PALEXPO, Geneva, 4 - 5 March 2009

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4 Mar 2009 There is a time mismatch between car and communication equipment lifecycles. The challenge is to find an innovative design methodology for

     PALEXPO, Geneva, 4 - 5 March 2009

Workshop on ICTs in Motor Vehicles

    The Fully Networked Car Workshop

    Palexpo, Geneva 4-5 March 2009

    Workshop Report

The fifth annual workshop on the “Fully Networked Car”, organized jointly by ITU, ISO and IEC, was held in

    Geneva, 4-5 March 2009, in association with the Geneva International Motor Show, one of the world‟s

    leading automotive events. The workshop attracted 26 speakers and more than 100 participants. The

    Lightning GT Car, a high-performance electric vehicle, was on display outside the workshop, as a symbol of

    the environmental consciousness sweeping the industry.


Opening Session

    The workshop was opened by Malcolm Johnson, Director of the ITU Telecommunication thStandardization Bureau, who welcomed participants to the 5 World Standards Cooperation workshop on

    the Fully Networked Car (FNC) at the Geneva Motor Show. ITU took the lead in organizing the workshop,

    along with IEC and ISO and he thanked the members of the Steering Committee and the sponsors (IEEE,

    FreeScale Semiconductor and Telemobility).

    The main themes of the 2009 workshop are climate change and the environment. The UN Secretary-General,

    Ban Ki-moon has called this the moral challenge of our time, and has asked ITU to play a role in combating

    climate change. Malcolm Johnson was pleased to report that the ITU-T Focus Group on ICT & Climate Change

    is making good progress towards a standardized methodology that will allow ICT companies to measure their

    carbon footprint. Climate change will also be the topic of World Standards Day this year.

    He then stated “We need to look at how ICTs can help the motor industry address the challenge of climate change” and mentioned potential efficiencies from ICTs in car communications, traffic monitoring, parking

    spaces and GHG emission reductions. The workshop should seek to identify new needs for standards in these

    areas. Following last year‟s event, ITU started work on a vehicle gateway platform for telecommunication/ITS services/applications. He also mentioned that ITU-T, through a Focus Group, is

    working on specifications that will enhance communications in vehicles, including the development of

    requirements and testing methodologies for wideband communications in cars. This work takes place in an

    ITU Focus Group which means that any interested party can participate and he invited interested participants

    to get involved. In addition, ITU hosts the Advisory Panel for Standards Cooperation on Telecommunications

    related to Motor Vehicles.

    On behalf of ISO, Kevin McKinley, Deputy Secretary-General delivered opening remarks. He recalled

    that the topics before the workshop reflect the challenges for cars and all sectors. Key objectives for the

    auto industry are to address climate change, security, safety, innovation and advanced communications. He

    2 remarked that “standards have an undeniable contribution to economic growth”, noting their impact of 2.5

    billion pounds in the British economy. The challenge is to set priorities and coordinate efforts among the

    WSC members.

    On behalf of Aharon Amit, IEC General Secretary, Jack Sheldon described the work of his organization as the power behind the networked car”. Electricity is a human right like food and water and the workshop

    and efforts to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are consistent with goals set by IPPC for eclectic and

    hybrid cars. Developing better batteries is essential and new developments using lithium ion are promising.

    IEC started work in 1969 on electric vehicles and uses a lifecycle analysis in its work on batteries. The

    development of smart grids will be vital to support the roll-out of Ecars and IEC is working closely with ITU

    and ISO on these issues to provide seamless standards; which will benefit governments, manufacturers and

    drivers. He warned that we must not repeat the mistakes of the past in developing cars for the future and need to avoid incompatible standards.

Executive session

    The session for keynote speakers was moderated by Hans Gierlich, Head Acoustics GmbH (Germany),

    who outlined the main topics of the workshop and introduced the keynote speakers.

    The first keynote speech was given by Burkhard Göschel, CTO Vehicles and Powertrain Group, Magna

    International and Chairman to the Grand Prix Manufacturers Association and the Formula 1

    Manufacturers Advisory Committee. The title of his presentations was “How cars communicate with their environment”. He mentioned his work with Formual1 and efforts to reduce emissions, lighter car and

    downsizing engines. ICTs provide data in telemetry systems that are vital to F1 performance and race

    strategy. Nonetheless, in F1 communications are one-way since 2003 to maintain the challenge to the driver.

