1. Determine the correct Entry Procedure. Depending on where you enter the holding pattern, you will need to follow an entry procedure. If you are coming from 70? to the left (right for non-standard patterns) of the holding course, use a Teardrop procedure. Coming from 110? to the right (or left if non-standard), use the Parallel procedure. And from the remaining 180?, fly a direct entry. The entry procedures are outlined below:
1. Parallel Procedure. When approaching the holding fix from anywhere within
sector (a), turn to a heading to parallel the holding course outbound on the
non-holding side for the appropriate time (see step 5), turn in the direction of the
holding pattern through more than 180 degrees, and return to the holding fix or
intercept the holding course inbound.
2. Teardrop Procedure. When approaching the holding fix from anywhere in
sector (b), turn outbound to a heading 30? from the holding course on the holding
side for the appropriate time, then turn in the direction of the holding pattern to
intercept the inbound holding course.
3. Direct Entry Procedure. When approaching the holding fix from anywhere in
sector (c), fly directly to the fix and turn to follow the holding pattern. 5
Time the legs. The pattern should be flown
so the Inbound Leg is one minute long if you
are flying at or below 14,000ft Mean Sea
Level (MSL) or one and a half minutes above
14,000ft MSL. At the holding fix, make a 180?
standard rate turn (3?/sec) in the direction
specified for the pattern (standard or
non-standard). When you are abeam the holding fix (or after rolling out of the turn if you are unable to determine abeam the fix), start timing the outbound leg. After a minute (1? minutes above 14,000ft), make another 180? turn in the same direction to intercept the holding course. Time the inbound leg until reaching the holding fix. If there is little or no wind, it should be one or 1? minutes as appropriate. If not, you will need to adjust the outbound leg to make the inbound leg the appropriate time. For example, if you are flying at 12,000ft and find that it takes 45 seconds to fly the inbound leg after flying outbound for one minute, make your outbound leg 1 minute and 15 seconds next time. Similarly, if the inbound leg comes out as 1 minute 30 seconds, shorten the outbound leg by the extra 30 seconds. Remember not to start timing the outbound leg until you are directly abeam the holding fix. Watch your speed. Unless otherwise depicted on a chart or directed by ATC, maximum holding airspeed between the minimum holding altitude and 6000ft is 200 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS). Between 6001 and 14,000ft, don't fly faster than 230 KIAS and above 14,000ft, maximum airspeed is 265 KIAS.
Adjust for wind to make the inbound leg the appropriate time. If the inbound leg is shorter than it should be, lengthen the outbound leg by the difference. If the inbound leg is to long, shorten the outbound leg by the excess time. For example, flying below 14,000ft, if the inbound leg takes one minute, 45 seconds to complete, time the outbound leg for 15 seconds (one minute minus the extra 45 seconds from the inbound leg).
Triple your crosswind correction on the outbound leg. If you have a 10? crosswind correction to hold your track on the inbound leg, fly the outbound leg with 30? correction. Maintain standard rate turns.