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Prolif Bad Index

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Prolif Bad Index

MGW 10 PROLIFERATION BAD SUPPLEMENT

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    Prolif Bad Index

Prolif Bad Index ................................................................................................................................................ 1

    Prolif BadEMP Attack .................................................................................................................................. 2 Prolif BadAccidents ...................................................................................................................................... 3 Prolif BadAccidents/Terror .......................................................................................................................... 4 Prolif BadCBW ............................................................................................................................................. 5 Heg Good Impact .............................................................................................................................................. 6 Prolif BadEscalates Conventional War ....................................................................................................... 7 Prolif BadPreventive War ............................................................................................................................. 8 Prolif BadTerrorism/Impact Calc............................................................................................................... 10 Prolif BadExtinction ................................................................................................................................... 12 Prolif BadSnowballs/Extinction ................................................................................................................. 13 Prolif BadEnvironment ............................................................................................................................... 14 Iran Prolif BadIsrael/US Attack ................................................................................................................. 17 Iran Prolif BadIsrael Attack........................................................................................................................ 18

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    Prolif BadEMP Attack

Prolif guarantees EMP attack which kills heg

    Spencer, Policy Analyst for Defense and National Security in the Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies at The Heritage Foundation, 2000 (“America’s Vulnerability to a

    different Nuclear Threat: An Electromagnetic Pulse,” LN, SP)

    In the post -Cold War years, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction makes the threat more difficult to assess. More important, the traditional deterrent of retaliation does not apply. No rogue nation has the capacity to fight a general nuclear war with the United States; therefore, it is not likely that an EMP blast would be used as a precursor to full-scale war. And since an EMP blast is not likely to kill anyone directly or to be followed by a nuclear strike that would annihilate U.S. cites, the United States is less likely to retaliate and destroy an entire nation of innocent people as punishment for the decisions of a rogue leader. The motivation for a rogue state to use its limited nuclear arsenal in an EMP strike against the United States is simple: It maximizes the impact of its few warheads while minimizing the risk of retaliation. This decrease

    in risk for rogue leaders could compel them to use EMP to offset overwhelming U.S. conventional power on the battlefield. An EMP blast would debilitate U.S. forces in a hot spot where they might be deployed and throughout a region of strategic interest, such as Northeast Asia or the Middle East. Because the United States has no policy on deterrence for a rogue state's use of high-altitude EMP, and because EMP attacks are less risky for those states, such attacks are far more likely to occur in this era of nuclear proliferation than

    they were at any time during the Cold War.

Nuclear War

    KHALILZAD, RAND Analyst, 1995 (Zalmay, The Washington Quarterly , SP)

Under the third option, the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a

    global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. On balance, this is the best long-term guiding principle and vision. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself, but because a world in which the United States exercises leadership would have tremendous advantages. First, the global environment

    would be more open and more receptive to American values -- democracy, free markets, and the rule of law. Second, such a world would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems, such as nuclear proliferation, threats of regional hegemony by renegade states, and low-level conflicts.

    Finally, U.S. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival, enabling the United

    States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers, including a global

    nuclear exchange. U.S. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system.

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    Prolif BadAccidents

Prolif makes accidental war probable

    Sagan, Co-director of CISAC and Co- director of Stanford's Center for International Security and Cooperation, 1995 (Scott, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons, A debate, SP)

    Such optimistic views of the effects of nuclear proliferation have not escaped criticism, of course, and a number of scholars have argues that nuclear deterrence may not be stable in specific regional settings. What is missing in the debate so far, however, is an alternative theory of the consequences of nuclear proliferation; an alternative that is a broader conception of the effects of nuclear weapons proliferation on the likelihood of war. In this chapter I present such an alternative, rooted in organization theory, which leads to a far more pessimistic assessment of the future prospects for peace. there are two central arguments. First, I argue that professional military organizations--because of common biases, inflexible routines. and parochial interests--display organizational behaviors that are likely to lead to deterrence failures and deliberate or accidental war.

