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RaymondWSchmitt

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RaymondWSchmitt

Raymond W. Schmitt June, 2010

    Physical Oceanographer

    Senior Scientist

    Department of Physical Oceanography

    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Education:

    B.Sc., Carnegie;Mellon University, (Physics)

    Ph.D., University of Rhode Island, (Physical Oceanography)

Positions Held:

    Research Associate, 1977;1978, University of Rhode Island; Postdoctoral Fellow, 19781979;

    Postdoctoral Investigator, 1979;1980; Assistant Scientist, 19801984; Associate Scientist, 1984

    1994, tenure awarded, 1988; Senior Scientist, 1994;, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Visiting Scientist, October 1987;March 1988, CSIRO Marine Laboratory, Division of Oceanography,

    Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    Visiting Fellow, September 1997;April 1998, Department of Applied Math and Theoretical Physics,

    University of Cambridge, UK

    Activities:

    Convener, Meeting on Double Diffusion in Oceanography, September 26;29, 1989.

    Member, NSF Polar Programs Review Panel, January 23;25, 1991.

    Member, NSF review panels for Ocean Sciences (January 20;23, 1992) and Polar Programs (1991,

    1993).

    Member, Atlantic Climate Change Program Science Working Group, 1991;1995 Member, NSF

    Physical Oceanography Review Panel, January 20;23, 1992.

    Member, NSF Polar Programs Review Panel, September 20, 1993. Member, Atlantic Climate Change Program (ACCP) Science Working Group, 1992;1995 Member,

    Ocean Observing System Development Panel (OOSDP), 1992;1994.

    Chair, Bigelow Medal Committee, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1996 Coprincipal Lecturer, Summer Program in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Woods Hole Oceanographic

    Institution, 1996.

    Member, CLIVAR International Science Steering Group, 1996;2000.

    Member, SCOR Working Group 108 on Double-Diffusive Convection, 1996;2002.

    Invited Lecturer: Geophysical and Environmental Fluid Mechanics Summer School, Dept. Applied

    Math and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge University, September 2002. Guest Editor, Journal of Marine Research, 2004.

    Member, Editorial Board, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, 2004;2009.

    Member, Ocean Studies Board, National Academy of Sciences, 2005-2007. Co-Chair, CLIVAR Salinity Working Group, 2005-2007.

    Member, National Academy of Sciences Panel on America’s Climate Choices: Advancing the Science

    of Climate Change, 2009-2010.

    NASA Salinity Science Team Leader, 2009-present.

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    Award: J. S. Guggenheim Fellowship, 1997;1998

    Research Interests: Oceanic mixing and microstructure; double diffusive convection; relationships between small-scale mixing processes and large-scale temperature and salinity distributions; the thermohaline circulation of the ocean; the global hydrologic cycle; development of oceanographic instrumentation.

Refereed Publications

    Schmitt, Raymond W., Jr., and David L. Evans, 1978. An estimate of the vertical mixing due to salt

    fingers based on observations in the North Atlantic Central Water. Journal of Geophysical Research,

    83(C6), 29132919.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., Jr., 1979. Flux measurements on salt fingers at an interface. Journal of Marine

    Research, 37(3), 419436.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., Jr., 1979. The growth rate of supercritical salt fingers. Deep-Sea Research, 26A,

    2340.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., and Richard B. Lambert, 1979. The effects of rotation on salt fingers. Journal of

    Fluid Mechanics, 90, part 3, 449463.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1981. Form of the temperature;salinity relationship in the Central Water:

    Evidence for double-diffusive mixing. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 11(7), 10151026.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., and Daniel T. Georgi, 1982. Finestructure and microstructure in the North

    Atlantic Current. Journal of Marine Research, Supplement to 40, 659705.

    Gargett, A. E., and R. W. Schmitt, 1982. Observations of salt fingers in the central waters of the eastern

    North Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 87(C10), 80178029.

