Unit 1 Introduction to Design

By Stacy Greene,2014-04-12 08:18
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Statistical analysis of measurements can help verify the quality of a design or process. Da Vinci Invention of the Automobile Car!

Design & Drawing

For Production

Mr. Williams

    Table of Contents


Unit 1 Introduction to Design

    1.1 Introduction to a Design Process

    1.2 Introduction to Technical Sketching and Drawing

    1.3 Measurement and Statistics

    1.4 Puzzle Cube

Unit 2 Design Solutions

    2.1 Geometric Shapes and Solids

    2.2 Dimension and Tolerances

    2.3 Advanced Modeling Skills

    2.4 Advanced Design

Unit 3 Reverse Engineering

    3.1 Visual Analysis

    3.2 Functional Analysis

    3.3 Structural Analysis

    3.4 Product Improvement by Design

Unit 4 Design Problems

    4.1 Engineering Design Ethics

    4.2 Design Teams


    This unit is an introduction to different facets of design and will emphasize the following: evolution and history of design, the steps in a design process, the importance of proper sketching techniques, measurement and tools used in design, and the use of those tools and techniques to innovate or invent solutions to problems. Students will be introduced to a variety of skill building opportunities that will enhance their design skills and prepare them for the remaining units in this course.


    1. There are many design processes

    that guide professionals in

    developing solutions to problems. 2. A design process most used by

    engineers includes defining a

    problem, brainstorming, researching,

    identifying requirements, exploring

    possibilities, selecting an approach,

    developing a design proposal,

    making a model or prototype, testing,

    refining, making, and communicating


    3. Engineers create sketches to quickly

    record, communicate, and

    investigate ideas.

    4. Engineers apply dimensions to

    drawings to communicate size


    5. Statistical analysis of measurements

    can help verify the quality of a design

    or process.

    6. Engineers use Computer Aided

    Design modeling systems to quickly

    generate and annotate working

    drawings. Da Vinci Invention of the Automobile



The word design is used throughout many disciplines, each with its own

    slightly different definition. Technical and non-technical people alike use the

    word in its generic form to identify something that is the product of a

    conscious human effort.

Design as a process is the cornerstone of all engineering professions.

    Professionals often use the phrase “the design process” when talking about a

    method by which problems are identified and solutions are generated. This

    sometimes suggests there is only one way to plan or problem-solve. In fact,

    there are a multitude of methods to design. Some are very vague, while

    others are quite detailed. But, they all start with a need, a problem, or a want,

    and follow through a series of steps or phases that result in the creation of

    something that serves as a solution to the need, problem, or want.

    The Design Process

    This nationally

    recognized design

    process will be used

    throughout all Project ? curricula. Lead The Way


    1. There are many design processes that guide professionals in developing

    solutions to problems.

    2. A design process most used by engineers includes defining a problem,

    brainstorming, researching, identifying requirements, exploring

    possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making

    a model or prototype, testing, refining, making, and communicating results.

     Design teams use brainstorming techniques to generate large numbers of 3.

    ideas in short time periods.

    4. Engineers conduct research to develop their knowledge base, stimulate

    creative ideas, and make informed decisions.

    5. A designer uses an engineer’s notebook to chronologically document all

    aspects of a design project.

     Essential Questions

    1. What is the design process and how is it used?

    2. Why is brainstorming important when modifying or improving a product?

    3. What is meant by constraints and criteria?

    4. What are common constraints put on a product?

    5. What comes to mind when you hear the words evolution of a product?

    6. What kinds of situations might keep a designer from moving sequentially

    through a design process?

    7. What is an engineer’s notebook and how is it used? 8. Why do engineers use graphics to record and communicate information?

    Key Terms

    1. Assessment 2. Brainstorming 3. Client 4. Constraint 5. Design 6. Design Brief 7. Design Process 8. Designer 9. Engineer 10. Engineer’s Notebook 11. Evolution 12. Innovation 13. Invention 14. Iterative 15. Problem

    Identification 16. Process 17. Product 18. Research 19. Sequential 20. Solution 21. Standard 22. Target Consumer 23. Time Line Chart


It is often said that a picture is worth a thousand words. This proverb is very

    true when communicating ideas to solving problems. To properly

    communicate technical information about objects that must be manufactured,

    fluency in the universal language of technical drawing is required. One of the

    first steps to learning this language is developing the ability to sketch.

Visualizing, communicating, exploring, and documenting ideas occur

    throughout the process of design. The process begins when a client and an

    engineer meet for the first time to define a problem; when research requires

    field measurements to be taken so that a scenario can be replicated; when an

    idea occurs during lunch and must be quickly recorded on a napkin before it

    is lost; when teams of people feed off each other’s ideas and brainstorm

    possible solutions; when an engineer works out the details of a design

    solution so that it can be prototyped and tested; and when a solution has

    been proven to work and must be documented for reproduction.

Technical sketching differs from technical drawing: technical sketches are

    made with a pencil, paper, and an idea, while technical drawing advances a

    sketch to follow specific technical drawing guidelines that employ the use of

    tools, such as isometric graph paper and the aid of a computer. Likewise,

    technical sketching differs from artistic sketching. Technical sketches follow

    the same standards that govern the development of technical drawings

    except the sketches are done freehand.

As they advance in their experiences and skills through the course, students

    will learn basic rules of technical sketching in this lesson and will learn the

    drawing standards that apply. The understanding of technical sketching is

    critical for designers when effectively conveying their ideas about a product.

    Sketching is the beginning stages of product development. Students will learn

    how to sketch isometric, oblique, perspective, and multiview sketches of

    various objects.


    1. Engineers create sketches to quickly record, communicate, and

    investigate ideas.

