DOC

Public_Relation_and_Etiquette

By Margaret Morales,2014-05-22 22:48
10 views 0
Public_Relation_and_Etiquette

    Eye Behaviours

     One of the most potent1 elements2 in body language is eye behavioursWhen to look and how long to look? Just a peep3 or a long, lingering4 eyeful5 ? What is considered appropriate varies from situation to situation and from one culture to another

     Before we look at certain rules for the eye behaviours in Britain and America, let‘s think of the following two sets of situationsWhat would you

    do according to6 the Chinese rules or habits in the first set of situations? What wouldn‘t you do in order to avoid making the other person have a negative7 feeling towards you in the second set of situations? You can choose more than one answers from the given choices

    1st set : What would you do according to the Chinese rules or habits in this set of situations ?

    1 . You and a stranger ( another Chinese ) sit across from each other in a railway dining car8 waiting for your dishes

    a . You look at the stranger for a while and imply9 that you want to get to know each other

b . You try hard to avoid each other‘s glance10

c . You look out of the window as if nobody sat nearby

    d . You two exchange a short glance to show that you‘ve noticted someone else is sitting nearby, and then you can either start a talk or simply keep silent through the meal

    2 . You are listening to an instruction11 given by someone who is senior12 to you, someone who could be your manager, your teacher, or simply someone who is much older than you

a . You gaze at13 him/her all the time to show your respect

b . You try to avoid eye contact to show your respect

c . You look at him/her only when you‘re asked to do so

d . You look at him/her as naturally as he/she looks at you

3 . You are speaking in public

a . You look at your audience14 now and then to show that you‘re talking to

    them

    b . You bury15 your nose in your manuscript16 to read your speech all the time

c . You look at your audience only when you‘re interrupted17 by them

d . You draw your audience‘s attention by asking them to look at you

    2nd set : What wouldn‘t you do in order to avoid making the other person have a negative feeling towards you ?

    1 . You and a stranger, who is an American, sit across from each other in a railway dining car waiting for your dishes

    a . You look at the stranger for a while and imply that you can get to know each other

b . You try hard to avoid each other‘s glance

c . You look out of the window as if nobody sat nearby

    d . You two exchange a short glance to show that you‘ve noticed someone else is sitting nearby, and then you can either start a talk or simply keep silent through the meal

2 . You are listening to an instruction given by a Japanese manager or teacher

a . You gaze at him/her all the time to show your respect

b . You try to avoid eye contact to show your respect

c . You look at him/her only when you‘re asked to do so

d . You look at him/her as naturally as he/she looks at you

3 . You‘re having a small-scale18 seminar19Your British lecturer is giving

    his presentation first

a . You‘re listening but you don‘t look at him since you‘re afraid that you‘ll be

    asked to show your opinions

    b . You‘re listening attentively20 by looking at him all the time

    c . You look at him and then but mainly bury yourself in note-taking21

d . You don‘t look at him since you know that he is addressing the whole class

    not any individual person

    NOTES :

     1 . potent 强有力的(的影响的 2 . element 成分(基本组成部

     3 . peep 一瞥(偷看(窥视 4 . lingering 逗留的(拖延的

     5 . eyeful 饱览(充分观看事物(饱看事物

     6 . according to 根据(按照(取决于

     7 . negative 反面的(负面的(消极的 8 . dining 正餐:car (火车的)餐车

     9 . imply 含有的意思(暗指(意味着

     10 . glance 一瞥(很快的一看(扫视

     11 . instruction 教导(指示 12 . senior 较年长的

     13 . gaze 凝视(常与at搭配) 14 . audience 听众(观众

     15 . bury 埋(掩藏 16 . manuscript 手稿

     17 . interrupt 打断(打扰 18 . small-scale 小规模的

     19 . seminar 讨论(或交流) 20 . attentively 注意地(专心

    

     21 . note-taking 记笔记

    The British Rules For The Eye Contact

     In dealing with strangers the rule for British society is that you must avoid staring at them but at the same time avoid ignoring themPassing

    strangers in the street ,for example Figure 1,you may look at the approaching strangers until they are about eight feet away ,then your glances1 must veer2 away as they passGenerally speaking strangers feel comfortable looking at one another at a distanceThe closer the proximity3 the greater the tendency to avoid eye contactThis can readily be observed in the confines4 of a crowded lift where strangers‘ glances fly from one spot to another or become absorbed in the finer points of the ceiling‘s construction

