By Daniel Stone,2014-07-04 14:42
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    Teaching Aims:

     1Review the new words appearing in the last two periods.

     2Learn to use the modal verbsmust, have to, have got to.

    Teaching Important Points:

     1Learn to guess the missing word according to the given sentence.

     2Master the modal verbs correctly.

     Teaching Difficult Point:

     How to usemust, have toandhave got toproperly and how to use their negative forms


    Teaching Methods:

     1Practise and consolidate the words learned in the last two periods.

     2Giving examples to explain the difference between mustandhave toand the difference

    betweenmustn’tanddon’t have to.

     3Making sentences to consolidate the usages of the modal verbs.

    Teaching Aids:

     1a projector 2some slides

     3some pictures

    Teaching Procedures:

    Step Greetings

     Greet the whole class as usual.

    Step Revision

     T: In the last class, we read the passageThe birth of a festival. By reading it, we’ve learnt

    something about Kwanzaa, such as the birth of it, the purpose of it, the way of celebrating it, and

    the seven principles of it. Now I want to ask you some questions about it. The first one: Who

    created this festival?

     Ss: Dr Maulana Karenga.

     T: The second one: Is it a young or an old festival? When was it born?

     Ss: It is a young festival born in 1966

     T: When do people celebrate it?

     Ss: From December 26(one day after Christmas)to January 1(New Year’s Day).

     T: How do people celebrate it?

     Ss: By lighting a candle each day and discussing one of the seven principles of Kwanzaa.

     T: Why did Dr Karenga create Kwanzaa?

     Ss: To celebrate Africa-American culture and history.

     T: Quite right. In fact we are all creating new festivals every yearfestivals and holidays are always changing and as we celebrate them, we make new history and develop our culture. All the

    holidays and festivals help us understand who we are, remember where we come from and share

    our hopes for a happy future. Do you think so?

     Ss: Yes.

     T: So much for my questions about the passage. Besides, we learned some words in it. Do

    you still remember the meanings of them? Let’s do an exercise on the screen. (Teacher shows the

    screen. )

     Find the right explanation for each word.

     1nation 2faith 3determination 4purpose 5generation 6ancestor 7peace


     A. a strong wish to succeed in doing something

     B. large community of people; country

     C. belief in something or someone

     D. an action meant to deceive(欺骗)someone

     E. a reason for doing something

     F. the people born at a certain time

     G. a person in your family who lived a long time ago

     H. quietness and calm

     T: Now please look at the screen. Find the right explanation for each of the words. I read the

    word, and you find and read aloud the right explanation to it. OK?

     Ss: OK.

     T: Nation.

     Ss: Large community of people; country.

     T: ...

     Ss: ...


    Suggested answers:

     1B 2C 3A 4E 5F 6G 7H 8D

     T: Well done. Next, we’ll deal with Language study. First, Word study. Then, Grammar. Now open your books at Page ... . Look at the partWord study. ... Are you ready?

     Ss. Yes.

     T: Here is an exercise for you to do. Choose the best word to fill in each blank. Change the

    form of the word where necessary. Three minutes later, I’ll check your answers.

    Suggested answers:

     1theme, faith, purpose

     2nations, generation, determination

     3joy, ancestors, birth

     4trick, peace, treated

    Step Grammar

     T: We all know that Dr Karenga wrote seven principles of Kwanzaa in the reading material

    The birth of a festival. Can you tell me what they are?

     Ss: They are unity, self-determination, living together, purpose, working together ...

     T: What doespurposemean?

     Ss: We must remember our past and build our future ... .

     T: How about self-determination?

     Ss: We have to build our own lives, create for ourselves, and speak for ourselves.

     T: Quite right. (Teacher writes these sentences on the Bb. )Now, please look at the blackboard.

    In these two sentences, mustandhave toare both used to talk about obligation. But their

    meanings are not quite the same. Mustis most often used to talk about an obligation that

    depends on the person speaking or listening. Have tois generally used to talk about obligations

    that come from outside. Let’s look at another two sentences and compare them. (Teacher writes

    the following sentences on the blackboard:

     1We must be back by ten.

     2We have to be back by ten. )

     T: Xiao Yu, can you tell the difference in meaning between them?

     S: Yes. The first sentence means that we think it is necessary for us to be back by ten. The 1

    second one means someone else thinks it necessary for us to be back by ten, or means that there

    seems to be no other choice.

     T: (To the whole class. )Do you agree with him?

     Ss: Yes.

     T: Then when can we usehave got to?

     Ss: In informal English, have got tocan be used instead ofhave to.

     T: Can you give an example? Zhao Ning, you try, please.

