medication for heart diseases

By Cynthia Hernandez,2014-05-22 23:59
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medication for heart diseases

    Disease Pathophysiology symptoms Objective of Drugs Pharmacological action/ effects

    treatment Group example desirable undesirable

    Hypertension Over contraction/ No Cause diuretics Thiazide Hyperpolarisation & -frequent urination

    over tension of blood symptoms vasodilation diuretics: inhibit Ca2+ entry into -arrhythmia

    vessel wall Bendroflume-vascular smooth -muscle cramp/

    thazide; muscle;vasodilation weakness

    Hydrochloro- -dizziness

    thiazide -blurred vision

    Indapamide -tiredness

    Chlorthali- -dehydration

    done -excessive weight loss

    -fever, sore throat,


    -nausea, vomiting

    Calcium channel Amlodipine, Reduce availability of -constipation,

    blocker (CCB) Nifedipine. intracellular Ca2+ ; -nausea

    vasodilation -headache



    -low BP

    -drowsiness, dizziness

    -liver dysfaunction

    -worsen heart failure

    -sexual dysfunction

    -overgrowth of gum.

    -sedation, Alpha- α- Inhibition of PLC 2

    -dry mouth and nasal Antagonist adrenoceptor ; lower [Ca2+]

    mucosa agonist: ;vasodilation

    -bradycardia, orthostatic clonidine

    hypotension, and


    -Constipation, nausea

    and gastric upset

    -Fluid retention and


    -withdrawal effects

    hyralazine -directly reduce -Diarrhea

    systemic vascular -Compensatory tachycarresistance dia due to baroreceptor

    -activate Guanyl reflex -Angina

    cyclase;increase -Headache

    cGMP;relaxation of -Loss of appetite

    BV -Nausea or vomiting


    -Pounding heartbeat

    -Drug-Induced Lupus



    Vasculitis - Generally

    MPO-ANCA positive

    Sodium -release NO; -cyanide poisoning

    nitroprusside stimulate Guanyl -Confusion

    cyclase; NO clears -Nausea

    the BV;relax smooth -Fatigue


    lipitor Atherosclerosiaccumulation of -angina Lowering HMG coA reductase Inhibit cholesterol -muscle weakness/

    s lipids in system -Shortness of lipid / inhibitor/ statin synthesis neuropathy

    ;Hyperlipidaemia breath cholesterol -memory loss -Dizziness -muscle pain/ -Faster rhabdomyolysis heartbeats atromid Fibrates stimulate Lower TG content of -nausea -Nausea LDL LDL & chylomicrons -diarrhea -Abnormal -liver inflammation heartbeats -gallstone -Feeling very Nicolar -flushing, Nicotinic acid Inhibit cholesterol tired. -itching, synthesis



    Colestid -bind to bile from the -constipation Bile acid binding

    liver -prevent it from -gas renin

    being reabsorbed -upset stomach

    -promote hepatic

    conversion of

    cholesterol into bile


    Heart failure Cardiac output does -fatigue Increase Cardiac glycoside digoxin Inhibit membrane Dizziness not meet the needs of -dypsnea cardiac Na+/K+ ATPase Nausea the tissues/ heart -edema output pump; Diarrhea cannot pump. -sleepless Increase intracellular Headaches

    -increase [Ca2+]; increase Vomiting

    urination force of cardiac Rash

    -nausea contraction


    pain Phosphodiesterase amrinone Increase cAMP ; -Cardiac arrhythmia,

     inhibitor increase myocardial -hepatotoxicity.

    contractility -nausea,



    Beta adrenoceptor Dopamine Increase cAMP -Irregular heartbeat,

    agonist ;Increase contraction -headaches,

    - nausea, vomiting,

    - low blood pressure,


    - blurred vision

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