    Unlike the widespread psychological critique of rational deterrence theory-which maintains that some political leaders may lack the intelligence or emotional stability to make deterrence work--this organizational

    critique argues that military organizations, unless professionally managed through a checks and balances system of strong civilian control, are unlikely to fulfill the operational requirements for stable nuclear deterrence.

Extinction

    PR NEWSWIRE 1998 (“NEJM Study Warns of Increasing Risk of Accidental Nuclear Attack”, 4-29-

    98, SP)

An 'accidental' nuclear attack would create a public health disaster of an unprecedented scale, according to

    more than 70 articles and speeches on the subject, cited by the authors and written by leading nuclear war experts, public health officials, international peace organizations, and legislators. Furthermore, retired

    General Lee Butler, Commander from 1991-1994 of all U.S. Strategic Forces under former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Colin Powell, has warned that from his experience in many "war games" it is

    plausible that such an attack could provoke a nuclear counterattack that could trigger full-scale nuclear war with billions of casualties worldwide.

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     Prolif BadAccidents/Terror

Proliferation causes accidents and nuclear terrorism- ensuring escalation

    Beckman et Al, Hobart and William Colleges, 2000 st Century, (Peter, Hobart and William Colleges, The Nuclear Predicament: Nuclear Weapons in the 21

    SP)

    The United States has obviously emerged as the only superpower after the Cold War. However, there are a number of countries-Pakistan, India, Israel, Argentina, and Brazil, to name a few-that are now capable of equipping themselves with nuclear armaments and of constnlcting or purchasing sophisticated long-range missiles. When we add the so-called "rogue" nations like Iran, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Sudan, North Korea, and Afghanistan, for instance, some of whom have actively pursued nuclear capability, we have a growing list of nations that could pose a real threat to the security of their neighbors, not to mention the interests of the major powers. What is more, it may be premature to envision a new era of permanent cooperation and peace between the United States and Russia. The political, ethnic, and economic volatility of that region is still troubling. It remains to be seen if Russia's challenge to the West is truly over, or for that matter the challenges raised by Marxism or some other brand of authoritarianism. German reunification is a fact and it is unlikely that Russia will regain its influence over Poland, Hungary, or the Czech Republic. The situation in the Balkans, however, is less stable or predictable. It is possible that at some time in the future the struggle between different national or ethnic groups might lead to regional conflict. It is possible that such a struggle might encourage the Russians or the Germans to extend their influence in the Balkans. Turmoil in Albania and conflict in Serbia's Kosovo province in late 1998, is a concern, as are the irredentist populations in some of the former Soviet republics., So we now face a Wider range of contingencies. There is the possibility that nuclear weapons will proliferate to rogue states and terrorists. There remains the risk of accidental or unauthorized use by nuclear states. This threat increases if more states or groups have access to the weapons, Finally, there is the possibility of deliberate use of nuclear weapons by existing states and threshold states; Israel could believe itself sufficiently threatened to resort to a nuclear strike; Russia could feel itself threatened by neighboring states or China; an India-Pakistan war could erupt. One suspects that political and military leaders are scrambling to think through the implications of these new threats, and only the most sanguine observer can assume that they will get it right on ~y occasion, But what would "getting it wrong" mean; f

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    Prolif BadCBW

Egypt proves that prolif guarantees CBW

    Bahgat, professor of political science and director of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2007 (Gawdat, The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: Egypt

    Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ), Spring, 2007,

    http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2501/is_2_29/ai_n27275804, SP)

    These Egyptian efforts to stockpile CW and to work with other Arab countries should be seen as a part of broader stand on the proliferation of WMD in the Middle East. Egyptian leaders have perceived CW as a means to pressure Israel to give up its nuclear weapons. Indeed, Cairo has refused to join the Chemical

    Weapons Convention (CWC) until Israel sign the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT). There are no indications that Egypt would give up its CW option any time soon. Biological Similar to CW, Egypt has perceived biological weapons (BW) as a counterbalance to Israel's nuclear capability. In 1970, President al-

