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Stress at Work

By Tracy Lewis,2014-05-26 21:00
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Stress at Work

    Stress at WorkWhat is Stress?ª?A dynamic condition in which an individual

    is confronted with an opportunity,

    constraint, or demand related to what he

    or she desires and for which the outcome

    is perceived to be both uncertain and

    important (Schuler, R.S., 1980).Inverted-U Relationship between

    Stress & Job PerformanceThe Most Stressful Jobsª?Overtime ª?Quotas

    ª?Deadlines

    ª?Competitiveness

    ª?Physical demands

    ª?Environmental condition

    ª?Hazards encountered

    ª?Win-lose situations

    ª?Working in the public eyeThe Wall Street Journal, 1996The Most

    Stressful Jobsª?1. U.S. president176.6

    ª?2. Firefighter110.9

    ª?3. Senior executive108.6

    ª?6. Surgeon99.5

    ª?10. Air traffic controller83.1

    ª?12. Public relations executive78.5

    ª?17. Real estate agent73.1

    ª?31. Lawyer64.3

    ª?33. General physician64.0

    ª?35. Insurance agent63.3

    ª?50. College professor54.2The least Stressful Jobsª?103. Market

    research analyst42.1

    ª?104. Personnel recruiter41.8

    ª?119. Economist38.7

    ª?122. Mechanical engineer38.3

    ª?124. Chiropractor37.9

    ª?149. Retail salesperson34.9

    ª?173. Accountant31.1

    ª?193. Purchasing agent28.9

    ª?229. Broadcast technician24.2

    ª?245. Actuary20.2ACTU Survey on Stress at Workª?Increased workload;

    continual roster changes; long

    hours away from home which affects family & social life; always under threat from management to perform beyond the call of duty (locomotive driver) ª?Apart from teaching, we are also expected to be counselors, carers, advisors to parents, writers of curriculum, reports, programmes, not to mention

    learning new skills in our own time; I don??t have any own time left; I also have a family who need the odd bit of time (primary school teacher)ACTU Survey on Stress at Workª?Poor hourly rates & therefore longer hours required at workplace & therefore less quality time with family. Too many demands placed on workers by management are causing undue stress (boiler operator)

    ª?I feel a sense of being overwhelmed to perform to management expectations with less human resources (public service clerk)

    ª?The supervisors have many sets of rules & change them to suit themselves on the day or they give the worker a belittling dressing down or they put you on notice (office worker)Stress & its ConsequencesEnvironmental

    Individual

    OrganizationalStress

    Physiological

    Behavioral

    Psychological

    Personal

    ResourcesParker & DeCotiis (1984)Environmental Factorsª?Economic uncertaintyª?half a million dollars lost/per person ª?unemploymentª?Political uncertaintyª?post 1997 --relationship with PRC, UK & others

    ª?Competency of the SAR govt.ª?Technological uncertaintyª?obsolete in skills & experiencesEnvironmental Factorsª?Economic uncertaintyª?half a million dollars lost/per person ª?unemploymentª?Political uncertaintyª?post 1997 --relationship with PRC, UK & others

    ª?Competency of the SAR govt.ª?Technological uncertaintyª?obsolete in skills & experiencesFindings on Work-induced stressª?Lack of communication & consultation53%

    ª?Increased workload42%

    ª?Job insecurity & lack of career paths36%

    ª?Organizational change & restructuring29%

    ª?Poor work organization18%

    ª?Lack of training, especially new technologies16% ª?Inadequate staff & resources15%

    ª?Long, difficult & unpredictable hours15%

    ACTU survey on 10,000 Australian Workers (1997)Findings on Work-induced stressª?Not doing the kind of work I want to34%

    ª?Coping with current job30%

    ª?Working too hard 28%

    ª?Colleagues at work21%

    ª?A difficult boss18%Worries at work, The Wall Street Journal (1988)Organizational Factorsª?Task demandsª?Job autonomy, task variety, work conditions, etcª?Role demandsª?role conflicts & ambiguityª?Interpersonal demandsª?lack of social support, low trust among workersª?Organizational structureª?degree of centralization & formalizationª?Organizational leadershipª?managerial styles (e.g., control vs. enabling) Individual Factorsª?Family

    problemsª?difficulties in relationship (spouse, children, etc)ª?Economic problemsª?esp. overextending financial resourcesª?Personalityª?Type A vs. Type B.Individual Differencesª?Perception on the problems ª?controllable, predictable, challenging vs. threatening?ª?Job experienceª?skill, knowledge & toolsª?Social supportª?from the family, peers & supervisorsPhysical Symptomsª?Muscle tension

    ª?Headaches

    ª?Changing eating habits

    ª?Breathing problems

    ª?Grinding teeth

    ª?Diarrhoea

    ª?Constipation

    ª?Sweating

    ª?Butterflies in stomachPhysical Symptomsª?Hypertension ª?Heart diseases

    ª?Weakening of immune system --> Cancer!Psychological Symptomsª?Worry ª?Feeling isolated, scared

    ª?Crying for no reasons

    ª?Sleep disturbances

    ª?Inability to forget problems

    ª?Procrastination

    ª?Feeling of impending doomBehavioralSymptoms at Workª?Fatigue ª?Irritable

    ª?Poor concentration

    ª?Loss of motivation

    ª?decrease work performance

    ª?sickness absence

    ª?tension & conflicts with colleagues

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