I. Reading comprehension (3 passages, 25 minutes)
Directions: There are four passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C), and D). You should decide on the best choice and then write the corresponding letter on a piece of paper and hand it in when you meet the teacher.
People tend to be more impressed by evidence that seems to confirm some relationship. Thus many are convinced their dreams are prophetic(预言的) because a few have come true; they
neglect or fail to notice the many that have not.
Consider also the belief that “the phone always rings when I'm in the shower.” If it does
ring while you are in the shower, the event will stand out and be remembered. If it doesn't ring, that nonevent probably won't even register(留下印象).
People want to see order, pattern and meaning in the world. Consider, for example, the common belief that things like personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths” happen in threes.” Such beliefs stem from the tendency of people to allow the third event to define the time period. If three plane crashes occur in a month, then the period of time that counts as their “happening
together” is one month; if three crashes occur in a year, then the period of time is stretched. Flexible end points reinforce such beliefs.
We also tend to believe what we want to believe. A majority of people think they are more intelligent, more fair-minded and more skilled behind the wheel of an automobile than the average person.Part of the reason we view ourselves so favorably is that we use criteria that work to our advantage. As economist Thomas Schelling explains, “Everybody ranks himself high in qualities he values: careful drivers give weight to care, skilled drivers give weight to skill, and those who are polite give weight to courtesy.” This way everyone ranks high on his own scale.
Perhaps the most important mental habit we can learn is to be cautious(谨慎的) in drawing
conclusions. The “evidence” of everyday life is sometimes misleading.
1 .In the first paragraph the author states that ______.
A.dreams cannot be said to be prophetic even though a few have come true
B.dreams are prophetic because some of them did come true
C.dreams may come true if clearly remembered
D.dreams and reality are closely related
2. By “things like...happen in threes”(Para. 3, Lines 2-4), the author indicates that people believe
A.personal misfortunes tend to happen every now and then
B.personal misfortunes, plane crashes, and deaths usually happen together
C.misfortunes tend to occur according to certain patterns
D.misfortunes will never occur more than three times to a person in his lifetime 3. The word “courtesy”(Para. 4, Line 9) probably means ______.
4. What can be inferred from the passage?
A. Happenings that go unnoticed deserve more attention.
B.In a series of misfortunes the third one is usually the most serious.
C.People tend to make use of evidence that supports their own beliefs.
D.Believers of misfortunes happening in threes are cautious in interpreting events. 5 .It can be concluded from the passage that ______.
A.there is some truth even in the wildest dreams
B.one should take notice of other people's merits
C.there is no order or pattern in world events
D.we should not base our conclusions on accidental evidence
Most people would agree that, although our age exceeds all previous ages in knowledge, there has been no corresponding increase in wisdom. But agreement ceases as soon as we attempt to define “wisdom” and consider means of promoting it.
There are several factors that contribute to wisdom. Of there I should put first a sense of proportion: the capacity to take account of all the important factors in a problem and to attach to each its due weight. This has become more difficult than it used to be owing to the extent and complexity of the special knowledge required of various kinds of technicians. Suppose, for example, that you are engaged in research in scientific medicine. The work is difficult and is likely to absorb the whole of your mind. You have not time to consider the effect which your discoveries or inventions may have outside the field of medicine. You succeed (let us say), as modern medicine has succeeded, in enormously lowering the infant death-rate, not only in Europe and America, but also in Asia and Africa. This has the entirely unintended result of making the food supply inadequate and lowering the standard of life in the parts of the world that have the greatest populations. To take an even more dramatic example, which is in everybody's mind at the present time: you study the makeup of the atom from a disinterested(无利害关系的) desire for knowledge,
and by chance place in the hands of a powerful mad man the means of destroying the human race.
Therefore, with every increase of knowledge and skill, wisdom becomes more necessary, for every such increase augments(增强) our capacity for realizing our purposes, and therefore
augments our capacity for evil, if our purposes are unwise.
6.Disagreement arises when people try to decide ______.
A.how much more wisdom we have now than before
B.what wisdom is and how to develop it
C.if there is a great increase of wisdom in our age
D.whether wisdom can be developed or not
7.According to the author, “wisdom”is the ability to ______.
A.carefully consider the bad effects of any kind of reseach work
B.give each important problem some careful consideration
C.acquire a great deal of complex and special knowledge
D.give suitable consideration to all the possible elements in a problem 8.Lowering the infant death-rate may ______.
A.prove to be helpful everywhere in the world
B.give rise to an increase in population in Europe
C.cause food shortages in Asia and Africa
D.raise the living standard of the people in Africa
9.The author uses the examples in the passage to illustrate his point that ______.
A.it's extremely difficult to consider all the important elements in a problem
B.success in medical research has its negative effects
C.scientists may unknowingly cause destruction to the human race
D.it's unwise to be totally absorbed in researh in scientific medicine
10 .What is the main idea of the passage?
A.It is unwise to place the results of scientific research in the hands of a powerful mad man.
B.The more knowledge one has, the wiser one becomes.
C.Any increase of knowledge could lead to disastrous results without the guidance of wisdom.
