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Anti-tumor mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Progress_6518

By Judith Watkins,2014-10-30 09:44
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Anti-tumor mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Progress_6518

    Anti-tumor mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Progress

     Key Words Chinese medicine-tumor immune

     According to modern pharmacological research, there are two main types of anti-

    cancer traditional Chinese medicine: one is cytotoxic drugs, that have a direct killing effect of tumor cells, the main ingredient that contains natural anti-tumor activity can

    directly inhibit tumor cell growth. The second type is immune to enhance the role of biological response modifier-like effect of the drugs, by adjusting the imbalance of yin and yang qi and blood organs and improve the pathological state of the body the body to increase the body's own resistance to disease. Some elements of Chinese medicine are certain types of immune enhancers, carrying specific information, easily subjected to tumor cells in normal tissues of the body identified, so that impaired immune function returned to normal levels. These traditional Chinese medicine acting on the body through the regulation of material, equivalent to two traditional Chinese medicine yin and yang, as described for immune function in patients with a balanced adjustment to achieve the purpose of anti-tumor [1]. The use of Chinese medicine for anti-cancer

    research to be followed by the overall concept of Chinese medicine and dialectic theory of governance, in exploring the specific anti-tumor medicine, when the law required use

    of modern technology from the micro level to articulate. At present, anti-tumor effect

    of Chinese medicine research has developed to the cellular level, molecular level and even genetic level, will now be a different mechanism of action of Chinese medicine are summarized below.

     1 on tumor cells

     1.1-induced cell differentiation of tumor cells induced differentiation therapy is one

    of the hot cancer therapy to induce tumor cells to normal cells as a potential therapeutic approach has been taken seriously. Tanshinone on human cervical cancer cell line (ME180) with a better induction of differentiation by cell morphology after

    treatment to the differentiation of benign, slow growth, a significant reduction in

colony-forming cell RNA hybridization was found c-myc, Ha-ras oncogene expression

    significantly reduced [2]. Telomerase is a special reverse transcriptase, for RNA and

    protein complex, it can compensate for cell division, chromosomes appear as the end of progressive shortening, so that unlimited cell proliferation, leading to tumor and therefore I can be of telomerase regarded as indicators of tumor cell proliferation.

    Matrine treatment of human leukemia cell line K562, patterns tend to erythroid differentiation, while telomerase activity was significantly decreased [3].

     1.2 promote the apoptosis and promote tumor cell apoptosis in many traditional

    Chinese medicine of anti-tumor cells is one important way. Many anti-tumor medicine

    on a specific block of cell cycle role, which influenced by many genes and complex inter-precise control, the ultimate expression of the protein through the realization of

    these genes on cell proliferation phenotype of direct regulation [4 ~ 6]. Most anti-tumor

    medicine for cell cycle-specific drugs, mainly anti-proliferative phase in the cells, in

    particular the S phase and M phase cells. Some traditional Chinese medicine by

    inhibiting DNA synthesis required in the DNA topoisomerase and DNA polymerase activity, interfering with DNA replication, inhibiting DNA synthesis, ultimately inhibiting tumor cell growth. According to Tan the experimental results of anti-tumor

    cells [2], the anti-tumor mechanism of tanshinone may inhibit DNA polymerase

    activity, preventing cells to enter S phase, thus inhibiting tumor growth. Anti-tumor

    recipe (DBD: Astragalus, Chinese angelica, etc.) can induce a high degree of expression of p53 protein, when the amount of p53 protein expression increased to a certain degree, can be subjected to information transmission systems approach to cell cycle arrest in mitosis [7]. Garlic oil can promote the human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells,

    p53 tumor suppressor gene expression, inhibit cell malignant proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells [8]. Icariin can apoptosis-related genes bcl-2, c-myc expression

    decreased [9]. As2O3 on the expression of bcl-2 gene, both from the RNA level or have

    a downward effect on the protein level, has been used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia [10]. These findings for the application of Chinese medicine for treatment of malignant tumor cells provide a favorable basis.

     1.3 regulation of cell signal transduction pathways of the body of any chemical

    substances such as hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors and a variety of drug molecules, are not directly enter the cells internally generated effects, but must be adopted and cell-associated receptor binding through the signal conversion, the

    information passed to the target site to be effective. Therefore, the signal pathway from the perspective of Chinese medicine anti-tumor mechanisms, has important theoretical

    significance and practical value. Turmeric hormone by inhibiting protein kinase,

    tyrosine kinase activity and arachidonic acid metabolism and prevent cell signal transduction, thereby triggering apoptosis of tumor cells. Some traditional Chinese medicine contained in the quercetin-induced apoptosis mechanism and protein kinase

    C (PKC), cAMP and other signaling molecules related: PKC can antagonize glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis, quercetin as an antagonistic PKC agent, can reverse this effect. Many experiments and facts show that the signal system of

    information transmission and regulation is likely to be Chinese and Western medicine on the tumor cells, one of the common material basis [7].

