1．Review the new words appearing in the last two periods.
2．Learn to use the modal verbs—must, have to, have got to.
Teaching Important Points:
1．Learn to guess the missing word according to the given sentence.
2．Master the modal verbs correctly.
Teaching Difficult Point:
How to use“must”, “have to”and“have got to”properly and how to use their negative forms
1．Practise and consolidate the words learned in the last two periods.
2．Giving examples to explain the difference between “must”and“have to”and the difference
between“mustn’t”and“don’t have to”.
3．Making sentences to consolidate the usages of the modal verbs.
1．a projector 2．some slides
Greet the whole class as usual.
T: In the last class, we read the passage—The birth of a festival. By reading it, we’ve learnt
something about Kwanzaa, such as the birth of it, the purpose of it, the way of celebrating it, and
the seven principles of it. Now I want to ask you some questions about it. The first one: Who
created this festival?
Ss: Dr Maulana Karenga.
T: The second one: Is it a young or an old festival? When was it born?
Ss: It is a young festival born in 1966．
T: When do people celebrate it?
Ss: From December 26(one day after Christmas)to January 1(New Year’s Day).
T: How do people celebrate it?
Ss: By lighting a candle each day and discussing one of the seven principles of Kwanzaa.
T: Why did Dr Karenga create Kwanzaa?
Ss: To celebrate Africa-American culture and history.
T: Quite right. In fact we are all creating new festivals every year—festivals and holidays are always changing and as we celebrate them, we make new history and develop our culture. All the
holidays and festivals help us understand who we are, remember where we come from and share
our hopes for a happy future. Do you think so?
T: So much for my questions about the passage. Besides, we learned some words in it. Do
you still remember the meanings of them? Let’s do an exercise on the screen. (Teacher shows the
Find the right explanation for each word.
1．nation 2．faith 3．determination 4．purpose 5．generation 6．ancestor 7．peace
A. a strong wish to succeed in doing something
B. large community of people; country
C. belief in something or someone
D. an action meant to deceive(欺骗)someone
E. a reason for doing something
F. the people born at a certain time
G. a person in your family who lived a long time ago
H. quietness and calm
T: Now please look at the screen. Find the right explanation for each of the words. I read the
word, and you find and read aloud the right explanation to it. OK?
Ss: Large community of people; country.
1—B 2—C 3—A 4—E 5—F 6—G 7—H 8—D
T: Well done. Next, we’ll deal with Language study. First, Word study. Then, Grammar. Now open your books at Page ... . Look at the part—Word study. ... Are you ready?
T: Here is an exercise for you to do. Choose the best word to fill in each blank. Change the
form of the word where necessary. Three minutes later, I’ll check your answers.
1．theme, faith, purpose
2．nations, generation, determination
3．joy, ancestors, birth
4．trick, peace, treated
T: We all know that Dr Karenga wrote seven principles of Kwanzaa in the reading material
“The birth of a festival”. Can you tell me what they are?
Ss: They are unity, self-determination, living together, purpose, working together ...
T: What does“purpose”mean?
Ss: We must remember our past and build our future ... .
T: How about self-determination?
Ss: We have to build our own lives, create for ourselves, and speak for ourselves.
T: Quite right. (Teacher writes these sentences on the Bb. )Now, please look at the blackboard.
In these two sentences, “must”and“have to”are both used to talk about obligation. But their
meanings are not quite the same. “Must”is most often used to talk about an obligation that
depends on the person speaking or listening. “Have to”is generally used to talk about obligations
that come from “outside”. Let’s look at another two sentences and compare them. (Teacher writes
the following sentences on the blackboard:
1．We must be back by ten.
2．We have to be back by ten. )
T: Xiao Yu, can you tell the difference in meaning between them?
S: Yes. The first sentence means that we think it is necessary for us to be back by ten. The 1
second one means someone else thinks it necessary for us to be back by ten, or means that there
seems to be no other choice.
T: (To the whole class. )Do you agree with him?
T: Then when can we use“have got to”?
Ss: In informal English, “have got to”can be used instead of“have to”.
T: Can you give an example? Zhao Ning, you try, please.
S: It’s getting late, so I’m afraid I’ve got to go. (Teacher writes it on the Bb. ) 2
T: Very good. Thank you. Now, please look at the pictures on the screen and describe what an
army man must do or have to do. (Teacher shows the pictures and ask the students to describe
each of them one by one. )
1．You have to keep your hair short.