    Georgi, Daniel T., and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1983. Fine and microstructure observations on a

    hydrographic section from the Azores to the Flemish Cap. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 13(4),

    632647.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1983. The characteristics of salt fingers in a variety of fluid systems, including

    stellar interiors, liquid metals, oceans, and magmas. Physics of Fluids, 26(9), 23732377.

    Joyce, Terrence M., Raymond W. Schmitt and Marvel C. Stalcup, 1983. Influence of the Gulf Stream

    upon the shortterm evolution of a warm-core ring. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater

    Research, 34, 515524.

    Joyce, Terrence, Richard Backus, Karen Baker, Patricia Blackwelder, Otis Brown, Timothy Cowles,

    Robert Evans, Greta Fryxell, David Mountain, Donald Olson, Ronald Schlitz, Raymond Schmitt,

    Peter Smith, Raymond Smith and Peter Wiebe, 1984. Rapid evolution of a Gulf Stream warm-core

    ring. Nature, 308, 837840.

    Olson, D. B., R. W. Schmitt, M. Kennelly and T. M. Joyce, 1985. A twolayer diagnostic model of the

    longterm physical evolution of Warm-Core Ring 82B. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90(C5),

    88138822.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., and Donald B. Olson, 1985. Wintertime convection in warm-core rings:

    thermocline ventilation and the formation of mesoscale lenses. Journal of Geophysical Research,

    90(C5), 88238837.

     3

    Schmitt, Raymond W., Rolf G. Lueck and Terrence M. Joyce, 1986. Fine- and microstructure at the edge

    of a warm-core ring. Deep-Sea Research, 33(11/12A), 16651689.

    Kunze, Eric, Albert J. Williams, III., and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1987. Optical microstructure in the

    thermohaline staircase east of Barbados. Deep-Sea Research, 34(10A), 16971704.

    Schmitt, R. W., H. Perkins, J. D. Boyd and M. C. Stalcup, 1987. C-SALT: An investigation of the

    thermohaline staircase in the western tropical North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, 34(10A), 1655

    1665.

    Toole, John M., and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1987. Small-scale structures in the northwest Atlantic

    subtropical front. Nature, 327(6117), 4749.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1987. The Caribbean Sheets and Layers Transects (C-SALT) program. Eos,

    Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 68(5), 5760.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1988. Mixing in a thermohaline staircase. In: Small-Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the

    Ocean, J.C.J. Nihoul and B. M. Jamart (Editors), Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp. 435

    452.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., John M. Toole, Richard L. Koehler, Edward C. Mellinger and Kenneth W.

    Doherty, 1988. The development of a fine- and microstructure profiler. Journal of Atmospheric and

    Oceanic Technology, 5(4), 484500.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., Phillip S. Bogden and Clive E. Dorman, 1989. Evaporation minus precipitation

    and density fluxes for the North Atlantic. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 9(9), 12081221.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1990. On the density ratio balance in the central water. Journal of Physical

    Oceanography, 20(6), 900906.

    Halliwell, G. R., Jr., P. Cornillon, K. H. Brink, R. T. Pollard, D. L. Evans, L. A. Reiger, J. M. Toole and

    R. W. Schmitt, 1991. Descriptive oceanography during the Frontal AirSea Interaction Experiment:

    Mediumtolarge-scale variability. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96(C5), 85538567.

    Weller, R. A., D. L. Rudnick, C. C. Eriksen, K. L. Polzin, N. S. Oakey, J. M. Toole, R. W. Schmitt and R.

    T. Pollard, 1991. Forced ocean response during the Frontal AirSea Interaction Experiment. Journal

    of Geophysical Research, 96(C5), 86118638.

    Wijffels, Susan E., Raymond W. Schmitt, Harry L. Bryden and Anders Stigebrandt, 1992. On the

    transport of fresh water by the oceans. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 22(2), 155162.

    Huang, R. X., and R. W. Schmitt, 1993. The GoldsbroughStommel circulation of the world ocean.