     Turning from strangers to those who are communicating5 with one another, British practice demands eye contact Figure2There is a saying in

    English, ―Don‘t trust anyone who won‘t look you in the eye‖ Not looking at

    the person could imply a number of things, including fear , contempt6 , uneasiness7 , guilt or indifferenceEven for a lecturer addressing his audience

    there is plenty of eye contactTo bury one‘s nose in one‘s manuscript is

    frowned uponThis is not to say that people talking to one another will look directly into one another‘s eyes all the timeBritish people normally look at

    the other person‘s eyes much longer when they are listening than when speakingWhen they are about to stop speaking and start listening they look at the other person‘s eyes to signal8 they are about to change roleA person

    speaking who does not wish to yield9 the floor to someone who wishes to speak will often deliberately look away so that the would-be speaker cannot catch his eyes

     Staring at people is considered rude in Britain and young children will be reprimanded10 by their parents if they look too long and too intensely at another personMany English people traveling to some countries find being looked at intensely an unnerving experience because of this early training and their culture‘s definition of it as being rude and unwelcoming

NOTES :

1. glance 一瞥, 扫视 2 . veer 转向;转变

     3 . proximity 接近, 临近 4 . confine 界限;范围

     5 . communicate 交谈, 交际 6 . contempt 轻视;轻蔑

     7 . uneasiness 忧虑, 不安 8 . signal 发信号

     9 . yield 给予, 让出 10 .reprimand 训斥, 斥责

    Body Language: Too close for comfort ?

    Proxemics? is the study of what governs how closely one person stands to another. People who feel close will be close, though the actual distances will vary? between cultures .For Americans we can discern? four main categories4 of distance: intimate5 , personal, social and public. Intimate ranges6 from direct contact to about 45 centimetres7 . This is for the closest relationships such as those between husband and wife. Beyond this comes personal distance. This stands at between 45 and 80 centimetres. It is the most usual distance maintained for conversations between friends and relatives. Social distance covers people who work together or are meeting at social gatherings8 . Distances here tend to be kept between 1.30 to 2 metres. Beyond this comes public distance, such as that between a lecturer and his audience.

    All cultures draw lines between what is an appropriate9 and what is an inappropriate social distance for different types of relationship. They differ, however, in where they draw these lines. Look at an international reception with representatives from the US and Arabic countries conversing and you will see the Americans pirouetting10 backwards11 around the hall pursued by their Arab partners. The Americans will be trying to keep the distance between themselves and their partners which they have grown used to regarding as ―normal.‖ They probably will not even notice themselves trying to adjust the distance between themselves and their partners, though they may have the vague12 feeling that their Arab neighbours are being a bit ―pushy13 .‖ The Arabs, on the other hand, coming from a culture where much closer distance is the norm, may be feeling that the Americans are being ―standoffish14.‖ Finding

    themselves happier standing close to and even touching those they are in conversation with they will relentlessly15 pursue the Americans round the room trying to close the distance between them.

    The appropriateness of physical contact varies between different cultures too. One study of the number of times people conversing in coffee shops over a one hour period showed the following interesting variations16: London, 0; Florida, 2; Paris, 10; and Puerto Rico17 180. Not only does it vary between societies, however, it also varies between different subcultures18 within one society. Young people in Britain, for example, are more likely to touch and hug19 friends than are the older generation. This may be partly20 a matter of growing older, but it also reflects21 the fact that the older generation grew up at a time when touching was less common for all age groups. Forty years ago, for example, footballers would never hug and kiss one another on the field after a goal as they do today.

NOTES:

1. proxemics n. []空間關系學 2. vary vi. 變化,有不同

3. discern vt. 識別,區別 4. category n. 種類,

5. intimate adj. 親密的 6. range vi. 變動,變化

7. centimetre n. 厘米 8. gathering n. 集會,聚會

9. appropriate adj.恰當的 10. pirouette vi.作快速旋轉

11.backwards adv. 向後,, 12.vague adj. 模糊的

13.pushy adj. [] 粗魯的,莽撞的 14.standoffish adj. 冷漠的

15.relentlessly adv. 持續地 16.variation n. 變化,變動

17,Puerto Rico 波多黎各 18.subculture n, 亞文化群

19.hug vt. 擁抱,緊抱 20.partly adv, 部分地

21.reflect vt. 反映,表明

    Body Language: Making a Decision Over Dinner

    Let us now look at the dynamics1 of taking a person to dinner where the objective2 is to obtain a favourable response to a proposition. Let us examine

    the factors that can build a positive atmosphere, discuss their origin and potential3 and examine the background of man‘s feeding behaviour.