     S: It’s getting late, so I’m afraid I’ve got to go. (Teacher writes it on the Bb. ) 2

     T: Very good. Thank you. Now, please look at the pictures on the screen and describe what an

    army man must do or have to do. (Teacher shows the pictures and ask the students to describe

    each of them one by one. )

    Suggested answers:

     1You have to keep your hair short.

     2You must stand to attention.

     3You have to keep your boots clean.

     4You have to get up early.

     5You must keep fit. /You must do exercises.

     6You must salute your superiors.

     7You have to learn to use a rifle. /You must learn to shoot.

     8You must keep your equipment clean. /You have to clean your equipment.

     T: Well done. You’ve known the differences between them in meaning. Besides, we should

    know thathave tohas more tenses thanmust. Mustcan only be used to express present

    and future obligation; past obligation is usually expressed by usinghad to. For example, when I was your age, I had to get up at 5 every morning. But in reported speech, mustcan be used. Look at this sentence: I told him he must make a decision. Have you understood my explanations?

    (Teacher writes the examples on the Bb while explaining. )

     Ss: Yes.

     T: Very good. Now let’s go on with the negative forms of them. Li Hua, can you tell us the

    negative forms ofmustandhave to?

     S: ... 3

     (Teacher writes the negative forms on the Bb: must notmustn’t; do not have todon’t have


     T: Do they have the same meaning?

     Ss: No. They have quite different meanings.

     T: Well. Let’s compare another two sentences.

     (Bb: You mustn’t tell George. You don’t have to tell George. )

     T: Li Hui, would you like to have a try?

     S: Yes. The first sentence meansdon’t tell George. The second sentence meansyou can 4

    if you like but it isn’t necessary.

     T: Quite right. Instead ofdon’t have to, needn’t is often used in British English, so we also

    sayYou needn’t tell George. It has the same meaning as You don’t have to tell George.

    Can you understand?

     Ss: Yes. We’re quite clear about that.

     T: OK. Next, let’s do some exercises.

    Step Practice

     T: Now, turn to Page 9Look at the first exercise in Grammar part. Here are some greeting

    manners in the table. First you have to decide which are necessary and which are not. Then make

    sentences usingmust, have toor their negative forms after studying the given examples below.

    A few minutes later, I’ll ask some of you to read your sentences to the class. Are you clear?

     S: Yes. s

    Suggested answers:

     1When you’re talking with someone, you must look into his or her eyes.

     2If you meet a friend from China, you don’t have to kiss him on the cheek or hug him.

     3When a soldier meets his officer, he must salute him.

     4When you are invited to a formal party, you must wear clean clothes.

     5If you want to show your respect to others, you must take off your hat when you greet


     (After that, teacher goes on to deal with the second exercise. )

     T: Next, let’s do the second exercise. Suppose you are spending the Spring Festival at your

    grandparents’ house. Complete the following sentences withhave got to. First do it by yourself,

    then exchange your work for comment and correction with your partner.

    Suggested answers:

     1Your school starts tomorrow, so you have got to sayGood-byeto your grandparents.

     2You broke your grandma’s favourite vase, so you have got to make an apology to her.

     3Your parents went back to work three days ago, so you have got to stay alone at your

    grandparents’ house.

     4Your grandparents have given you quite a lot of money, so you have got to consider how to

    spend it.

     5You have done your homework all wrong, so you have got to do it again.

     6You do not know when you should go to school tomorrow, so you have got to make a call

    to ask your classmate.

     7Your grandma was seriously ill, so you have got to send her to hospital.

     8You have not bought the ticket to return to your home, so you have got to wait to buy it the

    next day.

    Step Summary and Homework

     T: In this class, we’ve reviewed the new words we learned. And we’ve also learnt to use the

    modal verbsmust, have toandhave got to. After class, review the contents in this class,

    paying special attention to the differences betweenmustandhave toand the differences betweenmustn’tanddon’t have to. You’d better do more exercises to learn to use them

    properly. That’s all for today. See you!

     Ss: See you.

    Step The Design of the Writing on the Blackboard

    Unit 14 Festivals

    The Third Period

     ?.must, have to, have got to

     a. We must remember our past and build our future.

     We have to build our own lives, create for ourselves, and speak for ourselves.

     b. We must be back by ten.

     We have to be back by ten.

     c. It’s getting late, so I’m afraid I have got to go.

     ?.Forms in Tense

     a. When I was your age, I had to get up at 5 every morning.

     I told him he must make a decision.

     ?.Negative Form

     mustmust not(mustn’t)

     have todo not have to(don’t have toneedn’t)

     e. g. You mustn’t tell George. (Don’t tell George. )

     You don’t have to tell George. (You needn’t tell George. )

    Step Record after Teaching





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