    Systems used for F1 also can be used to improve safety of road cars and reduce GHG emissions. New

    regulations for safety and fuel consumption in road cars are complex. In his view, 90% of innovation will be

    in electronics and software and this will add a lot of complexity to the car; e.g. wiring harnesses could

    increase from 50-300 m to 1-4 km tomorrow, unless efficiencies are found. Thus, there is a need to reduce

    the number of ECUs (electronic control units), and better hardware and software integration. The

    development and level of electrification and EV depends on batteries advances. A key need for standards

    need is lower cost sensors and defining software architectures for more complex networks, modulized and


    T. Russell Shields, Chairman, Ygomi spoke on the topic Vehicle Communication to Help the Environment”. He began by enumerating ways in which electric vehicles can help reduce dependence on

    fossil fuels and noted that key issues to be addressed in electric cars include limited driving range, recharge

    time and cost, sparse recharging infrastructure and battery costs. Vehicle communications can make electric

    vehicles more attractive to consumers by helping to address these issues. Data services using ICTs can

    facilitate range determination, remote battery and range monitoring, identify charging station locations and

    lead to more economical EV charging. For example, the Internet could be used to check the charge status of

    the car. Voice services using ICT applications can offer EV roadside assistance, battery replacement and

    push usage guidance. He stressed the point that fuel usage and emissions regulations should be based on

    real-world data rather than tests, to be more accurate and effective. This will allow manufacturers to refocus

    their engineering to optimize fuel usage over vehicle lifespan under actual driving conditions, improve vehicle

    maintenance and determine ways to retire their older vehicles. The same level of investment could produce

    fuel use reductions of an additional 15% if regulations were based on real world driving experiences. Future

    telematic services can directly track fuel usage and emissions using probe data collected from vehicle sensors.

    The technology exists and the spectrum needed for these services is already available in the US, Europe and


    Taido Saito, CTO, Toyota InfoTechnology Center spoke on ITS as a new market for telecommunication in Ubiquitous ICT”. He began by stating that “ICT can lead to safer and greener transport”. In his view,

    global standards for ITS can serve the ubiquitous automobile market and usher in a more environmentally-

    3 friendly industry. Computers and communication terminals will be ubiquitous by 2030, based on growth

    trends, although there are some barriers that must be overcome, such as finding sufficient radio frequency.

    Automobile technology is an important target for ICT development and can benefit from ubiquitous

    communications and all IP networks and iPv6. Advances in computing power and in the speed of networks

    promote use of ICTs to improve vehicle performance, e.g. by monitoring tire pressure, vehicle stability

    control and radar cruise control. ITS, using different communication modes, can play a key role in traffic

    management, public transport management, transit vehicle tracking, traveler information, vehicle safety,

    commercial vehicle operation and emergency management. In the deployment of new networks, it is

    important to construct telecommunication infrastructure which is suited for vehicle use, as telematics can be

    used to avoid accidents. To expand the market for ITS, standardization of platform and applications is

    important, recognizing that machine-to-machine communication poses challenges different from person-to-

    person communication.


    CentersTravelersCommercial Maintenance & Traffic Emergency Toll Construction VehicleManagementManagementAdministrationManagementRemote Traveler AdministrationSupportFleet & Information Emissions Transit Archived Freight Service ProviderManagementManagementData ManagementManagementPersonal Information Vehicle to Vehicle CommunicationsAccess

    Wide Area Wireless (Mobile)Fixed point to fixed point CommunicationsCommunications


    Emergency Security MonitoringFieldVehicle

    CommercialToll CollectionVehicle

    TransitParking ManagementVehicleVehiclesMaintenance &Commercial Vehicle CheckConstruction VehicleDedicated Short Range Communications

    Source: Taido Saito, Toyota InfoTechnology Center

    ITS as a new market for telecommunication in Ubiquitous ICT”

    Hermann Meyer, CEO, ERTICO (ITS Europe) addressed the topic Ubiquitous connectivity to improve

    urban mobility”. ERTICO is a public-private, multi-sector partnership with over 100 partners from industry,

    infrastructure & telecom operators, public authorities, research institutes and users. It is working to promote

    ITS in Europe to promote intelligent mobility”, involving cars, people and goods. The vision of Intelligent

    Mobility is zero accidents, zero delays, reduced impact on the environment, and fully informed drivers, with

    privacy respected and security ensured. ITS can lessen traffic, improve accessibility, enhance safety and

    lead to emission reductions, connecting both cars and travellers. He gave a number of examples of ITS use,


    ? Digital maps and hazard warnings extend driver perception and control

    ? Sensors and communication technology can prevent intersection accidents and improve traffic flow.