     1.4 directly kill the tumor cells and the active ingredient in many Chinese herbal medicines can inhibit cell proliferation through the material basis, such as DNA, microtubules and other related enzyme, affecting tumor cell sub-types, as well as

    protein synthesis, play a direct anti-tumor cells and even kill role. DNA Primase -

    polymerase α in the form of complex present in the nucleus, its function is to complete primer synthesis and extension of the tumor cells DNA replication is very active, the activity of this enzyme complex was also higher than normal cells. Green tea extract with DNA primase - non-competitive polymerase α complex combination of changes in the enzyme conformation, weakening of anti-enzyme activity, to achieve the purpose of

    killing tumor cells [11]. Garlic oil on human gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cells are

directly damaged, the role of anti-[8].

     1.5 reverse multi-drug resistance of tumor cells tumor cells to anticancer drugs produce a variety of cross-resistance is caused by the failure of one of the main cancer treatment, while the resulting cross-resistance to the root cause is that tumor cells

    contain multiple drug resistance gene and its encoded P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a high

    expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) of the main mechanism. Reversal of MDR has become the treatment of cancer in one direction, but also a culvert to be addressed

    important issues. In in vitro experiments was selected from a traditional Chinese medicine preparation Ans-11, Fww-13, Tul-17 three kinds of traditional Chinese

    medicine reversal agents, can significantly enhance the multi-drug resistant cells to the

    sensitivity of anticancer drugs to effectively reverse Pgp high expression of human ovarian tumor cells SKVLB right Vinblastine resistance. Because calcium channel blockers also have reversed the role of multi-drug resistance, they can with the P170

    protein binding, so that the intracellular drug concentration increased, played anti-

    tumor effect of Chinese medicine, therefore speculated that the anti-multi-drug

    resistance may be a calcium ion channel blocker-like action [7].

     2 regulate immune function in

     Body's immune system has limited the capacity of tumor cell growth by changing the host's biological response of tumors to regulate cellular and humoral immune functions in cancer therapy has already been the medical profession's attention.

    Traditional Chinese medicine on tumor immune regulatory role is the most important anti-tumor mechanisms. Tumor-bearing state, T-cell dysfunction and subject to curb

    anti-tumor ability to make the body fall, showing decrease in the number of T cells,

    functional changes, T-cell subsets imbalance. As the tumor growth, total T cells and Th cells is reduced, Th / Ts decline, in which Th cells to accelerate the decline in tumor growth, proliferation is consistent, Ts increase in tumors associated with the transfer

    and diffusion. Some tonic Chinese herbs can induce cytokines such as IL-2, IFN-γ,

    TNF-α such as the release of the promotion of lymphocyte transformation to adjust the proportion of T cell subsets, improve NK, LAK cell activity, enhance the CTL attack

    power, to enhance tumor cell immunogenicity make it easier to attack and make it lose their ability to collapse the transfer. For example, Liu Wei Di Huang Tang can protect hemoglobin, white blood cells, blood cells, plate capabilities to protect NK cell activity,

    increased T, B lymphocyte transformation to enhance tumor cell cAMP content and enhance the body monocyte-macrophage phagocytic function of the system to promote the spleen lymphocytes proliferation capacity, improve the quantity of blood

    lymphocytes [12]; Di Huang polysaccharides could antagonize tumor cells to inhibition of NK cell activity and improve IL-2 secretion, significantly improve the CTL cell

    activity, effectively prevent CD4 T, CD8 T-cell ratio increased, so has the function of

    CD8 subsets of anti-positioned to play the anti-tumor effect [13]. Reposted elsewhere in

    the paper for free download http://

     3 acting on the tumor blood vessels

     The rapid growth of tumor blood vessels, disorders, and the distribution of very

    rich, tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis are closely related to destruction of tumor blood vessels is an important anti-tumor therapy. Red hormone

    (isolated from the roots of Tripterygium a biological active monomer) can be produced

    from various aspects of angiogenesis inhibition; inhibition of vascular endothelial cell proliferation, inhibition of vascular endothelial cells to form blood vessels, and inhibits vascular endothelial cell migration [14 ]. Some drugs can prevent the tumor area

    Huoxue fibrinogen deposition, beneficial drugs or immune substances to tumor cells

    within the tumor cells can directly or degeneration and necrosis of tumor cells to improve the state of lack of oxygen to enhance their radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    sensitivity of . Polygonum cuspidatum, pangolins can promote fibrinolysis, inhibit platelet aggregation, microcirculation, so that degradation of metastases within the new capillaries. Of Foreign Studies on anti-angiogenesis research has entered the molecular

    level, while the role of Chinese medicine research on tumor blood vessels is not enough in-depth [7].

     4 anti-mutagenic effect

     Carcinogenic and mutagenic close relationship, most of mutagenic substances have carcinogenic effects, such as strong oxidizing free radical damage to normal cells, leading to cell mutation, that is one of the causes of tumor. Solid gold tablets (ginseng, Tianqi, Gynostemma and other medicinal preparations composed of compound) can facilitate superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity increase, inhibit the damage caused by free radicals play an anti - tumors. Curcumin naturally

    occurring phenols and antioxidants to different carcinogenic factors, mutagenic factors have inhibited the DNA can enhance the stability, protect DNA from oxidative damage

    [15].

