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Interview Questions

By Karen Cruz,2014-05-16 00:36
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Interview Questions. C#. What's the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the class' set method? Value, and its datatype depends on whatever

    Interview Questions

    C#

1. What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the class’ set

    method? Value, and its datatype depends on whatever variable we‟re changing.

    2. How do you inherit from a class in C#? Place a colon and then the name of the

    base class. Notice that it‟s double colon in C++. 3. Does C# support multiple inheritance? No, use interfaces instead. 4. When you inherit a protected class-level variable, who is it available to?

    Classes in the same namespace.

    5. Are private class-level variables inherited? Yes, but they are not accessible, so

    looking at it you can honestly say that they are not inherited. But they are.

    6. Describe the accessibility modifier protected internal. It‟s available to derived

    classes and classes within the same Assembly (and naturally from the base class

    it‟s declared in).

    7. C# provides a default constructor for me. I write a constructor that takes a

    string as a parameter, but want to keep the no parameter one. How many

    constructors should I write? Two. Once you write at least one constructor, C#

    cancels the freebie constructor, and now you have to write one yourself, even if

    there‟s no implementation in it.

    8. What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from? System.Object.

    9. How’s method overriding different from overloading? When overriding, you

    change the method behavior for a derived class. Overloading simply involves

    having a method with the same name within the class.

    10. What does the keyword virtual mean in the method definition? The method

    can be over-ridden.

    11. Can you declare the override method static while the original method is non-

    static? No, you can‟t, the signature of the virtual method must remain the same,

    only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override.

    12. Can you override private virtual methods? No, moreover, you cannot access

    private methods in inherited classes, have to be protected in the base class to

    allow any sort of access.

    13. Can you prevent your class from being inherited and becoming a base class

    for some other classes? Yes, that‟s what keyword sealed in the class definition is

    for. The developer trying to derive from your class will get a message: cannot

    inherit from Sealed class WhateverBaseClassName. It‟s the same concept as final

    class in Java.

    14. Can you allow class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-

    ridden? Yes, just leave the class public and make the method sealed.

    15. What’s an abstract class? A class that cannot be instantiated. A concept in C++

    known as pure virtual method. A class that must be inherited and have the

    methods over-ridden. Essentially, it‟s a blueprint for a class without any

    implementation.

16. When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract (as opposed to

    free-willed educated choice or decision based on UML diagram)? When at

    least one of the methods in the class is abstract. When the class itself is inherited

    from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been over-ridden.

    17. What’s an interface class? It‟s an abstract class with public abstract methods all

    of which must be implemented in the inherited classes.

    18. Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the

    interface? They all must be public. Therefore, to prevent you from getting the

    false impression that you have any freedom of choice, you are not allowed to

    specify any accessibility, it‟s public by default. 19. Can you inherit multiple interfaces? Yes, why not.

    20. And if they have conflicting method names? It‟s up to you to implement the

    method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This

    might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from

    different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you‟re okay.

    21. What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class? In the interface

    all methods must be abstract; in the abstract class some methods can be concrete.

    In the interface no accessibility modifiers are allowed, which is ok in abstract

    classes.

    22. How can you overload a method? Different parameter data types, different

    number of parameters, different order of parameters.

    23. If a base class has a bunch of overloaded constructors, and an inherited class

    has another bunch of overloaded constructors, can you enforce a call from an

    inherited constructor to an arbitrary base constructor? Yes, just place a colon,

    and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in

    the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.

    24. What’s the difference between System.String and System.StringBuilder

    classes? System.String is immutable; System.StringBuilder was designed with the

    purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be

    performed.

    25. What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?

    StringBuilder is more efficient in the cases, where a lot of manipulation is done to

    the text. Strings are immutable, so each time it‟s being operated on, a new

    instance is created.

    26. Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? No. 27. What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and

    System.Array.Clone()? The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the

    second one is shallow.

    28. How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order? By calling

    Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

    29. What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key?

    HashTable.

    30. What’s class SortedList underneath? A sorted HashTable.

    31. Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred? Yes.

    32. What’s the C# equivalent of C++ catch (…), which was a catch-all statement

    for any possible exception? A catch block that catches the exception of type

    System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just

    write catch {}.

    33. Can multiple catch blocks be executed? No, once the proper catch code fires off,

    the control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any), and then whatever

    follows the finally block.

    34. Why is it a bad idea to throw your own exceptions? Well, if at that point you

    know that an error has occurred, then why not write the proper code to handle that

    error instead of passing a new Exception object to the catch block? Throwing

    your own exceptions signifies some design flaws in the project.

    35. What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. In

    C++ they were referred to as function pointers.

    36. What’s a multicast delegate? It‟s a delegate that points to and eventually fires

    off several methods.

    37. How’s the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the

    application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available

    under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

    38. What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive,

    and XCOPY command.

    39. What’s a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural

    application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from

    the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application

    are called satellite assemblies.

    40. What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application?

    System.Globalization, System.Resources.

    41. What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments?

    Single-line, multi-line and XML documentation comments.

    42. How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly

    with a command-line compiler? Compile it with a /doc switch. 43. What’s the difference between <c> and <code> XML documentation tag?

    Single line code example and multiple-line code example.

    44. Is XML case-sensitive? Yes, so <Student> and <student> are different elements.

    45. What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? CorDBG command-line

    debugger, and DbgCLR graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the

    DbgCLR. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug

    switch.

    46. What does the This window show in the debugger? It points to the object that‟s

    pointed to by this reference. Object‟s instance data is shown.

    47. What does assert() do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition

    as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program

    proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.

    48. What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class?

    Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace

    class for both debug and release builds.

    49. Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The

    tracing dumps can be quite verbose and for some applications that are constantly

    running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive there. Five

    levels range from None to Verbose, allowing to fine-tune the tracing activities.

    50. Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console

    or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.

    51. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe

    process to the DbgClr debugger.

    52. What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? Positive test

    cases (correct data, correct output), negative test cases (broken or missing data,

    proper handling), exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught

    properly).

    53. Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application?

    Yes, if you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.

    54. Explain the three services model (three-tier application). Presentation (UI),

    business (logic and underlying code) and data (from storage or other sources).

    55. What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider

    classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust,

    but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is

    universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and

    Informix, but it‟s a .NET layer on top of OLE layer, so not the fastest thing in the

    world. ODBC.NET is a deprecated layer provided for backward compatibility to

    ODBC engines.

    56. What’s the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns

    a read-only dataset from the data source when the command is executed.

    57. What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query

    database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The

    wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve „La%‟.

    58. Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. Transaction must be Atomic (it

    is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following

    transactions), Consistent (data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between”

    case where something has been updated and something hasn‟t), Isolated (no

    transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction), Durable (the

    values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right

    after).

    59. What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows

    Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via

    Microsoft SQL Server username and passwords).

    60. Which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is

    trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory,

    the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier

    participating in the transaction.

    61. Why would you use untrusted verificaion? Web Services might use it, as well

    as non-Windows applications.

    62. What does the parameter Initial Catalog define inside Connection String?

    The database name to connect to.

    63. What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database?

    Microsoft.Access.

    64. What does Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the

    memory.

    65. What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree

    that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same,

    including the security settings.

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