2．You must stand to attention.
3．You have to keep your boots clean.
4．You have to get up early.
5．You must keep fit. /You must do exercises.
6．You must salute your superiors.
7．You have to learn to use a rifle. /You must learn to shoot.
8．You must keep your equipment clean. /You have to clean your equipment.
T: Well done. You’ve known the differences between them in meaning. Besides, we should
know that“have to”has more tenses than“must”. “Must”can only be used to express present
and future obligation; past obligation is usually expressed by using“had to”. For example, when I was your age, I had to get up at 5 every morning. But in reported speech, “must”can be used. Look at this sentence: I told him he must make a decision. Have you understood my explanations?
(Teacher writes the examples on the Bb while explaining. )
T: Very good. Now let’s go on with the negative forms of them. Li Hua, can you tell us the
negative forms of“must”and“have to”?
S: ... 3
(Teacher writes the negative forms on the Bb: must not＝mustn’t; do not have to＝don’t have
T: Do they have the same meaning?
Ss: No. They have quite different meanings.
T: Well. Let’s compare another two sentences.
(Bb: You mustn’t tell George. You don’t have to tell George. )
T: Li Hui, would you like to have a try?
S: Yes. The first sentence means“don’t tell George”. The second sentence means“you can 4
if you like but it isn’t necessary”.
T: Quite right. Instead of“don’t have to”, needn’t is often used in British English, so we also
say“You needn’t tell George. ”It has the same meaning as “You don’t have to tell George. ”
Can you understand?
Ss: Yes. We’re quite clear about that.
T: OK. Next, let’s do some exercises.
T: Now, turn to Page 9．Look at the first exercise in Grammar part. Here are some greeting
manners in the table. First you have to decide which are necessary and which are not. Then make
sentences using“must”, “have to”or their negative forms after studying the given examples below.
A few minutes later, I’ll ask some of you to read your sentences to the class. Are you clear?
S: Yes. s
1．When you’re talking with someone, you must look into his or her eyes.
2．If you meet a friend from China, you don’t have to kiss him on the cheek or hug him.
3．When a soldier meets his officer, he must salute him.
4．When you are invited to a formal party, you must wear clean clothes.
5．If you want to show your respect to others, you must take off your hat when you greet
(After that, teacher goes on to deal with the second exercise. )
T: Next, let’s do the second exercise. Suppose you are spending the Spring Festival at your
grandparents’ house. Complete the following sentences with“have got to”. First do it by yourself,
then exchange your work for comment and correction with your partner.
1．Your school starts tomorrow, so you have got to say“Good-bye”to your grandparents.
2．You broke your grandma’s favourite vase, so you have got to make an apology to her.
3．Your parents went back to work three days ago, so you have got to stay alone at your
4．Your grandparents have given you quite a lot of money, so you have got to consider how to
5．You have done your homework all wrong, so you have got to do it again.
6．You do not know when you should go to school tomorrow, so you have got to make a call
to ask your classmate.
7．Your grandma was seriously ill, so you have got to send her to hospital.
8．You have not bought the ticket to return to your home, so you have got to wait to buy it the
Step Summary and Homework
T: In this class, we’ve reviewed the new words we learned. And we’ve also learnt to use the
modal verbs“must”, “have to”and“have got to”. After class, review the contents in this class,
paying special attention to the differences between“must”and“have to”and the differences between“mustn’t”and“don’t have to”. You’d better do more exercises to learn to use them
properly. That’s all for today. See you!
Ss: See you.
Step The Design of the Writing on the Blackboard
Unit 14 Festivals
The Third Period
?．must, have to, have got to
a. We must remember our past and build our future.
We have to build our own lives, create for ourselves, and speak for ourselves.
b. We must be back by ten.
We have to be back by ten.
c. It’s getting late, so I’m afraid I have got to go.
?．Forms in Tense
a. When I was your age, I had to get up at 5 every morning.
I told him he must make a decision.
have to—do not have to(＝don’t have to＝needn’t)
e. g. You mustn’t tell George. (＝Don’t tell George. )
You don’t have to tell George. (＝You needn’t tell George. )
Step Record after Teaching