Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of Will E-books Replace Traditional Books?You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:
1. 随着信息技术的发展, 电子图书越来越多
2. 有人认为电子图书会取代传统图书, 理由是„„
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Picture a “ghost ship” sinking into the sand, left to rot on dry land by a receding sea. Then imagine dust storms sweeping up toxic pesticides and chemical fertilizers from the dry seabed and spewing them across towns and villages.
Seem like a scene from a movie about the end of the world? For people living near the Aral Sea in Central Asia, it’s all too real. Thirty years ago, government planners diverted the rivers that flow into the sea in order to irrigate (provide water for) farmland. As a result, the sea has shrunk to half its original size, stranding ships on dry land. The seawater has tripled in salt content and become polluted, killing all 24 native species of fish.
Similar large-scale efforts to redirect water in other parts of the world have also ended in ecological crisis, according to numerous environmental groups. But many countries continue to build massive dams and irrigation systems, even though such projects can create more problems than they fix. Why? People in many parts of the world are desperate for water, and more people will need more water in the next century.
“Growing populations will worsen problems with water,” says Peter H. Gleick, an
environmental scientist at the Pacific Institute for studies in Development, Environment, and Security, a research organization in California. He fears that by the year 2025, as many as one-third of the world’s projected 8.3 billion people will suffer from water shortages.
Where Water Goes
Only 2.5 percent of all water on Earth is freshwater, water suitable for drinking and growing food, says Sandra Postel, director of the Global Water Policy Project in Amherst, Mass. Two thirds of this freshwater is locked in glaciers and ice caps. In fact, only a tiny percentage of freshwater is
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part of the water cycle, in which water evaporates and rises into the atmosphere, then condenses and falls back to Earth as precipitation (rain or snow).
Some precipitation runs off land to lakes and oceans, and some becomes groundwater, water that seeps into the earth. Much of this renewable freshwater ends up in remote places like the Amazon river basin in Brazil, where few people live. In fact, the world’s population has access
to only 12,500 cubic kilometers of freshwater—about the amount of water in Lake Superior. And
people use half of this amount already. “If water demand continues to climb rapidly,” says Postel, “there will be severe shortages and damage to the aquatic environment.
Close to Home
Water woes may seem remote to people living in rich countries like the United States. But Americans could face serious water shortages, too especially in areas that rely on groundwater. Groundwater accumulates in aquifers, layers of sand and gravel that lie between soil and bedrock. (For every liter of surface water, more than 90 liters are hidden underground.)Although the United States has large aquifers, farmers, ranchers, and cities are tapping many of them for water faster than nature can replenish it. In northwest Texas, for example, over pumping has shrunk groundwater supplies by 25 percent, according to Postel.
Americans may face even more urgent problems from pollution. Drinking water in the United States is generally safe and meets high standards. Nevertheless, one in five Americans every day unknowingly drinks tap water contaminated with bacteria and chemical wastes, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. In Milwaukee, 400,000 people fell ill in 1993 after drinking tap water tainted with cryptosporidium, a microbe that causes fever, diarrhea and vomiting.
Where do contaminants come from? In developing countries, people dump raw sewage into the same streams and rivers from which they draw water for drinking and cooking; about 250 million people a year get sick from water borne diseases.
In developed countries, manufacturers use 100,000 chemical compounds to make a wide range of products. Toxic chemicals pollute water when released untreated into rivers and lakes. (Certain compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, have been banned in the United States.)
But almost everyone contributes to water pollution. People often pour household cleaners, car antifreeze, and paint thinners down the drain; all of these contain hazardous chemicals. Scientists studying water in the San Francisco Bay reported in 1996 that 70 percent of the pollutants could be traced to household waste.