    ? creating an omnipresent travel assistant to connect the traveller, e.g. emergency calls

    ? ITS services to improve infrastructure usage

    ? Cooperative mobility systems ubiquitous information exchange that is seamless and interoperable Enhanced travellers support can encompass real-time information about traffic conditions and transport

    service operations and make the best-informed choices, assisted route guidance, navigation, hazard

    warnings, multimodal travel assistance and parking guidance & payment systems. Through integrated


    network management, network managers can select road network and transport system strategies to

    achieve optimum traffic distribution, respond to changing demand, avoid sensitive areas and react

    immediately to incidents. He outlined a number of steps toward cooperative urban mobility, to bring all cities

    up to best practice standards and to develop necessary frameworks.

    ERTICO ITS Europe: promoting

    Intelligent Mobility

    oWorking together for the safe, secure, clean, efficient and comfortable mobility of people and goods thanks to ITS

    oPublic-private, multi-sector partnership with over 100 Partners from industry, infrastructure & telecom operators, public authorities, research institutes and users.

    oBringing Intelligence into mobilitythrough cooperation with all stakeholders

    Examples of ITS servicesCooperative mobility systems ubiquitous information exchange


    Source: Hermann Meyer, ERTICO (ITS Europe)

    Ubiquitous connectivity to improve urban mobility”

    Gianluigi FERRI, CEO Wireless & Monza Research Institute, replaced Formula 1 driver Ivan Capelli on the

    program and spoke about the “Aria Nuova” Project and the scientific activities of Monza Autodrome”. Autodromo Nazionale Monza" is not only a well-known site for worldwide motor races, but is now also a

    centre for spreading information on what companies are developing and producing in motor sport and

    innovation and a place where such activities can have practical experimentation. “Aria Nuova” is the name of the project born to carry on this new image of Monza Circuit. The first edition of Aria Nuova was held at

    5 “Autodromo Nazionale Monza” from 12-15 June 2008, with the aim of creating a meeting point between

    research and scientific development, entertainment and sport competition. The second edition will take place

    from the 11-14 June 2009 with sessions on energy and climate and energy and communication. The event

    will end with the 2nd FIA Trophy Aria Nuova a competition dedicated to ecological vehicles. The objectives of “Aria Nuova” research include:

    1. creation of a facility for the testing of fuels and innovative propulsion systems (biofuels, biogas, hydrogen,

    hydrogen-methane mixtures, etc.);

    2. collaboration with the Joint Research Center of the European Commission for the construction of facilities

    to monitor and control energy and the environment;

    3. insertion into the car fleet of the circuit, of prototypes powered with new fuels, and

    4. implementation of laboratories to study the research for new solutions for mobility.

    Session 1: Fully Networked Car and Climate Change The first session, starting the first afternoon, was moderated by Denis Griot, Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. He explained that the full implementation of FNC and ITS is critical and an important part of addressing

    climate change. He then outlined the scope of Session 1. The vision is zero fatalities and a 20% CO2

    reduction by 2020. Road congestion costs 13 billion EURO in waste and the number of fatalities remains high,

    so the session would look at the latest developments and real possibilities for solutions.

    The session began with a special presentation from Chris Dell, Managing Director, The Lightning Company, about the “Lightning” car, which was showcased at the workshop and later at the Car Show.

    The Lightning Company was established in 2007 in the United Kingdom. The prototype Lightning was

    launched at the British Car Show. The car uses the latest technology in batteries and motors to produce a

    high-performance, premium-brand, eclectic car that is “future-proofed”. The Lightning will be on the market

    in 2 years. It goes 0-100 in 5 second, with a top speed of 130 km/h and range of 300 km. It can be fast

    charged in 10 minutes. Other models are under development, based on the latest innovations.