    Journal of Physical Oceanography, 23(6), 12771284.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., and Susan E. Wijffels, 1993. The role of the oceans in the global water cycle. The

    Legacy of Hann, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series 75, IUGG, 15, 7784.

    Schmitz, William J., Jr., James R. Luyten and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1993. On the Florida Current T/S

    envelope. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean, 53(1), 10481065.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1994. Double-diffusion in oceanography. Annual Review of Fluid Mech-anics, 26,

    255285.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1994. Triangular and asymmetric salt fingers. Journal of Physical Ocean-ography,

    24(4), 855860.

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    Toole, John M., Kurt L. Polzin and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1994. New estimates of diapycnal mixing in

    the abyssal ocean. Science, 264, 11201123.

    Kunze, Eric, Raymond W. Schmitt and John M. Toole, 1995. The energy balance in a warm-core ring's

    near-inertial critical layer. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25(5), 942957.

    Polzin, Kurt L., John M. Toole and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1995. Finescale parameterizations of turbulent

    dissipation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25, 306328.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1995. The salt finger experiments of Jevons (1857) and Rayleigh (1880). Journal

    of Physical Oceanography, 25(1), 817.

    You, Yuzhu, Trevor J. McDougall and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1995. Dianeutral motion, water-mass

    conversion and nonlinear effects on the density ratio in the Pacific thermocline. Journal of Physical

    Oceanography, 25(5), 18911904.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1995. The ocean component of the global water cycle. U.S. National Report to

    International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 19911994, Supplement to Reviews of Geophysics,

    pp. 13951409.

    Nowlin, W., N. Smith, G. Needler, P. Taylor, R. Weller, R. Schmitt, L. Merlivat, A. Vezina, A. Alexiou,

    M. McPhaden and M. Wakatsuchi, 1996. An ocean observing system for climate. Bulletin of the

    American Meteorological Society, 77(10), 22432273.

    Polzin, K. L., N. S. Oakey, J. M. Toole and R. W. Schmitt, 1996. Fine structure and microstructure

    characteristics across the northwest Atlantic subtropical front. Journal of Geophysical Research,

    101(C6), 14,11114,121.

    Polzin, K. L., K. G. Speer, J. M. Toole and R. W. Schmitt, 1996. Intense mixing of Antarctic Bottom

    Water in the equatorial Atlantic. Nature, 380(6569), 5457.

    Renardy, Yuriko Yamamuro and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1996. Linear stability analysis of salt fingers with

    surface evaporation or warming. Physics of Fluids, 8(11), 28552867.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1996. Why didn't Rayleigh discover salt fingers? In: Double-Diffusive Convection. A

    Brandt and H. Fernando, Editors, AGU Geophysical Monograph, 94, 310.

    Shen, C., and R. W. Schmitt, 1996. The wavenumber spectrum of salt fingers. In: Double-Diffusive

    Convection, A. Brandt and H. Fernando, Editors, AGU Geophysical Monograph, 94, 305312.

    Montgomery, E. T., and R. W. Schmitt, 1997. Altimetric control of a free vehicle for near-bottom

    turbulence measurements. Deep-Sea Research I, 44(6), 10771084.

    Polzin, K. L., J. M. Toole, J. R. Ledwell and R. W. Schmitt, 1997. Spatial variability of turbulent mixing

    in the abyssal ocean. Science, 276, 9396.

    Toole, John M., Raymond W. Schmitt, Kurt L. Polzin and Eric Kunze, 1997. Near-boundary mixing

    above the flanks of a mid-latitude seamount. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(C1), 947959.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1998. Double-diffusive convection: Its role in ocean mixing and parameterization

    schemes for large-scale modeling. In: Ocean Modeling and Parameterizations, E. Chassignet and J.

    Verron, Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 215234.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1998. The ocean's response to the freshwater cycle. In: Global Energy and Water Cycles,

    K. Browning and R. Gurney, Editors, Cambridge University Press, pp. 144154.

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    Zhang, Jubao, Raymond W. Schmitt and Rui Xin Huang, 1998. Sensitivity of GFDL modular ocean

    model to the parameterization of double-diffusive processes. Journal of Physical Oceanography,

    605. 28(4), 589

    Molinari, Robert L., Silvia Garzoli and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1999. Equatorial currents at 1000-m depth

    in the Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(3), 361363.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1999. Spice and the demon. Science, 283(5804), 498499.