Farmers have been criticized for overusing herbicides and pesticides, chemicals that kill weeds and insects but that pollute water as well. Farmers also use nitrates, nitrogen rich fertilizers that help plants grow but that can wreak havoc on the environment. Nitrates are swept away by surface runoff to lakes and seas. Too many nitrates “over enrich” these bodies of water, encouraging the buildup of algae, or microscopic plants that live on the surface of the water. Algae deprive the water of oxygen that fish need to survive, at times choking off life in an entire
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body of water.
What’s the Solution?
Water expert Gleick advocates conservation and local solutions to water-related problems;
governments, for instance, would be better off building small-scale dams rather than huge and
disruptive projects like the one that ruined the Aral Sea.
”More than 1 billion people worldwide don’t have access to basic clean drinking water,” says
Gleick. “There has to be a strong push on the part of everyone—governments and ordinary people—to make sure we have a resource so fundamental to life.”
1. What caused the Aral Sea to shrink?
[A]The rivers flowing into it have been diverted. [B]Farmers used its water to irrigate their farmland. [C]Government planners over pumped its water. [D]High temperature made its water badly evaporate.
2. The construction of massive dams and irrigation projects . [A]does more good than harm
[B]solves more problems than what they created [C]does more harm than good
[D]brings more water to people than expected
3. The chief causes of water shortage include . [A]population growth and water waste
[B]water pollution and dry weather
[C]water waste and pollution
[D]population growth and water pollution
4. Americans could suffer from greatly serious water shortages? [A]living in rich areas
[B]living in big cities but poor condition
[C]depending on groundwater
[D]bearing high standards of safe drinking water in mind
5. What is the main pollutant in developed countries? [A]Untreated toxic chemicals from manufacturers. [B]Raw sewage into rivers and streams.
[C]Herbicides and pesticides used by farmers. [D]Household cleaners poured down the drain.
6. How does algae make threats to life of a body of water? [A]By covering the whole surface of the water. [B]By competitively using oxygen life in water needs.
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[C]By living more rapidly than other life in water .
[D]By releasing hazardous chemicals into water.
7. According to Gleick, who should be responsible for solving water-related problems? [A]government and housewives.
[B]farmers and manufacturers
[C]ordinary people and manufacturers.
[D]government and every person.
8. According to Peter H. Gleick, by the year 2025, as many as ________________________of the world’s people will suffer from water shortages.
9. Two thirds of the freshwater on Earth is locked in ________________________________.
10. In developed countries, before toxic chemicals are released into rivers and lakes, they should be treated in order to avoid _______________________________________.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decline which is the bet answer. Then marked the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
11. A) Plan his budget carefully
B) Give her more information.
C) Ask someone else for advice.
D) Buy a gift for his girlfriend.
12. A) She’ll have some chocolate cake.
B) She’ll take a look at the menu.
C) She’ll go without dessert.
D) She’ll prepare the dinner.
13. A) The man can speak a foreign language.
B) The woman hopes to improve her English.
C) The woman knows many different languages.
D) The man wishes to visit many more countries.
14.A) Go to the library.
B) Meet the woman.
C) See Professor Smith.
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D) Have a drink in the bar.
15.A) She isn’t sure when Professor Bloom will be back
B) The man shouldn’t be late for his class.
C) The man can come back sometime later. D) She can pass on the message for the man.
16. A) He has a strange personality. B) He’s got emotional problems.
C) His illness is beyond cure.
D) His behavior is hard to explain.
17. A) The tickets are more expensive than expected. B) The tickets are sold in advance at half price. C ) It’s difficult to buy the tickets on the spot.
D) It’s better to the tickets beforehand.
18. A) He turned suddenly and ran into a tree. B) He was hit by a fallen box from a truck. C) He drove too fast and crashed into a truck. D) He was trying to overtake the truck ahead of him.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) To go boating on the St. Lawrence River B) To go sightseeing in Quebec Province C) To call on a friend in Quebec City D) To attend a wedding in Montreal
20. A) Study the map of Quebec Province B) Find more about Quebec Province
C) Brush up on her French
D) Learn more about the local customs
21.A) It’s most beautiful in summer
B) It has many historical buildings.