Ziva Patir, Better Place, Global Standards, Regulations and Compliance presented on “How Standards

    contribute to the challenges of climate changes Electric cars as a model for sustainability”. Better Place

    seeks to be an enabler of mass deployment of electric cars, to meet the goals of sustainability. This requires

    a new business model and adequate infrastructure. She then outlined the many benefits that electronic cars

    can bring in terms of sustainable development; including reductions in air pollution, water contamination,

    GHG emissions, oil refining and noise. In her view, the FNC will require a holistic and comprehensive

    approach by major SDOs; ITU, ISO and IEC. Better Place provides charging infrastructure, not cars (Renault

    is a partner for vehicle production), and she commented standards can either create the project or kill it”. To achieve what she describes as the “Better Place Solution”, many aspects of EV need to be standardized

    and ITU can contribute on communications and data transmission standards, since cars will always be

    connected through a Service and Control Center. ICTs can optimize the power grid and the charging of

    electric vehicles, through Intelligent Demand Management, so utilities can be more efficient, which is

    particularly valuable in countries that lack renewable energy sources. Several scenarios were presented for

    smart charging to show these efficiencies. Thus, standards are need for location, connectors, communication

    interfaces and geometry/capacity.


    Intelligent Demand Management

    Service and Control Center enables:Peak ShavingDemand Side ManagementAncillary ServicesFuture Vehicle to Grid (V2G)

    Battery Swap StationsCharge Spots,


    Source: Ziva Patir, Better Place, “How Standards contribute to the challenges of climate changes –

    Electric cars as a model for sustainability”

    Bruno Verplancken, Neopark addressed the topic of Efficient Parking: A service enabler for ITS with positive impact on climate change”. Neopark is a leader in carpark solutions in France, with more than 7

    million visitors to its 3 websites. Starting with an analysis of customer parking behavior, solutions can be

    developed to make the process more efficient and reduce emission. The solution is to guide the motorist to a

    parking solution in real time using GPS communications.

    Cyril Zeller, Business Development Director, Mobile Devices MD was formed in 2002 and is a leading manufacturer of embedded telematic devices. They seek to be an enabler of new services to the car and

    driver, such as Neopark, to foster more efficient driving and this requires connectivity. They develop

    platforms to enable a wide range of applications and content, and this requires efficient communication

    protocols. The information must be simple to use, as the recipient is driving, so no browser is included, but

    the device can be custom configured (e.g. brand of service station). The platform developed for Neopark

    was demonstrated. The service is free to driver, as the parking companies pay to provide the data.

    Navigation, white/yellow pages and searches are other services than are provided in-board to make driving

    more efficient.

    Marc Osajda, Freescale, Semiconductor, Inc. spoke on “Outstanding Innovation in Automotive Networking”. Many of the promises of ITS require that the car can communicate to the outside world.

    Megatrends in the automotive industry are: going green safety; affordability; and connectivity-infotainment.

    He contrasted the already extensive use of electronics in cars with the promise of new technologies to further

    improve vehicle safety and the driving experience. Electronics have already led to more vehicle power and

    weight, bit with reduced energy consumption. Innovations in electronics and semiconductors are the key to

    ITS, e.g. they can improve battery life in EVs. Multicore processors are viewed as the most viable means to

    achieve power gains. Electrification of the power train will be a key to emission reduction and to weight

    reduction of the car. Current trends for cars require more bandwidth and embedded computing power, with

    reduced power consumption. In 1996 there were typically 6 ECUs (electronic control units); while in 2008 in

    high-end vehicle this figure had grown to 70 ECUs. To reverse this trend, vehicle networking will include

    Domain Controllers interconnected via a central gateway, increased functionality and computing power per

    7 domain controller ECU and intelligent satellite modules. There is a much wireless in and around the car (in

    the cabin, to the garage, to the roadside infrastructure. But there are many protocols and ITU should

    standardize them to facilitate the deployment of ITS, and there is a lack of standards for many of these

    applications (e.g. tire pressure).

    Automotive Megatrends

    Vehicle Stability Vehicle Stability System System Infotainment Infotainment Telematics/eCall Telematics/eCall

    FlexRayFlexRay??Hybrid Hybrid Engine Engine ControlControlRadarRadar

    Intelligent Distributed Intelligent Distributed ControlControlNight VisionNight VisionCamera-based Collision Camera-based Collision AvoidanceAvoidance

    Source: Marc Osajda, Freescale, Semiconductor, Inc.

    “Outstanding Innovation in Automotive Networking”

Session 2 Car-to-“X: Communication (Part I)

    The second and third sessions were moderated by James Gover, IEEE. The topic of the sessions is communication from the car to a variety of sources.