    Anthropologists4 tell us that man‘s origin was that of a tree dweller5 who was strictly vegetarian, his diet consisting of roots, leaves, berries6. fruit and the like. About a million years ago, he came out of the trees onto the plains to become a hunter of prey7. Prior to his becoming a land dweller, man‘s eating habits were those of the monkeysinvolving continual nibbling throughout the

    day. Each individual was entirely responsible for his own survival and for obtaining his own food. As a hunter, however, he needed the co-operation of other individuals to capture8 large prey, so large co-operative hunting groups were formed. Each group would leave at sunrise to hunt throughout the day and return at dusk with the day‘s spoils9. These were then divided equally among the hunters, who would eat inside a communal10 cave. At the entrance to the entrance to the cave a fire was lit to ward off11 dangerous animals and to provide warmth. Each caveman sat with his back against the wall of the cave to avoid the possibility of being attacked from behind while he was engrossed12 in eating his meal. The only sounds that were heard were the gnashing13 and gnawing14 of teeth and the crackle of the fire. This ancient process of food sharing at dusk around an open fire was the beginning of a social event that modern man re-enacts in the form of barbecues15, cookouts and dinner parties. Modern man also reacts and behaves at these events in much the same way as he did over a million years ago.

    Now to our restaurant or dinner party, A positive decision in your favour is easier to obtain when your prospect is relaxed, free of tension and his or her defensive barriers have been lowered. To achieve this end, and keeping in mind what has already been said about our ancestors, a few simple rules need to be followed. First, whether you are dining at your home or at a restaurant, have your prospect seated with his back to a solid wall or screen. Research shows that respiration16, heart rate, brain wave frequencies and blood pressure rapidly increase when a person sits with his back to an open space, particularly where others are moving about. Tension is further increased if the person‘s back is towards an open door or a window at ground level. Next, the lights should be dimmed and muffled17 background music played. Many top restaurants have an open fireplace or facsimile18 near the entrance of the restaurant to recreate the fire that burned at the ancient cave fender19. It would be best to use a round table and to have your prospect‘s view of other people obscured20 by a screen or large plaque to have a captive audience. It is far easier to obtain a favourable decision under these circumstances than it could ever be in restaurants that have bright lighting, tables and chairs placed in open areas with the banging of plates, knives and forks. Top restaurants use these types of relaxation techniques to

    extract21 large amounts of money from their customer‘s wallets for ordinary food, and men have been using them for thousands of years to create a romantic atmosphere for the benefit of their women.

NOTES:

1. dynamics n, [用作複]動力 2. objective n, 目的,目標,出擊目

    

3. potential n, 潛能,獲得成功的潛在能力 4. anthropologist n, 人類學家,

    類學者

5. dweller n, 居住者,居民 6. berry n, 漿果

7. prey n. 被捕食的動物 8. capture vt, 捕獲,俘獲,獲得

9. spoil n. (常作-s)獵獲物 10.communal adj. 公關的

11.ward vt. (常與off 搭配)擋開,避開 12.engross vt. 使全神貫注

13.gnashing n. 咬或磨牙 14.gnawing n. 不斷地咬۰

15.barbecue n. 戶外烤肉餐 16.respiration n. 呼吸

17.muffle vt. 減弱(光線等) 18.facsimile n. 摹本

19.fender n . 防衛物 20.obscure vt. 使變模糊

21.extract vt. 索得(錢等)

    Body Language: Making a Decision Over Dinner

    Let us now look at the dynamics1 of taking a person to dinner where the objective2 is to obtain a favourable response to a proposition. Let us examine the factors that can build a positive atmosphere, discuss their origin and potential3 and examine the background of man‘s feeding behaviour.