C) It was greatly expanded in the 18th century. D) It’s the only French-speaking city in Canada.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
22.A) It was about a little animal.
B) It took her six years to write.
C) It was adapted from a fairy tale.
D) It was about a little girl and her pet.
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23.A) She knows how to write best-selling novels.
B) She can earn a lot of money by writing for adults. C) She is able to win enough support from publishers. D) She can make a living by doing what she likes.
24. A) The characters.
B) Her ideas.
C) The readers.
D) Her life experiences.
25. A) She doesn’t really know where they originated
B) She mainly drew on stories of ancient saints.
C) They popped out of her childhood dreams.
D) They grew out of her long hours of thinking.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will
hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear
a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A) B) C) and D). Then
mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
26. A) Monitor students’ sleep patterns.
B) Help students concentrate in class.
C) Record students’ weekly performance.
D) Ask students to complete a sleep report.
27. A) Declining health.
B) Lack of attention.
C) Loss of motivation.
D) Improper behavior.
28. A) They should make sure their children are always punctual for school. B) They should ensure their children grow up in a healthy environment. C) They should help their children accomplish high-quality work. D) They should see to it that their children have adequate sleep.
Questions 29 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29.A) She stopped being a homemaker.
B) She became a famous educator.
C) She became a public figure.
D) She quit driving altogether.
30.A) A motorist’s speeding.
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B) Her running a stop sign.
C) Her lack of driving experience.
D) A motorist’s failure to concentrate.
31.A) Nervous and unsure of herself.
B) Calm and confident of herself.
C) Courageous and forceful.
D) Distracted and reluctant.
32.A) More strict training of women drivers.
B) Restrictions on cell phone use while driving.
C) Improved traffic conditions in cities.
D) New regulations to ensure children’s safety.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
33. A) They haven’t devoted as much energy to medicine as to space travel.
B) Three are too many kinds of cold viruses for them to identify.
C) It is not economical to find a cure for each for each type of cold.
D) They believe people can recover without treatment.
34. A) They reveal the seriousness of the problem.
B) They indicate how fast the virus spreads.
C) They tell us what kind of medicine to take.
D) They show our body is fighting the virus.
35.A) It actually does more harm than good.
B) It causes damage to some organs of our body
C) It works better when combined with other remedies.
D) It helps us to recover much sooner.
Direction: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
You probably have noticed that people express similar ideas in different ways depending on the situation they are in. This is very (36)______. All languages have two general levels of (37)___ __: a formal level and an informal level. English is no (38)_____ The difference in these two levels is the situation in which you use a (39)______ level. Formal language is the kind of language you find in textbooks, (40)_____ books and in business letters. You would also use formal English in
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compositions and (41)______ that you write in school. Informal language is used in conversation with (42)______, family members and friends, and when we write (43)______ notes or letters to close friends. Formal language is different from informal language in several ways. First, formal language tends to be more polite. (44)______________________________________For example, I might say to a friend or a family member “Close the door, please”, (45)
_____________________________________________________________. Another difference between formal and informal language is some of the vocabulary. (46)_________________ ____________________________. Let’s say that I really like soccer. If I am talking to my friend, I might say “I am just crazy about soccer”, but if I were talking to my boss, I would probably say “I really enjoy soccer”.
Part ? Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answe Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
When we think of green buildings, we tend to think of new ones — the kind of high-tech,
solar-paneled masterpieces that make the covers of architecture magazines. But the U.S. has more than 100 million existing homes, and it would be 47 wasteful to tear them all down
and 48 them with greener versions. An enormous amount of energy and resources went
into the construction of those houses. And it would take an average of 65 years for the 49carbon emissions from a new energy-efficient home to make up for the resources lost by destroying an old one. So in the broadest 50 , the greenest home is the one that has
already been built. But at the same time, nearly half of U. S. carbon emissions come from heating, cooling and 51 our homes, offices and other buildings. "You can't deal with climate change without dealing with existing buildings," says Richard Moe, the president of the National Trust. With some 52 , the oldest homes tend to be the least energy-efficient. Houses built before 1939 use about 50% more energy per square foot than those built after 2000, mainly due to the tiny cracks and gaps that 53 over time and let in more outside air.