D.Wisdom increases in proportion to one's age.
Cyberspace，网络空间)！ data superhighways, multi-media — for those who have seen the
future, the linking of computers, televisions and telephones will change our lives for ever. Yet for all the talk of a forthcoming technological utopia(乌托邦) little attention has been given to the
implications of these developments for the poor. As with all new high technology, while the West concerns itself with the“how,”the question of” for whom” is put aside once again.
Economists are only now realizing the full extent to which the communications revolution has affected the world economy. Information technology allows the extension of trade across geographical and industrial boundaries, and transnational corporations take full advantage of it. Terms of trade, exchange and interest rates and money movements are more important than the production of goods. The electronic economy made possible by information technology allows the haves to increase their control on global markets — with destructive impact on the have-nots.
For them the result is instability. Developing countries which rely on the production of a small range of goods for export are made to feel like small parts in the international economic machine. As “futures”(期货) are traded on computer screens, developing countries simply have less and less control of their destinies.
So what are the options for regaining control? One alternative is for developing countries to buy in the latest computers and telecommunications themselves — so-called “development
communications” modernization. Yet this leads to long-term dependency and perhaps permanent
constraints on developing countries' economies.
Communications technology is generally exported from the U.S., Europe or Japan; the patents, skills and ability to manufacture remain in the hands of a few industrialized countries. It is also expensive, and imported products and services must therefore be bought on credit — credit
usually provided by the very countries whose companies stand to gain.
Furthermore, when new technology is introduced there is often too low a level of expertise to exploit it for native development. This means that while local elites, foreign communities and subsidiaries of transnational corporations may benefit, those whose lives depend on access to the information are denied it.
11 .From the passage we know that the development of high technology is in the interests of ______.
A.the rich countries
D.the world economy
12 .It can be inferred from the passage that ______.
A.international trade should be expanded
B.the interests of the poor countries have not been given enough consideration
C.the exports of the poor countries should be increased
D.communications technology in the developing countries should be modernized 13 .Why does the author say that the electronic economy may have a destructive impact on developing countries?
A. Because it enables the developed countries to control the international market.
B.Because it destroys the economic balance of the poor countries.
C.Because it violates the national boundaries of the poor countries.
D.Because it inhibits the industrial growth of developing countries. 14 .The development of modern communications technology in developing countries may ______.
A.hinder their industrial production
B.cause them to lose control of their trade
C.force them to reduce their share of exports
D.cost them their economic independence
15 .The author's attitude toward the communications revolution is ______.
Chose an appropriate word to finish each blank. If necessary to change the form of the chosen word.
neither brand therefore reason name
either same different charge little
who individual however much monopoly
Consumers have a choice as to what they will buy. Most of the time they also can choose from __1__ they will buy. For example, several different firma each manufacturing their own __2__ of detergent will try to get consumers to buy their brand. The efforts of two or more business firms trying to sell to the __3__ consumer is called competition. Competition exists among businesses to sell their goods and services. It is also exists among ___4___to sell their skills and abilities.
In perfect competition there are many sellers of the same product. __5___, competition in our economy is seldom perfect. In some industries there is __6__ or no competition at all. Telephone and utility companies are good examples. In you community is there more than one company that supplies telephone service? Do consumers have a choice when they buy electrical service? A situation in which there is only one product of a good or service is called a __7__. Consumers have no choice. They __8__ buy from that firm or they do not buy at all.
Monopolies limit the choice that consumers have. For this __9___they are not desirable. In certain cases, however, it is not practical for two or more companies to compete in the same area. To protect consumers, government controls the rates these companies may __10__ the consumer.
The use of nuclear power has already spread all over the world. ___1___, scientists still have not agreed on what should be done with the large amounts of waste material that __2__ to increase every year. Most waste materials are disposed of simply by placing them somewhere. But nuclear waste must be __3__ with great care. It gives off dangerous radiation and it will continue to be __4__ for hundreds, thousands, even millions of years.
How could we get rid of such waste material in such a way that it will not harm the __5__. Where can we safely distribute it? One idea is to put this radioactive waste inside a thick container, which is ___6__ dropped to the deep bottom of the ocean. But some scientists believe that this way of __7___nuclear waste would kill fish and other living things in the oceans or interfere with their growth. Another way to __8__ nuclear waste is to send it into space, to the sun, where it would be buried. Other scientists suggest that this polluting material be __9__ thousands of meters under the earth’s surface. Such underground areas must be free of possible earthquakes. Advances
are being made. But it may still be many years __10__ this problem could be finally settled. 1. A. Moreover B. However C. Therefore D. Otherwise
2. A. start B. incline C. tend D. keep
3. A. handled B. dealt C. coped D. processed
4. A. efficient B. unfavorable C. deadly D. painful
5. A. residence B. location C. situation D. environment
6. A. then B. even C. ever D. only
7. A. scattering B. preserving C. containing D. discarding
8. A. deliver B. transport C. spread D. remove
9. A. covered B. deposited C. buried D. reserved
10. A. until B. before C. after D. unless
Part II Translation Practice. (30 minutes)
Put the sentences, marked with a yellow shade, in the above reading passages into Chinese.