    Zhang, Jubao, Raymond W. Schmitt and Rui Xin Huang, 1999. The relative influence of diapycnal

    mixing and hydrologic forcing on the stability of the thermohaline circulation. Journal of Physical

    Oceanography, 29(6), 10961108.

    St. Laurent, Louis, and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1999. The contribution of salt fingers to vertical mixing in

    the North Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 29(7), 1404

    1424.

    Zhang, Jubao, and Raymond W. Schmitt, 2000. The impact of salt fingering on the thermohaline

    circulation under mixed boundary conditions. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 30, (6), 1223

    1231.

    Ledwell, J. L., E. T. Montgomery, K. L. Polzin, L. C. St. Laurent, R. W. Schmitt and J. M. Toole, 2000.

    Evidence for enhanced mixing over rough topography in the abyssal ocean. Nature, 403(6766), 179

    182.

    Schmitt, R. W., and E. T. Montgomery, 2000. Salinity, a missing piece in the climate puzzle. Backscatter,

    11(3), 1016.

    Schmitt, R. W., and J. R. Ledwell, 2001. Dispersion and diffusion in the deep ocean. In: Encyclopedia of

    Ocean Sciences, John H. Steele, Steve A. Thorpe, and Karl K. Turekian, Editors, Academic Press,

    San Diego; Vol. 2, pp. 726733.

    Schmitt, R. W., 2001. Double-diffusive convection. In: Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, John H. Steele,

    Steve A. Thorpe, and Karl K. Turekian, Editors, Academic Press, San Diego; Vol. 2, pp. 757766.

    St. Laurent, Louis C., John M. Toole, and Raymond W. Schmitt, 2001. Buoyancy forcing by turbulence

    above rough topography in the abyssal Brazil Basin. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 3476

    3495.

    Polzin, K. L., E. Kunze, J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 2003. The partitioning of finescale energy into

    internal waves and vortices: Implications for horizontal mixing. Journal of Physical Oceanography,

    33, 234;248.

    Schmitt, R. W., 2003. Observational and laboratory insights into salt finger convection. Progress in

    Oceanography, 56(3-4), 419;433.

    Holbrook, W. S. P. Parano, S. Pearse, and R. W. Schmitt, 2003. Thermohaline finestructure in an

    oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling. Science, 301(5634), 821;824.

    Lavery, A. C., R. W. Schmitt and T. K. Stanton, 2004. High-frequency acoustic scattering from turbulent

    oceanic microstructure: The importance of density fluctuations. Journal of the Acoustical Society of

    America, 114(5), 2685;2697.

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    Nash, J. D. E. Kunze, J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 2004. Internal tide reflection and turbulent mixing

    on the continental slope. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34(5), 1117;1134.

    Hu, C., E. Montgomery, R. Schmitt, F. Muller-Karger, 2004. The Amazon and Orinoco River plumes in

    the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea: Observation from space and S-PALACE floats. Deep Sea

    Research, . Deep Sea Research, 51 (10-11), 1151-1171.

    Nandi, Papia, W. Steven Holbrook, Scott Pearse, Pedro Páramo, Raymond W. Schmitt, 2004. Seismic

    reflection imaging of water mass boundaries in the Norwegian Sea. Geophysical Research Letters,

    31, (23), L23311, 10.1029/2004GL021325 .

    Schmitt, Raymond W., Robert C. Millard, John M. Toole and W. David Wellwood, 2005. A double-

    diffusive interface tank for dynamicresponse studies. Journal of Marine Research, 63 (1) 263-289.

    McDougall, T. J. , R. W. Schmitt, G. Veronis, F. Webster, 2005. The life and work of Nick Fofonoff.