Fortunately, there are a 54 number of relatively simple changes that can green older
homes, from 55 ones like Lincoln's Cottage to your own postwar home. And efficiency
upgrades，升级：can save more than just the earth; they can help 56 z0078 property owners
from rising power costs.
A) accommodations E) expand I) protect M) shifted
B) clumsy F) historic J) reduced N) supplying
C) doubtful G) incredibly K) replace O) vast
D) exceptions H) powering L) sense
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Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Graduation speeches are a bit like wedding toasts. A few are memorable. The rest tend to trigger such thoughts as, "Why did I wear such uncomfortable shoes?"
But graduation speeches are less about the message than the messenger. Every year a few colleges and universities in the US attract attention because they've managed to book high-profile speakers. And, every year, the media report some of these speakers' wise remarks. Last month, the following words of wisdom were spread:
"You really haven't completed the circle of success unless you can help somebody else move forward." (Oprah Winfrey, Duke University)
"There is no way to stop change; change will come. Go out and give us a future worthy of the world we all wish to create together." (Hillary Clinton, New York University)
"This really is your moment. History is yours to bend." (Joe Biden, Wake Forest University)
Of course, the real "get" of the graduation season was first lady Michelle Obama's appearance at the University of California, Merced. "Remember that you are blessed," she told the class of 2009, "Remember that in exchange for those blessings, you must give something back... As advocate and activist Marian Wright Edelman says, 'Service is the rent we pay for living ... it is the true measure, the only measure of success'."
Calls to service have a long, rich tradition in these speeches. However, it is possible for a graduation speech to go beyond clich6 and say something truly compelling. The late writer David Foster Wallace's 2005 graduation speech at Kenyon College in Ohio talked about how to truly care about other people. It gained something of a cult after it was widely circulated on the Interment. Apple Computer CEO Steve Jobs' address at Stanford University that year, in which he talked about death, is also considered one of the best in recent memory.
But when you're sitting in the hot sun, fidgety and freaked out, do you really want to be lectured about the big stuff? Isn't that like trying to maintain a smile at your wedding reception while some relative gives a toast that amounts to "marriage is hard work"? You know he's right; you just don't want to think about it at that particular moment. In fact, as is the case in many major life moments, you can't really manage to think beyond the blisters your new shoes are causing.
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That may seem anticlimactic. But it also gets to the heart of one of life's greatest, saddest truths: that our most "memorable" occasions may elicit the fewest memories. It's probably not something most graduation speakers would say, but it's one of the first lessons of growing up.
57. According to the passage, most graduation speeches tend to recall ________ memories. A. great
58. "But graduation speeches are less about the message than the messenger" is explained A. in the final paragraph.
B. in the last but one paragraph.
C. in the first paragraph.
D. in the same paragraph.
59. The graduation speeches mentioned in the passage are related to the following themes EXCEPT
60. It is implied in the passage that at great moments people fail to
A. remain clear-headed.
B. keep good manners.
C. remember others' words.
D. recollect specific details.
61. What is "one of the first lessons of growing up"?
A. Attending a graduation ceremony.
B. Listening to graduation speeches.
C. Forgetting details of memorable events.
D. Meeting high-profile graduation speakers.
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Cultural rules determine every aspect of food consumption. Who eats together defines social units. For example, in some societies, the nuclear family is the unit that regularly eats together. The anthropologist Mary Douglas has pointed out that, for the English, the kind of meal and the kind of food that is served relate to the kinds of social links between people who are eating together. She distinguishes between regular meals, Sunday meals when relatives may come, and cocktail parties for acquaintances. The food served symbolizes the occasion and reflects who is
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