    2. Pictorials and tonal shading techniques are used in combination to give

    sketched objects a realistic look.

    3. Designers use isometric, oblique, perspective, and multiview sketching to

    maintain an object’s visual proportions.

    4. A multiview projection is the most common method of communicating the

    shape and size of an object that is intended for manufacture.

    Essential Questions

    1. Why is sketching an important engineering skill?

    2. What is the difference between sketching and drawing?

    3. What does the term isometric sketch mean?

    4. What does the term oblique sketch mean?

     What is perspective sketching? 5.

    6. What advantages do pictorial drawings have over multiview drawings?

    7. What are the three main views of a sketch or drawing that are required to

    depict an object?

    8. Why should you not erase construction lines?

    9. If you are given an object with an unknown function and told to create a

    sketch of it, how would you determine what the front view would look like?

    10. What is orthographic projection?

    Key Terms

    1. Construction 2. Depth 3. Documentation


    4. Edge 5. Ellipse 6. Freehand

    7. Grid 8. Height 9. Hidden Line

    10. Isometric 11. Line 12. Line Conventions


    13. Line Weight 14. Manufacture 15. Measurement

    16. Multiview 17. Object Line 18. Oblique Sketch


    19. Orthographic 20. Perspective 21. Pictorial Sketch

    Projection Sketch

    22. Plane 23. Point 24. Profile

    25. Projection Line 26. Projection 27. Proportion


    28. Scale 29. Shading 30. Shape

    31. Size 32. Sketch 33. Solid

    34. Technical 35. Tone 36. Vanishing Point



    37. Views 38. Visualize 39. Width


    The practice of measuring is older than recorded

    history. Every human civilization throughout history

    developed its own measuring tools and, along with

    them, its own measuring standards. It was through

    the establishment of measuring tools and standards

    that the Egyptians were able to build their giant

    Dial Calipers pyramids, and the Romans were able to build their

    roads and aqueducts. Shared understanding and

    communication established through standardization played a key role in their

    successful outcome. Standardization is what allows many people to work

    individually on parts that come together to form a finished product or system.

    Without measurement standards, manufactured parts would not be

    interchangeable and mass production could not exist. Measurement is so

    important that the founding fathers of the United States included it in the

    Constitution, giving Congress the power to set uniform standards for weights

    and measures. Today, the American National Standards Institute serves as

    the unifying force system for the measurement used in the United States. This

    lesson provides an introduction to measurement through the study of linear

    distance and angles.

Since the beginning, scientists have realized the laws of nature are not bound

    to the borders between kingdoms or countries, and that uniform standards of

    measure form the foundation for changing the secrets of the universe into

    human knowledge. In the midst of the French Revolution, scientists

    developed a new system of measurement that was simple, logical, and well-

    suited to the needs of

    both scientists and

    engineers. Since its

    inception 220 years

    ago, the metric

    system has spread

    throughout the

    industrialized world,

    and is now the

    international standard

    for acquiring and




    1. Measurement systems were developed out of the need for


    2. Engineers apply dimensions to drawings to communicate size information.

    3. Manufactured parts are often created in different countries, where

    dimensional values are often converted from one standard unit to another.

    4. The amount of variation that can be measured depends on the precision

    of the measuring tool.

    5. Statistical analysis of measurements can help to verify the quality of a

    design or process.

    6. Engineers use graphics to communicate patterns in recorded data.

Essential Questions

    1. Why did our ancestors create measurement standards?

    2. Who is responsible for establishing measurement standards that are used

    by engineers and manufacturers today?

    3. What methods do engineers use to communicate an object’s dimensional


    4. What problems could result from incorrectly converting measurements

    from one system to another?

    5. What factors influence the precision of a measuring tool?

    6. What information can a designer use from a statistical analysis of a


Key Terms

    1. American National 2. Accuracy 3. Caliper

    Standards Institute


    4. Class Interval 5. Convert 6. Data 7. Data Set 8. Dimension 9. Dimension Lines 10. English System 11. Extension Lines 12. Frequency 13. Graph 14. Histogram 15. International

    Organization for

    Standardization (ISO)

    16. Mean 17. Measure 18. Median 19. Metric System 20. Mode 21. Normal Distribution 22. Numeric Constraint 23. Precision 24. Scale 25. Standard 26. Statistics 27. Two-Dimensional

     28. Unit 29. Variation


The process of design is inherently graphical. As

    ideas are developed, they are often jotted down on

    paper for later recollection and further development.

    As ideas are formalized, greater accuracy is required.

    At this point, sketches are converted to computer

    models and formal drawings, which include

    annotations describing the size and characteristics of

    the design features. Design engineers who have a

    strong understanding of shapes and other geometric

    relationships develop these formal drawings.

Today’s software that employs parametric design

    functionality requires an understanding of prior

    knowledge and concepts learned earlier in this unit. Students will transfer this prior knowledge to a project that will give a first hand experience at what a

    designer would go through given the problem statement from his or her boss.

    In this lesson, students will learn how to create a product from conception to reality. They will do this by applying the design process steps first hand in the creation of their product. Students will live the life of a product designer and create a solution to a problem that exists for a company. They will also design a package for the puzzle cube.


    1. Three-dimensional forms are derived from two-dimensional shapes. 2. The results of the design process are commonly displayed as a physical


    3. Engineers develop models to communicate and evaluate possible


    4. Geometric and numeric constraints are used to define the shape and size

    of objects in Computer Aided Design (CAD) modeling systems. 5. Design engineers use CAD modeling systems to quickly generate and

    annotate working drawings.

    6. Packaging not only protects a product, but contributes to that product’s

    commercial success.

    Essential Questions

    1. Why is a design process so important to follow when creating a solution to

    a problem?

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