    Journal of Marine Research, 63 (1), 1-7.

    Schmitt, R. W., J. R. Ledwell, E. T. Montgomery K. L. Polzin, and J. M. Toole, 2005. Enhanced

    Diapycnal Mixing by Salt Fingers in the Thermocline of the Tropical Atlantic. Science, 308 (5722),

    685-688.

    Lagerloef, G. and R. Schmitt, Role of Ocean Salinity in Climate and Near-Future Satellite Measurements,

    Meeting Report, EOS Trans. AGU 87(43), 466-467, 2006.

    Baker, D. J., R. W. Schmitt, C. Wunsch, 2007. Long-term Observations: Endowments and New

    Institutions. Oceanography, 20 (4), 10-14.

R. Schmitt , 2008. Salinity and the Global Water Cycle. Oceanography, 21 (1), 12-19.

R. Schmitt and the CLIVAR Salinity Working Group, 2008. What’s Next for Salinity? Oceanography,

    21 (1), 82-85.

    Inoue, R., E. Kunze, L. St. Laurent, R.W. Schmitt, and J.M. Toole, 2008. Evaluating salt-fingering

    theories. Journal of Marine Research, 66, 413-440.

    Park, J.J., K. Kim, and R.W. Schmitt. 2009. Global distribution of the decay timescale of mixed layer

    inertial motions observed by Satellite-tracked drifters. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, C11010,

    doi:10.1029/2008JC005216.

    Holbrook, W. S., I. Fer and R. W. Schmitt. 2009. Images of internal tides near the Norwegian continental

    slope. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L00D10, doi:10.1029/2009GL038909

    Byun, S.-S., J. J. Park, K.-I. Chang, R. W. Schmitt, 2010. Observation of near-inertial wave reflections

    within the thermostad layer of an anticyclonic mesoscale eddy. Geophysical Research Letters, 37,

    L01606, doi:10.1029/2009GL041601.

    Lagerloef, G., J. Boutin, J. Carton, Y. Chao, T. Delcroix, J. Font, J. Lilly, N. Reul, R. Schmitt, S. Riser,

    and F. Wentz, 2010. Resolving the global surface salinity field and variations by blending satellite

    and in situ observations. Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and

    Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. &

    Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.

     7

    Schmitt, R. W., T. Boyer, G. Lagerloe, J. Schanze , S. Wijffels, L. Yu, 2010. Salinity and the Global

    Water Cycle Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for

    Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds.,

    ESA Publication WPP-306.

    Fer, I. P. Nandi, W. S. Holbrook, R. W. Schmitt, and P. Paramo, 2010. Seismic imaging of a

    thermohaline staircase in the western tropical North Atlantic. Ocean Science, 7, 361-389, 2010.

    National Research Council, 2010: Advancing the Science of Climate Change. National Academies Press,

    Washington DC. 505 pp.

    Schanze, J. J., R. W. Schmitt and L. Yu, 2010. The Global Oceanic Freshwater Cycle: a Best Estimate

    Quantification. Submitted to J. Marine Research.

    Swift, S. A., A. Bower, R. W. Schmitt, 2010. Vertical, horizontal, and temporal changes in temperature

    in the Atlantis II and Discovery hot brine pools, Red Sea. Submitted to Marine Geology.

Nonrefereed Publications

    Georgi, D. T., R. C. Millard, Jr., and R. W. Schmitt, 1983. Conductivity microstructure measurements

    with a CTD. In: Proceedings, Third Working Symposium on Oceanographic Data Systems, Woods

    Hole, Massachusetts, October 24, 1983; C. D. Tollios, M. K. McElroy and J. Syck, editors; IEEE

    Computer Society and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, pp. 514.

    Converse, C. H., A. J. Williams, 3rd, P. D. Fucile and R. W. Schmitt, 1986. A free ocean vehicle to

    measure optical microstructure. In: Current Practices and New Technology in Ocean Engineering

    OED, Vol. 11; T. McGuinness and H. H. Shih, editors; The American Society of Mechanical

    Engineers, New York, pp. 341345.