    Yunpeng Zang, Aachen University presented Towards a European Solution for Networked Cars - Integration of Car-to-Car technology into cellular systems for vehicular communication in Europe”. In 2005

    in Europe, there were 1,300,000 road accidents, 40,000 casualties and 160 bn. ? in economic damage. This

    led the EU to call for action to halve the number of fatalities by 2010 under the eSafety concept. Meeting

    this target will require active safety systems, and efforts to date include standardization in EU, IEEE and ITU

    as well as regional and national projects and spectrum regulation.

    He then described a project to improve vehicle communications, as a major step toward reducing highway

    accidents. There are two different approaches: C2C (Car-to-Car) and cellular, but there are pros and cons

    to the 2 approaches. Simulation studies of C2C showed that the system relies heavily on extensive

    bandwidth, but works well in both high and low density scenarios. But with low penetration rates, there is a

    fragmented network and delay problems, and the infrastructure does not exist. The other approach is to use

    existing infrastructure from cellular systems or CoCar (cooperative cars). This system can provide sufficient

    coverage, improved data rate and improved latency (end-to-end delays below 500 milliseconds). However,

    this is an interference limited system. Delay is higher than for C2C, is not guaranteed and it uses licensed

    spectrum, which is costlier. He thus proposed a hybrid solution to benefit from both technologies, whose

    main features include: integrated WLAN interface, shared application module, parallel WLAN and cellular

    communication modules and infrastructure support from cellular system and time critical applications

    through C2C.


    Wai Chen, Telcordia Technologies and Toyota InfoTechnology Center, spoke on Architecture and

    Technology for Adaptive Multi-hop V2V Networking in Dynamic Environments. His research seeks to

    improve driving safety, reduce traffic congestion efficiency and enhance comfort and convenience.

    In preventive warning systems, problems are signal shadowing and limited range. So studies show that a

    multihop network can help. The key issue is to get the information to vehicles in the immediate area. He is

    studying a platform called Local Peer Group Communication (LPG), to group vehicles into peer groups. The

    team has developed protocols to organize the cars dynamically and to use multicasting and frequency

    controls. Simulations are used since real world testing is not practical and he described the various

    parameters used. Multihop broadcast of warning message has shown to be better than single hop and purely

    human braking.

Adam Brzozowski, Avanti Communications addressed the topic Use of Satellite Communication in ITS”.

    He described the SISTER project. The goal of the project is to promote the integration of satellite and

    terrestrial communication with Galileo to maximize ITS use in transport applications. Satellites offer many

    benefits for use in ITS, including minimal infrastructure, very efficient broadcast mode, cost effective for

    large customers, provides back-up for terrestrial and no roaming. The first S-band satellite will be available

    in 2009 for Europe and it offers advantages for these systems. For example, one can get the satellite

    broadcast directly to the vehicle. This can include radio and TV, real-time map updates, location-based

    services and bi-directional capabilities. A number of SISTER demonstrations are underway: road user

    charging (traffic management and enforcement), eCall, map updates, etc. Other objectives are real

    kinematics, authentication of the satellite signal and reconfiguration.

Asier Alonso Muñoz, TECNALIA-TELECOM spoke about SDR-Based Methodology for On-Board

    Communications Systems Design”. New technologies are now being used for efficiency, comfort,

    infotainment, safety and efficiency in driving. SDR is a new methodology to provide integrated solutions for

    on-board communications. At present, many radio standards are forced to coexist on-board cars integrated

    in a single device, and radio standards are not fully harmonized worldwide. There is a time mismatch

    between car and communication equipment lifecycles. The challenge is to find an innovative design

    methodology for on-board (and infrastructure) devices which enables multiple radio integration and to define

    a reconfigurable system architecture which enables seamless evolution towards new communication

    standards. The solution he proposed is SDR; a single programmable device integrating multiple radios.