    Sadat stated that "Egypt has biological weapons stored in refrigerators and could use them against Israel's crowded population." (4) This declaration apparently was meant to warn Israel from a potential nuclear attack on Egyptian cities. Two years later (April 1972), Egypt acceded to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC). However, Egypt links its ratification of the BWC to Israel's signature of the NPT. In

    other words, Cairo views the BWC as an integral part of a comprehensive agreement for the elimination of all WMD from the Middle East. (5) Accordingly, Egypt has not ratified the BWC. (6)

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     Heg Good Impact

Heg solves nuclear by preventing major conflicts

    FERGUSON, NYU History Professor, 2004 (Niall, Foreign Policy, July/August, SP)

    So what is left? Waning empires. Religious revivals. Incipient anarchy. A coming retreat into fortified cities. These are the Dark Age experiences that a world without a hyperpower might quickly find itself reliving. The trouble is, of course, that this Dark Age would be an altogether more dangerous one than the Dark Age of the ninth century. For the world is much more populousroughly 20 times moreso friction between the

    world's disparate “tribes” is bound to be more frequent. Technology has transformed production; now human

    societies depend not merely on freshwater and the harvest but also on supplies of fossil fuels that are known to be finite. Technology has upgraded destruction, too, so it is now possible not just to sack a city but to

    obliterate it.

    For more than two decades, globalizationthe integration of world markets for commodities, labor, and

    capitalhas raised living standards throughout the world, except where countries have shut themselves off

    from the process through tyranny or civil war. The reversal of globalizationwhich a new Dark Age would

    producewould certainly lead to economic stagnation and even depression. As the United States sought to

    protect itself after a second September 11 devastates, say, Houston or Chicago, it would inevitably become a less open society, less hospitable for foreigners seeking to work, visit, or do business. Meanwhile, as Europe's Muslim enclaves grew, Islamist extremists' infiltration of the EU would become irreversible, increasing trans-Atlantic tensions over the Middle East to the breaking point. An economic meltdown in China would plunge the Communist system into crisis, unleashing the centrifugal forces that undermined previous Chinese empires. Western investors would lose out and conclude that lower returns at home are preferable to the risks of default abroad.The worst effects of the new Dark Age would be felt on the edges of the waning great powers. The wealthiest ports of the global economyfrom New York to Rotterdam to

    Shanghaiwould become the targets of plunderers and pirates. With ease, terrorists could disrupt the freedom of the seas, targeting oil tankers, aircraft carriers, and cruise liners, while Western nations

    frantically concentrated on making their airports secure. Meanwhile, limited nuclear wars could devastate numerous regions, beginning in the Korean peninsula and Kashmir, perhaps ending catastrophically in the Middle East. In Latin America, wretchedly poor citizens would seek solace in Evangelical Christianity imported by U.S. religious orders. In Africa, the great plagues of AIDS and malaria would continue their deadly work. The few remaining solvent airlines would simply suspend services to many cities in these continents; who would wish to leave their privately guarded safe havens to go there?For all these reasons, the prospect of an apolar world should frighten us today a great deal more than it frightened the heirs of

    Charlemagne. If the United States retreats from global hegemonyits fragile self-image dented by minor

    setbacks on the imperial frontierits critics at home and abroad must not pretend that they are ushering in a new era of multipolar harmony, or even a return to the good old balance of power. Be careful what you wish

    for. The alternative to unipolarity would not be multipolarity at all. It would be apolaritya global vacuum

    of power. And far more dangerous forces than rival great powers would benefit from such a not-so-new world disorder.