    Anthropologists4 tell us that man‘s origin was that of a tree dweller5 who was strictly vegetarian, his diet consisting of roots, leaves, berries6. fruit and the like. About a million years ago, he came out of the trees onto the plains to become a hunter of prey7. Prior to his becoming a land dweller, man‘s eating

habits were those of the monkeysinvolving continual nibbling throughout the

    day. Each individual was entirely responsible for his own survival and for obtaining his own food. As a hunter, however, he needed the co-operation of other individuals to capture8 large prey, so large co-operative hunting groups were formed. Each group would leave at sunrise to hunt throughout the day and return at dusk with the day‘s spoils9. These were then divided equally among the hunters, who would eat inside a communal10 cave. At the entrance to the entrance to the cave a fire was lit to ward off11 dangerous animals and to provide warmth. Each caveman sat with his back against the wall of the cave to avoid the possibility of being attacked from behind while he was engrossed12 in eating his meal. The only sounds that were heard were the gnashing13 and gnawing14 of teeth and the crackle of the fire. This ancient process of food sharing at dusk around an open fire was the beginning of a social event that modern man re-enacts in the form of barbecues15, cookouts and dinner parties. Modern man also reacts and behaves at these events in much the same way as he did over a million years ago.

    Now to our restaurant or dinner party, A positive decision in your favour is easier to obtain when your prospect is relaxed, free of tension and his or her defensive barriers have been lowered. To achieve this end, and keeping in mind what has already been said about our ancestors, a few simple rules need to be followed. First, whether you are dining at your home or at a restaurant, have your prospect seated with his back to a solid wall or screen. Research shows that respiration16, heart rate, brain wave frequencies and blood pressure rapidly increase when a person sits with his back to an open space, particularly where others are moving about. Tension is further increased if the person‘s back is towards an open door or a window at ground level. Next, the lights should be dimmed and muffled17 background music played. Many top restaurants have an open fireplace or facsimile18 near the entrance of the restaurant to recreate the fire that burned at the ancient cave fender19. It would be best to use a round table and to have your prospect‘s view of other people obscured20 by a screen or large plaque to have a captive audience. It is far easier to obtain a favourable decision under these circumstances than it could ever be in restaurants that have bright lighting, tables and chairs placed in open areas with the banging of plates, knives and forks. Top restaurants use these types of relaxation techniques to extract21 large amounts of money from their customer‘s wallets for ordinary food, and men have been using them for thousands of years to create a romantic atmosphere for the benefit of their women.

NOTES:

1. dynamics n, [用作複]動力 2. objective n, 目的,目標,出擊目標

3. potential n, 潛能,獲得成功的潛在能力 4. anthropologist n, 人類學家,

    類學者

5. dweller n, 居住者,居民 6. berry n, 漿果

7. prey n. 被捕食的動物 8. capture vt, 捕獲,俘獲,獲得

9. spoil n. (常作-s)獵獲物 10.communal adj. 公關的

11.ward vt. (常與off 搭配)擋開,避開 12.engross vt. 使全神貫注

13.gnashing n. 咬或磨牙 14.gnawing n. 不斷地咬۰

15.barbecue n. 戶外烤肉餐 16.respiration n. 呼吸

17.muffle vt. 減弱(光線等) 18.facsimile n. 摹本

19.fender n . 防衛物 20.obscure vt. 使變模糊

21.extract vt. 索得(錢等)

    Business Etiquette : What should you say in your introductions?

     The information that you provide about the person being introduced should be either neutral or positive. For example, ―Mr.Smith is the one to see

    when your computer won‘t co-operate he can find files no matter where

    hide.‖

     Introducing someone by providing ambiguous? information , such as ―Bill is the one I told you about yesterday ,‖ will make Bill uncomfortable? . He can‘t

    help but wonder, ―What did you say about me?‖ Try saying instead, ―Bill is the person I mentioned to you yesterday. He‘s the one who came to this conference from Los Angeles.‖ Everyone will be more at ease? .

     When you introduce people, you are casting them in a temporary4 role, and protocol5 requires that the conversation continues, at least briefly, in the same direction . Bill, for instance, probably will explain why he came from Los Angeles to the conference. Make sure that the role you select for the person who is being introduced is appropriate. If you introduce a co-worker by saying,

Report this document

For any questions or suggestions please email
cust-service@docsford.com