    Integrating multiple standards and wave forms in a single device can reduce costs. The SDR-based on-board

    Hw architecture has 5 components. In addition, developing new signal processing algorithms can reduce the

    number of Hw elements through Digital Front-End for Direct Digitization. The use of Bandpass sampling has

    the benefit of bandwidth reduction and more flexibility. Testing has shown that SDR can meet the specified


Arnaud de Meulemeester, ATX Europe GmbH GmbH presented on “The .car approach”. He explained an

    initiative called “Dot-Car” (or .car), which aims to give vehicles access to the World Wide Web in a safe manner, to define relevant rules and guidelines and to identify new business models. The goal is to get

    resources available outside the car into the car and to build on existing Internet protocols. Among the

    benefits are improved car safety, lower maintenance costs and the interface will be customized for ease of

    use of the driver. The system has a short time to market and is designed for easy integration into the

    vehicle, while standardization to achieve economies of scale is used for cost savings. Among the key factors

    for the OEM, the technology is agnostic, promotes safer hands-free environment with less driver distraction,

    adapts to the lifecycle of the car and provides a flexible business model with many choices for customers. A

    Harmonization Committee is being formed, consisting of 14 organizations (including ITU-T SG16 VGP) to

    work on needed standards,


    Dot-car Current Discussion

    REQUESTDevice InformationAdditional URL Driving SituationParametersLocationBrand InformationAnalysis of the data Driver ProfileprovidedDriver BehaviorBrowser CapabilitiesGenerateRESPONSEBandwidthresponseMeta Databased onHidden TextSpeech Style SheetURL rewritingServer CapabilitiesWebsite based on Content Typethe data provided in Compliance Classthe request

    Source: Arnaud de Meulemeester, ATX Europe GmbH GmbH

    “The .car approach”


    Session 3: Car-to-“X: Communication (Part II)

    Day 2 of the workshop opened with a continuation of the theme “Car-to-“X: Communication” moderated by James Gover.

Herbert Scheitler, Wavecom addressed 3G car gateways The heart of Advanced Driver Solutions”. He

    discussed the numerous complexities in improving communication among cars and infrastructure. Continuing

    increases in road traffic make in vital to use ICTs and telematics to provide Advanced Driver Solutions (ADS),

    which can improve safety and support drivers and other stakeholders. ADS can also be used to enhance

    traffic info & management, on-board Infotainment and comfort / efficiency. There are a number of challenges

    to introducing ADS and many stakeholders are involved, including public authorities, drivers, manufacturers,

    service providers and network operators. On the technology side, standards and HMI are key issues. He

    described this as a move from today‟s autonomous car to a cooperative system, using both car-to-car (C2C)

    and car-to-infrastructure (C2I) solutions. Wavecom supports ADS through 3G gateways and he described

    different options for Internet access, Wi-Fi solutions and diagnostics, and for eSafety and eCall initiatives

    using a prototype called WeP. In his view, 3G gateways for ADS support the driver for the most efficient,

    safe, secure and comfortable journeys. Cooperative systems and eSafety solutions will improve the

    performance of standalone systems considerably and should reduce the number of fatalities. The interests of

    different stakeholders have to be aligned and critical business issues must be resolved in order to introduce

    the systems successfully in the market.


    Advanced Driver Solutions (ADS)

    From todays autonomous to cooperative


    ?Traffic info & -forecast?Night Vision enhancement ?Cooperative Traffic Control ?Blind spot detection?Demand Management?Hazard warning??Dynamic route guidance?e-call / b-call??Location based infosand ?Theft recoverywarnings?Tracking & Tracing

    ?Music and Video download ?Parking aid?Business Info / e-mail?Off board navigation?Location based services ?Adaptive cruise control (restaurants, hotels etc.)?Adaptive gear control?Advanced awareness

    EU Passenger Transportation

    Passenger Transportation increases permanently 73.5% cars!

    Source: Herbert Scheitler, Wavecom

    “3G car gateways – The heart of Advanced Driver Solutions” Jean-Marie Bonnin, Institut TELECOM /TELECOM Bretagne presented on “IP communication in the car: an Ecosystem Enabler? He surveyed the development of new and faster technologies, numerous wireless

    access networks and more sophisticated mobile devices (smart phones, PDAs, sensors, specialized hardware,

    etc.), and the manner in which they can be used to improve automobiles. He focused on the advantages of

    using IP networks, which work over everything, and mobile routers. He contrasted the rapid rate of change

    in telecommunications and ICTs with the somewhat slower product cycles in the automotive industry, and

    the challenge of dealing with a multiplicity of stakeholders. Since some 300 billion cars are expected by

    2050, migration to IPv6 will be essential to provide enough addresses for using IP networks. He described

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