Design & Drawing
Table of Contents
Unit 1 – Introduction to Design
1.1 Introduction to a Design Process
1.2 Introduction to Technical Sketching and Drawing
1.3 Measurement and Statistics
1.4 Puzzle Cube
Unit 2 – Design Solutions
2.1 Geometric Shapes and Solids
2.2 Dimension and Tolerances
2.3 Advanced Modeling Skills
2.4 Advanced Design
Unit 3 – Reverse Engineering
3.1 Visual Analysis
3.2 Functional Analysis
3.3 Structural Analysis
3.4 Product Improvement by Design
Unit 4 Design Problems
4.1 Engineering Design Ethics
4.2 Design Teams
This unit is an introduction to different facets of design and will emphasize the following: evolution and history of design, the steps in a design process, the importance of proper sketching techniques, measurement and tools used in design, and the use of those tools and techniques to innovate or invent solutions to problems. Students will be introduced to a variety of skill building opportunities that will enhance their design skills and prepare them for the remaining units in this course.
1. There are many design processes
that guide professionals in
developing solutions to problems. 2. A design process most used by
engineers includes defining a
problem, brainstorming, researching,
identifying requirements, exploring
possibilities, selecting an approach,
developing a design proposal,
making a model or prototype, testing,
refining, making, and communicating
3. Engineers create sketches to quickly
record, communicate, and
4. Engineers apply dimensions to
drawings to communicate size
5. Statistical analysis of measurements
can help verify the quality of a design
6. Engineers use Computer Aided
Design modeling systems to quickly
generate and annotate working
drawings. Da Vinci Invention of the Automobile
The word design is used throughout many disciplines, each with its own
slightly different definition. Technical and non-technical people alike use the
word in its generic form to identify something that is the product of a
conscious human effort.
Design as a process is the cornerstone of all engineering professions.
Professionals often use the phrase “the design process” when talking about a
method by which problems are identified and solutions are generated. This
sometimes suggests there is only one way to plan or problem-solve. In fact,
there are a multitude of methods to design. Some are very vague, while
others are quite detailed. But, they all start with a need, a problem, or a want,
and follow through a series of steps or phases that result in the creation of
something that serves as a solution to the need, problem, or want.
The Design Process
process will be used
throughout all Project ? curricula. Lead The Way
1. There are many design processes that guide professionals in developing
solutions to problems.
2. A design process most used by engineers includes defining a problem,
brainstorming, researching, identifying requirements, exploring
possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making
a model or prototype, testing, refining, making, and communicating results.
Design teams use brainstorming techniques to generate large numbers of 3.
ideas in short time periods.
4. Engineers conduct research to develop their knowledge base, stimulate
creative ideas, and make informed decisions.
5. A designer uses an engineer’s notebook to chronologically document all
aspects of a design project.
1. What is the design process and how is it used?
2. Why is brainstorming important when modifying or improving a product?
3. What is meant by constraints and criteria?
4. What are common constraints put on a product?
5. What comes to mind when you hear the words evolution of a product?
6. What kinds of situations might keep a designer from moving sequentially
through a design process?
7. What is an engineer’s notebook and how is it used? 8. Why do engineers use graphics to record and communicate information?
1. Assessment 2. Brainstorming 3. Client 4. Constraint 5. Design 6. Design Brief 7. Design Process 8. Designer 9. Engineer 10. Engineer’s Notebook 11. Evolution 12. Innovation 13. Invention 14. Iterative 15. Problem
Identification 16. Process 17. Product 18. Research 19. Sequential 20. Solution 21. Standard 22. Target Consumer 23. Time Line Chart
It is often said that a picture is worth a thousand words. This proverb is very
true when communicating ideas to solving problems. To properly
communicate technical information about objects that must be manufactured,
fluency in the universal language of technical drawing is required. One of the
first steps to learning this language is developing the ability to sketch.
Visualizing, communicating, exploring, and documenting ideas occur
throughout the process of design. The process begins when a client and an
engineer meet for the first time to define a problem; when research requires
field measurements to be taken so that a scenario can be replicated; when an
idea occurs during lunch and must be quickly recorded on a napkin before it
is lost; when teams of people feed off each other’s ideas and brainstorm
possible solutions; when an engineer works out the details of a design
solution so that it can be prototyped and tested; and when a solution has
been proven to work and must be documented for reproduction.
Technical sketching differs from technical drawing: technical sketches are
made with a pencil, paper, and an idea, while technical drawing advances a
sketch to follow specific technical drawing guidelines that employ the use of
tools, such as isometric graph paper and the aid of a computer. Likewise,
technical sketching differs from artistic sketching. Technical sketches follow
the same standards that govern the development of technical drawings
except the sketches are done freehand.
As they advance in their experiences and skills through the course, students
will learn basic rules of technical sketching in this lesson and will learn the
drawing standards that apply. The understanding of technical sketching is
critical for designers when effectively conveying their ideas about a product.
Sketching is the beginning stages of product development. Students will learn
how to sketch isometric, oblique, perspective, and multiview sketches of
1. Engineers create sketches to quickly record, communicate, and
2. Pictorials and tonal shading techniques are used in combination to give
sketched objects a realistic look.
