policy provides, firstly, a science curriculum will include the STSE content; Then,
according to the students to address these STSE issues necessary for a knowledge base to select the appropriate scientific content, but the content selection, mainly in conducted in a scientific discipline. Thus there will be a STSE biological, STSE
chemical and STSE physical science courses such as STSE. Academic evaluation, the students will examine the content of the deep understanding of STSE, but in the breadth of the subject clearly does not meet the content requirements. The relative
weight between the two can be STSE content of 20%, 80% science content.
Mode 5: Through STSE content integration of various science disciplines (Science through STS Content). The way in which the point lies in the same way, STSE content
as the organizers of the scientific content and sequence play a role, and the student to
address these STSE issues necessary for a knowledge base to select the appropriate scientific content. But the way the contents of the fourth option, mainly in a scientific
discipline in the conduct, while the fifth mode of the contents of the choice is a multi-
disciplinary (multi-disciplinary). It looks like a series of pure science is the theme from a variety of traditional science courses in the selected major themes, but some scientific
and technological content of traditional science courses not available, but with the daily affairs or topics have a very closely linked. Academic evaluation, the same students STSE examine the contents of the deep understanding, but still fall short of the breadth of the pure science content requirements. The relative weight between the two can be STSE content of 30%, 70% science content.
2, STSE curriculum specific implementation
STSE curriculum implementation in two ways: one is that teachers raise STSE-
related topics by the students in the specific context of the new situation to make analysis, synthesis and evaluation, a final settlement issues. This process is separate to the original of their scientific, technical, social and environment linkages, can help students more clearly and firmly understand the scientific content and concepts. The other is a way of learning-based, social issues as the basis for restructuring science curriculum in order to build the curriculum and other disciplines links. Courses selected social issues indirectly related to technical aspects, to determine the students need to understand the concept. In this method, to build the core knowledge and understanding of science is that students study and solve social issues meaningful context. "Science learning objectives outline the public," advocated the teaching of the order is: scientific research (scientific inquiry), problem-solving (problem solving) and
decisions (decision making).
Specifically, in STSE course a science unit, students thought a social issue or an event in daily life. For example, coffee, why would quickly cool. Such topics or events so that students had a right understanding of scientific knowledge needs. Proceeding from
the above problem, the students learned through the heat conduction, convection and radiation, etc. for delivery. The availability of appropriate scientific knowledge, students come back to the topic or event to re-think, start to understand the relevant
technologies: how to design a vessel to maintain the coffee temperature. This prompted students to think, to explore technical issues. Through research, students found that polystyrene foam insulation enables prolonged liquid. Then, the students are faced with
STSE issues: life, people should make use of polystyrene foam cups made of glass or porcelain. This issue involves the individual's health, the environment, cost and availability of scientific and technical information and other issues. When students in
resolving issues or events have a deeper understanding of scientific knowledge to master the relevant technology, and various decision-making conscious choices implied
in the value of the social-led and will make thoughtful decisions.
Can be seen, in accordance with the above-mentioned manner of STSE course to
ensure that the scientific content of the students in accordance with the way the individual meaning of integration together, rather than by category, mutual isolation.
Fourth, STSE curriculum controversy and reflection on
Modern society, the extensive use of technology began to affect teaching in schools and courses. The most obvious is the school's science education curriculum infiltrated a lot about the technical knowledge, as early as 60 years in the 20th century appeared in Science, technology and society (STS) courses. And that environmental education is
seen as another specialized area of study, is a branch of science education, thus expanding the technology-centered curriculum ideas. Science and environmental
education have been linked to the reason why is because people think of science and technology for environmental protection and improvement to provide the most effective means. Then STS education has increased environmental education and the
expansion of STSE curriculum. STSE science education courses as a new paradigm has been replicated in Canada, the provinces, and has been included in many other countries, science education syllabus into.
However, some scholars believe that STSE Canada may not be able to achieve the goal of science education. They pointed out that, STSE aim of the course is to make science education more specific scientific and technological progress resulting from the
social and environmental problems, stress from the social - the historical perspective on
the history of science and its development, it does help students to understand science to everyday life the positive effects. However, the scientific and technical knowledge
exists in a certain historical context, and subjective in nature. Scholars say that if science education is just blindly emphasis on subjective meaning, it will ignore the scientific knowledge generated intangible social, cultural or political conditions.
Contemporary science education is in a certain ideological background formed the background of knowledge production, packaging and transfer play a key role. "Science learning objectives outline the public," advocated by STSE curricula focus on scientific
facts and knowledge related to the content of a political nature. Therefore, students may have social problems (particularly environmental issues) produces incomplete, even distorted understanding. On the contrary, if the STSE course to increase social
criticism, comment content, then teach to students the relevant scientific knowledge, we can train students in critical thinking, which in the traditional environmental education is very common.  For example, Canada, British - Columbia (British Columbia) in
environmental science teaching a variety of angles. In 1995, the province enacted the "classroom concept of environment" (Environmental Concepts in the Classroom) pointed out that environmental education is included scientific, economic, moral and
political complexity, including such factors as the cause of environmental education that will enable students to have the opportunity to understanding of the role of nature, the formation of environmental values, and ultimately make informed responsible
decisions. In order to bring environmental education theory and practice of integrated science education programs in the province put forward six principles - direct
experience, responsible action, a complex system, the results of operations, aesthetic
abilities and environmental ethics. In the British - Columbia, environmental education
in two ways to explain the complex system: The first analysis of the complexity of the natural world and its internal links; 2 study is also man-made systems, including
human-built environment and the part of the social structure. In this way, students can understand the human decisions and actions on the environment caused by the result of the environmental awareness of students on the environment contribute to the development of aesthetic capacity and eventually establish the concept of environmental ethics students. This concept of the teaching outline for the environment provides a richer model. By contrast, "Canada's National Science Education
Program," as described in the STSE curriculum can contain no such a wealth of environmental concept.
 Science Council of Canada. Science For Every Student: Educating Canadians for Tomorrow 's World. Ottawa: Science Council of Canada, 1984: 8
 C. Glickman. Pretending not to Know What We Know. Educational Leadership,
1991. Vol. 48 (8): 4-10.
 Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes, K to 12. Toronto, Ontario: Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, 1997: 12.
 Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes, K to 12. Toronto, Ontario: Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, 1997: 4.
 Departments of Education of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. Foundation for the Atlan tic Canada Science Curriculum. Documentation of Departments, 1997: 30.
 Ali Sammel