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    Prolif BadEscalates Conventional War

Possession of nuclear weapons means they’ll be used to win conventional war

    Beckman et Al, Hobart and William Colleges, 2000 st Century, (Peter, Hobart and William Colleges, The Nuclear Predicament: Nuclear Weapons in the 21

    SP)

    Crossing the threshold between conventional and nuclear war thus seemed to offer a possibility of securing one's goals in war, but with the very great risk that the cost of doing so would be catastrophic. On the other hand, to the degree that leaders felt that there was a strong threshold between battlefielad nd homelanud se, they might be tempted to use nuclear weapons on the battlefield. They might, of course, seriously misjudge the strength (or weakness) of a particular threshold and face catastrophe for that misjudgment, but their decision to use nuclear weapons would be based on the assessment of the strength of the threshold to prevent further escalation. One thing should be apparent from our discussion: In this scenario, rational leaders in the pursuit of seemingly rational goals (such as the defense of West Germany) could contemplate-and plan for-the use of nuclear weapons in order to achieve their goals. Put another way, using nuclear weapons-even against an opponent with the capability to retaliate-was not judged to be a sign of madness, even when it came to be recognized that a full-scale nuclear war could achieve no meaningful political purpose. Therefore, we should not be terribly surprised if, in the future, leaders of other nuclear-armed countries decide that they, too, must use nuclear weapons in order to achieve their goal:J

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     Prolif BadPreventive War

Prolif causes preventive wars that go nuclear

    Sagan, Co-director of CISAC and Co- director of Stanford's Center for International Security and Cooperation, 1995 (Scott, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons, A debate, SP)

    The first operational requirement of mutual nuclear deterrence between two powers concerns the transition period between a conventional world and a nuclear world: the first state to acquire weapons must not attack its rival now, in a preventive war, in order to avoid the risk of a worse war later, after the second state has

    acquired a large nuclear arsenal. There are two periods in a nuclear arms race, according to Waltz during which a state might consider a preventive strike: when its rival is developing nuclear capability but has clearly not yet constructed a bob, and when the rival is in a more advanced nuclear development and therefore might have a small number of weapons, Waltz maintains that a preventive strike might seem to make sense during the first stage of nuclear developing [since] a state could strike without fearing tat the country it attacked would return a nuclear bow." Yet, he insist that such attacks are unlikely, because it would not be in a state's longer-term interests: "But would one country strike so hard as to destroy another country’s potential for future nuclear development? If it did not, the country struck could resume its nuclear

    career. If the blow struck is less than devastating, one must be prepared either to repeat it or o occupy and control the country. To do either would be forbiddingly difficult" (Ch 1. pg 18) Later, once and adversary has developed "even a rudimentary nuclear capability," all rational incentives for preventive war are off,

    since "one's own severe punishment becomes possible" (Ch. 1 p. 19). A little uncertainty goes a long way in Waltz's world. If there is even a remote chance of nuclear retaliation, a rational decision maker will not launch a preventative war. An organizational perspective, however, leads to a more pessimistic assessment of the likelihood of preventative nuclear wars, because it draws attention to military biases that could encourage such attacks. Waltz has dismissed the argument since he believes that military leaders are not more likely

    than civilians to recommend the use of military force during crises. (17) Although this may be true with respect to cases of military intervention in general, there are five strong reasons to expect that military

    officers are more predisposed to view preventive war in particular in a much more favorable light than are

    civilian authorities. First, military officers, because for self-selection into the profession and socialization afterwards, are more inclined than the rest of the population to see war as likely in the near term and inevitable in the long run (18). The professional focus of attention on warfare makes military officers skeptical of nonmilitary alternatives to war, while civilian leaders often place stringer hopes diplomatic methods of long-term conflict resolution. Such beliefs make military officer particularly susceptible to "better now than later" logic. Second, officers are trained to focus on pure military logic, and are given strict operational goals to meet, when addressing security problems. "Victory" means defeating the enemy in a narrow military sense, but does not necessarily mean achieving broader political goals in war, which would include reducing the costs of war to acceptable levels. For Military officers, diplomatic, moral, or domestic political costs of preventive war are also less likely to be influential than would be the case for civilian officials. This, military officers display strong biases in favor of offensive doctrines and decisive operations. 19 offensive doctrines enable military organizations to take the initiative, utilizing their standard plans under conditions they control, while forcing adversaries to react to their favored strategies. Decisive operations utilize the principle of mass, may reduce casualties, and are more likely to lead to a military decision rather than a political stalemate. Preventive war would clearly have these desired characteristics. Fourth, the military, like most organizations, tends to plan incrementally, leading it to focus on immediate plans for war and not on the subsequent problems of managing the postwar world. Fifth, military officers, like most members of large organizations, focus n their narrow job. Managing the postwar world is the politicians job, not part of military officers' operational responsibility, and officers are therefore likely to be short-sighted,

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    not examining the long-term political and diplomatic consequences of preventative war. In theory, these fve

    related factors should often make military officers strong advocates of preventive war.