3. Designers use isometric, oblique, perspective, and multiview sketching to
maintain an object’s visual proportions.
4. A multiview projection is the most common method of communicating the
shape and size of an object that is intended for manufacture.
1. Why is sketching an important engineering skill?
2. What is the difference between sketching and drawing?
3. What does the term isometric sketch mean?
4. What does the term oblique sketch mean?
What is perspective sketching? 5.
6. What advantages do pictorial drawings have over multiview drawings?
7. What are the three main views of a sketch or drawing that are required to
depict an object?
8. Why should you not erase construction lines?
9. If you are given an object with an unknown function and told to create a
sketch of it, how would you determine what the front view would look like?
10. What is orthographic projection?
1. Construction 2. Depth 3. Documentation
4. Edge 5. Ellipse 6. Freehand
7. Grid 8. Height 9. Hidden Line
10. Isometric 11. Line 12. Line Conventions
13. Line Weight 14. Manufacture 15. Measurement
16. Multiview 17. Object Line 18. Oblique Sketch
19. Orthographic 20. Perspective 21. Pictorial Sketch
22. Plane 23. Point 24. Profile
25. Projection Line 26. Projection 27. Proportion
28. Scale 29. Shading 30. Shape
31. Size 32. Sketch 33. Solid
34. Technical 35. Tone 36. Vanishing Point
37. Views 38. Visualize 39. Width
The practice of measuring is older than recorded
history. Every human civilization throughout history
developed its own measuring tools and, along with
them, its own measuring standards. It was through
the establishment of measuring tools and standards
that the Egyptians were able to build their giant
Dial Calipers pyramids, and the Romans were able to build their
roads and aqueducts. Shared understanding and
communication established through standardization played a key role in their
successful outcome. Standardization is what allows many people to work
individually on parts that come together to form a finished product or system.
Without measurement standards, manufactured parts would not be
interchangeable and mass production could not exist. Measurement is so
important that the founding fathers of the United States included it in the
Constitution, giving Congress the power to set uniform standards for weights
and measures. Today, the American National Standards Institute serves as
the unifying force system for the measurement used in the United States. This
lesson provides an introduction to measurement through the study of linear
distance and angles.
Since the beginning, scientists have realized the laws of nature are not bound
to the borders between kingdoms or countries, and that uniform standards of
measure form the foundation for changing the secrets of the universe into
human knowledge. In the midst of the French Revolution, scientists
developed a new system of measurement that was simple, logical, and well-
suited to the needs of
both scientists and
engineers. Since its
inception 220 years
ago, the metric
system has spread
and is now the
for acquiring and
1. Measurement systems were developed out of the need for
2. Engineers apply dimensions to drawings to communicate size information.
3. Manufactured parts are often created in different countries, where
dimensional values are often converted from one standard unit to another.
4. The amount of variation that can be measured depends on the precision
of the measuring tool.
5. Statistical analysis of measurements can help to verify the quality of a
design or process.
6. Engineers use graphics to communicate patterns in recorded data.
1. Why did our ancestors create measurement standards?
2. Who is responsible for establishing measurement standards that are used
by engineers and manufacturers today?
3. What methods do engineers use to communicate an object’s dimensional
4. What problems could result from incorrectly converting measurements
from one system to another?
5. What factors influence the precision of a measuring tool?
6. What information can a designer use from a statistical analysis of a
1. American National 2. Accuracy 3. Caliper
4. Class Interval 5. Convert 6. Data 7. Data Set 8. Dimension 9. Dimension Lines 10. English System 11. Extension Lines 12. Frequency 13. Graph 14. Histogram 15. International
16. Mean 17. Measure 18. Median 19. Metric System 20. Mode 21. Normal Distribution 22. Numeric Constraint 23. Precision 24. Scale 25. Standard 26. Statistics 27. Two-Dimensional
28. Unit 29. Variation
The process of design is inherently graphical. As
ideas are developed, they are often jotted down on
paper for later recollection and further development.
As ideas are formalized, greater accuracy is required.
At this point, sketches are converted to computer
models and formal drawings, which include
annotations describing the size and characteristics of
the design features. Design engineers who have a
strong understanding of shapes and other geometric
relationships develop these formal drawings.
Today’s software that employs parametric design
functionality requires an understanding of prior
knowledge and concepts learned earlier in this unit. Students will transfer this prior knowledge to a project that will give a first hand experience at what a
designer would go through given the problem statement from his or her boss.
In this lesson, students will learn how to create a product from conception to reality. They will do this by applying the design process steps first hand in the creation of their product. Students will live the life of a product designer and create a solution to a problem that exists for a company. They will also design a package for the puzzle cube.
1. Three-dimensional forms are derived from two-dimensional shapes. 2. The results of the design process are commonly displayed as a physical
3. Engineers develop models to communicate and evaluate possible
4. Geometric and numeric constraints are used to define the shape and size
of objects in Computer Aided Design (CAD) modeling systems. 5. Design engineers use CAD modeling systems to quickly generate and
annotate working drawings.
6. Packaging not only protects a product, but contributes to that product’s
1. Why is a design process so important to follow when creating a solution to