Industrial Revolution refers to the early history of the capitalist industrialization. The Industrial Revolution is a scientific and technological revolution, which replaced the handicraft workshop into the machine factory. Because the invention and the use of the machine become a sign of this period so historians call this era as "The Machine Age".
th“By the 18 century Britain was a rich nation. Its wealth was mainly derived from farming and the woolen cloth trade.” Industrial Revolution starts in the north-central part of England; because this area has sufficient fuel resources like coal, mine, iron etc.
; Technology Innovations:
With the inventions of new machines such as John Kay’s flying shuttle (1773), James Hargreaves’
Spinning Jenny (1767), the wool production was highly improved. In 1769 the barber Arkwright invented the water frame, which can produce strong, thin cotton thread and he established the world’s first cotton factory in Manchester. From the mid 1780s, cotton textile machinery was run increasingly on steam power. From 1800 cotton manufacture become Britain’s leading industry.
Undoubtedly steam engine was the driving force of industrial revolution so was to the mining. Newcomen invented the practical working steam engine which can pump water below 90m and prevented floods. Iron is produced by heating iron ore. By 1720 most iron in England was imported due to a shortage of charcoal. In 1709 Abraham Darby invented a way of smelting iron using coke (processed coal) instead of charcoal; iron industry took off after 1760. Steel was first produced in the 1740s by Benjamin Huntsman, which was stronger than iron. Between 1850 and 1880 Britain’s annual steel output tripled. Steel became important in structural engineering.
As the industry grew, it became vital to cut down the transport cost, firstly canals are built to link the main industrial cities, later than, the engine, which was redesigned by James Watt, was widely used for steam trains. By 1840s Britain had a complex passenger railway system. The railways superseded canals as cheap transport and boosted the iron and coal industries by creating revenue from carrying freight and passengers.
; Social Influence:
Factories and urbanization:
Industrialization led to the creation of the factory. The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city, as well as the enclosure movement and improved agricultural technology, large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories. For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs. Later each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler.
Due to capitalism Economic crisis, and also because not have any protection provided by the government, many unemployed workers due to the economic crisis were leading a life of hunger. In a normal economic environment, the production environment is also very poor and the income is very meager. The bulk of the population was at the bottom of the social ladder, suffered severe reductions in their living standards. Until about 1750, in large part due to malnutrition, life expectancy was shorter in England.
; Institutional change:
1. The capitalist mode of production finally victory over the feudal mode of production. 2. Changing from agricultural civilization to industrial civilization.
1. Antonia Cunningham(1991). Essential British History. London: Usborne Publishing Ltd. 2. Baidu. 2012. [Online] Available at: http://baike.baidu.com/view/333491.htm [Accessed 17
3. Baidu. 2008. [Online] Available at: http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/42874799.html
[Accessed 17 November 2012]
4. Wikipedia. 2012. [Online] Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_revolution
[Accessed 17 November 2012]