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    Prolif BadTerrorism/Impact Calc

Proliferation guarantees terrorist use and acquisition of nuclear weapons

    Beckman et Al, Hobart and William Colleges, 2000 st Century, (Peter, Hobart and William Colleges, The Nuclear Predicament: Nuclear Weapons in the 21SP)

These historical points suggest that the organizational characteristics discussed by Sagan determined

    superpower nuclear policy. From this perspective, the Cold War history that supporters of proliferation had

    counted in their favor seems to tell a different tale. As these critics of proliferation see it, the Cold War was a

    time of nuclear danger, not nuclear safety. The long peace of the Cold War was more a matter of luck than of

    the effectiveness of nuclear deterrence. The implication is that nuclear proliferation is dangerous, whether in

    the past, in the case of the current nuclear powers, or in the future. Nuclear proliferation is dangerous

    because nuclear deterrence is a dangerous policy, whoever is its practitioner. The proper argument, from this

    perspective, is not that proliferation would be dangerous because would-be proliferators are different from

    the established nuclear powers, as most critics of proliferation maintain. Nor is it that proliferation would not

    be dangerous because nuclear deterrence was not dangerous for the superpowers, as defenders of

    proliferation such as Waltz maintain. The proper argument is that proliferation would be dangerous just as

    nuclear defence was dangerous for the superpower.

Terrorism risks extinction

    Pacotti, Technology Researcher/Reporter for Salon Magazine, 2003 (Sheldon, “Are we doomed yet?”

    http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2003/03/31/knowledge, SP)

    A similar trend has appeared in proposed solutions to high-tech terrorist threats. Advances in biotech, chemistry, and other fields are expanding the power of individuals to cause harm, and this has many people worried. Glenn E. Schweitzer and Carole C. Dorsch, writing for The Futurist, gave this warning in 1999: "Technological advances threaten to outdo anything terrorists have done before; superterrorism has the potential to eradicate civilization as we know it." Schweitzer and Dorsch are so alarmed that they go on to

    say, "Civil liberties are important for a democratic society; the time has arrived, however, to reconfigure some aspects of democracy, given the violence that is on the doorstep." The Sept. 11 attacks have obviously added credence to their opinions. In 1999, they recommended an expanded role for the CIA, "greater government intervention" in Americans' lives, and the "honorable deed" of "whistle-blowing" -- proposals that went from fringe ideas to policy options and talk-show banter in less than a year. Taken together, their proposals aim to gather information from companies and individuals and feed that information into government agencies. A network of cameras positioned on street corners would nicely complement their vision of America during the 21st century. If after Sept. 11 and the anthrax scare these still sound like wacky Orwellian ideas to you, imagine how they will sound the day a terrorist opens a jar of Ebola-AIDS spores on Capitol Hill. As Sun Microsystems' chief scientist, Bill Joy, warned: "We have yet to come to terms with the fact that the most compelling 21st-century technologies -- robotics, genetic engineering, and nanotechnology -- pose a different threat than the technologies that have come before. Specifically, robots, engineered organisms, and nanobots share a dangerous amplifying factor: They can self-replicate. A bomb is blown up only once -- but one bot can become many, and quickly get out of control." Joy calls the new threats "knowledge-enabled mass destruction." To cause great harm to millions of people, an extreme person will need only dangerous knowledge, which itself will move through the biosphere, encoded as matter, and flit from place to place as easily as dangerous ideas now travel between our minds. In the information age, dangerous knowledge can be copied and disseminated at light speed, and it threatens everyone. Therefore,

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