    Schmitt, R. W., K. L. Polzin and J. M. Toole, 1989. Shear and salt fingers. In: Parameterization of Small-

    Scale Processes, Proceedings, 'Aha Huliko'a, Hawaiian Winter Workshop, University of Hawaii at

    Manoa, January 1720, 1989}; Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Special Publication, Peter Müller and

    Diane Henderson, editors; University of Hawaii, Honolulu; pp. 127144.

    Toole, J. M., E. T. Montgomery and R. W. Schmitt, 1991. Report of the seamount mixing cruise: R/V

    New Horizon, March, 1991. TopoNews, 5, 27.

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1992. Mysteries of planetary plumbing. Oceanus, 35(2), 3845.

    The Ocean Observing System Development Panel, 1993. Interim design for the ocean com-ponent of a

    global climate observing system. Dept. of Oceanography, Texas A& M Univers-ity, College Station,

    Texas, 105 pp.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1993. Macelwane Citation for Eric Kunze. Eos, Transactions, American Geo-physical

    Union, 74(26), 283.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1993. The role of the ocean in the global water cycle. In: Workshop on WOCE Data

    Assimilation. WOCE Report No. 102/93, p. 10.

    Schmitt, R. W., E. T. Montgomery and J. M. Toole, 1995. A freevehicle explores deep-sea mixing.

    Oceanus, 38(1), 2125.

     8

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1995. The ocean's salt fingers. Scientific American, 272(5), 7075.

    Polzin, K. L., K. G. Speer, J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 1996. Intense mixing of Antarctic Bottom

    Water in the Romanche Fracture Zone. International WOCE Newsletter, 19, 20;23.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1996. If rain falls on the ocean does it make a sound? Oceanus, 39(2), 48.

    Schmitt, R. W., and E. T. Montgomery, 1996. Oceanic constraints on the hydrologic cycle. Proceedings

    of the WRCP Workshop of AirSea Flux Fields for Forcing Ocean Models and Validation of CCMS.

    World Meteorological Organization Technical Document 762, pp. 112117.

    Schmitt, R. W., 1997. New approaches to the salinity problem. CLIVAR Exchanges, 2(1), 46.

    Toole, J. M., J. R. Ledwell, K. L. Polzin, R. W. Schmitt, E. T. Montgomery, L. St. Laurent, and W. B.

    Owens, 1997. Brazil Basin Tracer Release Experiment. International WOCE Newsletter, No. 28, 25

    28.

    Schmitt, R. W., J. M. Toole, K. L. Polzin and J. R. Ledwell, 1998. Large-scale patterns of turbulent

    vertical mixing in the Brazil Basin: implications for the Abyssal circulation. European Geophysical

    Society, Annales Geophysicae, 16, (Suppl. II, Part II), p. C545.

    One of many contributors/editors, CLIVAR Initial Implementation Plan. WCRP report 103, March 1998. Polzin, Kurt, John M. Toole, and Raymond W. Schmitt, 1998. Topographic roughness begets increased

    oceanic mixing. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1998 Annual Report, pp. 2122.

    Paramo, P., W. S. Holbrook, S. Pearse and R. W. Schmitt, 2003. Fine-scale thermohaline structure

    revealed by seismic reflection profiling in the Gulf of California. AGU Fall meeting abstract

    OS41C-0821.

    Pearse, S., W. S. Holbrook, P. Paramo and R. W. Schmitt, 2003. Time-Lapse seismic-reflection images

    of thermohaline intrusions in an oceanographic front. AGU Fall meeting abstract OS32C-07. Holbrook. W. S., P. Paramo, P. Pearse and R. W. Schmitt, 2003. New tool for probing thermohaline fine

    structure in the ocean: seismic reflection profiling of the Labrador Current/North Atlantic Current

    Front. AGU Fall meeting Abstract OS41C-0820.