     5 Outlook

     Anti-tumor effect of Chinese medicine are increasingly recognized by the international community, and its a lot of new progress, but there are still many to be the mechanism to discover and explore. Antitumor drugs have been found in the traditional Chinese medicine has a unique mechanism of action and chemical structure, time, durable, multi-target, multi-channel, a broad spectrum anti-tumor, toxic side-

    effects of light, etc., is a multi-direction, multi-channel, cross-play to anti-tumor role

    characteristics, for improving the success rate of treatment of cancer patients and improve the quality of life of cancer patients and prolong lives have remarkable curative effect. Traditional Chinese medicine-induced tumor cell apoptosis is one of the

    hot research in recent years, at home and abroad, these studies can reveal the one hand, traditional Chinese medicine anti-tumor effect and mechanism, and thus to find

    new and more effective antineoplastic agents, to improve the cure rate of malignant tumors ; the other hand, can further prompt tumor occurrence and development mechanism, resulting in more effective control of the incidence of malignant tumors. However, the current anti-tumor effect of Chinese medicine was also not specific

    enough to clarify the mechanism are also owed to the profound range of applications is not clear, although anti-tumor effect of compound Chinese medicine and biology at the molecular level have carried out extensive research, but it should be planned and

    purposeful and surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy combined with a view to reducing adverse events and improve long-term efficacy, so that Chinese medicine

    and the compound on cancer prevention and treatment of certain aspects of its unique

    advantages. In short, traditional Chinese medicine for cancer therapy has great potential and irreplaceable advantages, as modern immunology and molecular biology technology, the development of anti-tumor mechanism of action of Chinese medicine

    will be further revealed, we should actively adopt the most effective at home and abroad Methods to enhance anti-tumor mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine

    basic and clinical research for the study of anti-tumor medicine to create a more

    encouraging.

     References

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     [2] Zheng Can, Jee Young Lee. Tanshinone ? inhibition of HepG2 cells in vitro [J]. Modern medicine, 2004,32 (5): 296 ~ 298.

     [3] Gui-Hai Li, Pan industry, Sun Fu-jun, et al. Reversal of traditional Chinese medicine alkaloids S180 sarcoma cells in mice obtained multi-drug resistance-

    associated biological factors over-expression [J]. China Journal of Traditional Chinese

    Medicine, 2005,30 (3): 1844 ~ 1848.

     [4] Prerz R, Wu N, Klipfel AA, et al.A better cell cycle target for gene therapy of colorectal cancer: cycli GJ Gastrointest Surg [J] .2003,7 (70); 884 ~ 889.

     [5] Laiho M, Latonen L. Cell cycle control, DNA damage checkpoints and cancer.Am Med [J] .200335 (6): 391 ~ 397

     [6] Malumbres M, Carnero A. Cell cycle cycle deregulation: a common motif in cancer.Prog Cell Cycle Res [J] .2003,5:5 ~ 18.

     [7] He Xin-huai, XI Xiao-xian, editor. Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology [M]. Beijing: People's Health Publishing House, 2002,345 ~ 364.

     [8] Sen, 10000 Dodson, XIAO Xi-bin, et al. Garlic Oil activated rat Kupffer cells in liver cancer in rats [J]. Coloproctological Surgery, 2005,11 (4): 257 ~ 259.

     [9] Li Lei, Qi-Xin Zhou, Jing-Shan Shi. Icariin pharmacological research [J]. China Pharmacy, 2005,16 (12): 952 ~ 954.

     [10] Soignet SL, Frankel SR, Douer D, et al.United States multicenter study of arsenic

    troxide in relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia [J]. Clin Oncol, 2001,19 (18).

     [11] Wang Kai-ming. Green tea polyphenols inhibit prostate cancer [J]. Foreign Medical Tradit Chin Med, 2005,27 (4): 155.

     [12] Gao Shiu Wing, XIA Hai-Ping, Zhang Hua, et al. Syndrome after treatment of breast cancer TAM / TCM therapy, Liu Wei Di Huang Decoction / therapeutic use [J]. State Medical Forum, 2005,20 (2): 24 ~ 25.

     [13] QI Chun-Hui, FU Yan-rong, ZHANG Yong-xiang, et al. Liu Wei Di Huang

    polysaccharides CA423 on B-cell function in mice [J]. Chinese Pharmacology Bulletin, 2000,17 (4): 469 ~ 473.

     [14] Huang Yu-lun, Zhou You-Xin, Zhou Dai, et al. Tripterine inhibiting angiogenesis in experimental study [J]. Chinese Journal of Cancer, 2003,25 (5): 429 ~ 432.

     [15] Hu-Quan, Guo Hui, CHEN Ke, et al. Curcumin-induced androgen-independent

    prostate cancer PC3 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis [J]. China Journal of Experimental

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