    Schmitt, R. W., 2003. The hydrologic cycle, ocean mixing and abrupt climate change: what do we need

    to measure? AGU Fall meeting abstract OS12B-06.

    Schmitt, R. W., 2003. Lavery high frequency acoustic scattering from oceanic microstructure and

    zooplankton. EOS, Trans., AGU, 84(52), Ocean Sci. Meet., Suppl., Abstract OS321-03.

    Holbrook, W. S., R. W. Schmitt, . Pearse and P. Paramo, 2003. Siesmic oceanography: application of

    seismic reflection profiling for imaging thermohaline fine structure in the ocean. EOS, Trans., AGU,

    84(52), Ocean Si. Meet., Suppl., Abstract OS321-09.

    Ledwell, J., R. W. Schmitt, J. M. Toole, K. L. Polzin and E. Montgomery, 2004. Diffusivities of heat,

    salt and SF6 in the thermohaline staircase east of Barbados. ASLO/TOS Ocean Research

    Conference, SS1.03.

    Stuebe, D. A., R. W. Schmitt and J. M. Toole, 2004. A moored profiler time series from the salt finger

    tracer release experiment. ASLO/TOS Ocean Research Conference, SS1.03.

    Schmitt, R. W., R. Petitt, F. Thwaites, N. Brown, 2005. A Fouling Protected Conductivity Sensor For

    Long-Term Salinity Measurements In The Upper Ocean. Proceedings: IEEE/MTS Oceans 2005

    Meeting, Wash. DC. September. 4 pp.

     9

R. W. Schmitt, P. Nandi, T. Ross, A. Lavery and W. S. Holbrook , 2005. Acoustic Detection of

    Thermohaline Staircases in the Ocean and Laboratory. Proceedings: IEEE/MTS Oceans 2005

    Meeting, Wash. DC. September. 4 pp.

    E. T. Montgomery, E. Hobart, R. A. Petitt, F. T. Thwaites K. W. Doherty, K. L. Polzin, R. W. Schmitt

    and J. M. Toole, 2005. A New Vehicle for Measuring Deep Ocean Mixing. Proceedings:

    IEEE/MTS Oceans 2005 Meeting, Wash. DC. September. 7 pp.

    Schmitt, R. W., R. Petitt, 2006. A fast-response, stable CTD for gliders and AUVs. Proceedings:

    IEEE/MTS Oceans 2006 Meeting, Boston, MA. September 18-21. 4 pp.

Abstracts

Schmitt, R. W., and R. B. Lambert, 1974. Collective instability of rotating salt fingers. Eos, Transactions,

    American Geophysical Union, 55(4), 298 (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., and R. B. Lambert, 1975. The effects of rotation on salt fingers. Bulletin of the American

    Physical Society, 20(11) (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., 1976. On the flux ratio of salt fingers. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union,

    57(4), 261 (abstract).

    salt fingers. Eos, Transactions, American Schmitt, R. W., 1977. Recent laboratory experiments with heat

    Geophysical Union, 58(6), 419 (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., 1979. Double-diffusive oceanography: New recipes for the thermocline. Eos,

    Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 60(18), 288 (abstract).

    Schmitt, Raymond W., 1980. A double-diffusive interpretation of the TS relation in the Central Water.

    In: ProcesVerbaux No.15, International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean,

    International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics XVII General Assembly, Canberra, December 1979,

    p. 7071 (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., and D. T. Georgi, 1980. Direct observations of double-diffusive mixing on intru-sions in

    the North Atlantic current. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 61, 1002 (abstract).

    Joyce, T. M., and R. W. Schmitt, 1982. A preliminary physical history of Warm Ring 82B. Eos,

    Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 63(45), 994 (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., 1982. Surface temperature and salinity fronts in Warm Ring 81D. Eos, Transactions,

    American Geophysical Union, 63(3), 51 (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., 1982. The relationship between microstructure and finestructure: directions for further

    research. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 63(45), 1002 (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., 1983. The role of double-diffusion in ocean mixing. In: Programme and Abstracts,

    International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean, International Union of Geodesy

    and Geophysics XVIII General Assembly, Hamburg, Germany, August, 1983, p. 92 (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., and T. M. Joyce, 1983. The history of a Warm Core Ring. In: Programme and Abstracts,

    International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean, International Union of Geodesy

    and Geophysics XVIII General Assembly, Hamburg, Germany, August, 1983, p. 3435 (abstract).

     10

    Schmitt, R. W., R. G. Lueck and T. M. Joyce, 1983. Fine and microstructure observations at the edge of

    a Warm Core Ring. In: Programme and Abstracts, International Association for the Physical

    Sciences of the Ocean, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics XVIII General Assembly,

    Hamburg, Germany, August, 1983, p. 111 (abstract).

    Olson, D. B., R. W. Schmitt, M. Kennelly and T. M. Joyce, 1983. Long term physical evolution of Warm

    Core Ring 82B. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 64(52), 1073 (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., and D. B. Olson, 1983. Establishment of the water mass properties of the ―thermostad‖ in

    Warm Ring 82B. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 64(52), 1073 (abstract).

    Bogden, Philip S., Raymond W. Schmitt and Clive E. Dorman, 1984. Surface fluxes of fresh water and

    density in the North Atlantic. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 65(45), 934

    (abstract).

    Schmitt, R. W., and M. C. Stalcup, 1986. Characteristics of the CSALT staircases. Eos, Transactions,

    American Geophysical Union, 67(44), 1045 (abstract).

    Williams, A. J., E. Kunze and R. W. Schmitt, 1986. Optical microstructure during CSALT. Eos,

    Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 67(44), 1046 (abstract).

    Toole, J. M., and R. W. Schmitt, 1986. Fine and microscale structures in the N.W. Atlantic subtropical

    front. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 67(44), 1034 (abstract).

    Toole, J., R. Schmitt, and K. Polzin, 1988. Fine- and microstructure characteristics near an upper ocean

    front. In: Proceedings of Seventh Conference on Ocean;Atmosphere Interaction, American

    Meteorological Society, pp. 9092.

    Schmitt, R. W., K. L. Polzin, and J. M. Toole, 1989. Shear and salt fingers. In: Parameterization of

    Small-Scale Processes, Proceedings, 'Aha Huliko'a, Hawaiian Winter Workshop, University of

    Hawaii at Manoa, January 1720, 1989; Hawaii Institute of Geophysics Special Publication, Peter

    Müller and Diane Henderson, editors; University of Hawaii, Honolulu; pp. 127144.

    Toole, J., R. Schmitt and K. Polzin, 1988. Fine and microstructure characteristics near an upper ocean

    front. In: Proceedings of Seventh Conference on Ocean;Atmosphere Interaction, American

    Meteorological Society, pp. 9092.

    Polzin, K., J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 1992. Finescale parameterizations of dissipation. Eos,

    Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 73(14), p. 157.

    Schmitt, R. W., H. L. Bryden, and S. E. Wijffels, 1992. Constraining the hydrologic cycle with direct

    ocean measurements. Proceedings of the ACCP PI Meeting, NOAA Climate and Global Change

    Program, Special Report No. 7, 2729.

    Huang, R. X., and R. W. Schmitt, 1992. On the Goldsbrough Circulation. Proceedings of the ACCP PI

    Meeting, NOAA Climate and Global Change Program, Special Report No. 7, 133135.

    Polzin, K. L., J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 1992. Finescale parameterizations of ocean dissipation.

    Proceedings: Tenth Symposium on Turbulence and Diffusion, September 29October 2, American

    Meteorological Society, pp. 211213.

    Kunze, E. and R. W. Schmitt, 1992. The energy balance in a warm-core ring's near-inertial wave critical

    layer. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 73(43), 321.

    Montgomery, E. T., R. W. Schmitt, J. M. Toole, and K. L. Polzin, 1992. Site survey results for the North

    Atlantic Tracer Release Experiment. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 73(43), 321.

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