Recent Developments related to the Banking Sector
the Financial System
? Transfer of Sitebank to Nova Bank A.Ş.
As it is known, the Share Transfer Agreement concerning the sale of Sitebank A.Ş., all
the shares of which belong to the Savings Deposit Insurance Fund, to Nova Bank S.A.
was signed on 11.01.2001. Upon decision No: 596 of the Banking Regulation and
Supervision Board dated 16.01.2002, it has been deemed appropriate that the shares of
the above-mentioned bank be transfered to Novabank S.A.
? Regulation on Establishment and Operations of Banks
Some amendments are made on regulation concerning the rules and procedures on
establishment and operations of banks, which was published in Official Gazette dated
June 27, 2001.
With the amendments to the regulation on January 31, 2002, definition of own funds
has been changed, and the addition of general loan loss provisions to Tier 2 capital
without netting out is brought. Additionally, capital supplements to all financial
institutions are included in amounts to be deducted from the capital. As a result of
these changes, a single own fund definition is set for the system, which provides a
uniformity both in the calculation of credit limitations and in the application of
? Regulation on Measurement and Assessment of Banks Capital Adequacy
This regulation defines the principles and procedures to calculate banks’ CAR both on
consolidated and solo basis, which was published in Official Gazette, dated January 31,
2002. It states the principles and procedures concerning the incorporation of market
risks -namely interest rate, exchange rate and equity risks- in the calculation of CAR
and replaces the existing regulation, which was issued in February 2001. The new
regulation brings the following amendments:
- Principles and procedures regarding the measurement of risks and capital
adequacy issues related with the banks’ option operations are defined.
- Directives about the standards of the risk measurement models are re-arranged.
- Risk weights is re-arranged to comply with the inclusion of the repo
transactions in the balance sheet.
- “Structural Position” is defined to prevent erosion of banks’ own funds from
steep price and foreign exchange rate movements. The work on the principles
and procedures about inclusion of the structural positions in the calculation of
capital adequacy ratio is continuing.
? Decision of BRSB about Rabobank
Upon the demand of Rabobank International based in Utrecht, Netherlands dated
December 27, 2001, it has been deemed appropriate with decision No. 571 of the
Banking Regulation and Supervision Board dated January 4, 2002 that the Head office
of the Bank in Turkey starts with its voluntary liquidation operations according to
Article 18 paragraph (2) of the Banks’ Act No: 4389.
? Legislative Changes Regarding The Recapitalization Of Private Banks
The implementation of strengthening program to ensure the soundness and
sustainability of the private banking system is the remaining most important part of the
banking sector restructuring strategy.
In this framework, measures regarding the recapitalization of private banks, resolving
the Non-Performing Loans (NPLs), limitation of Fx open positions and encouragement
of mergers and acquisitions have been put into place.
Strengthening of the private banks’ capital structure is an important component of the
banking restructuring program. Transition to a secure banking system through
recapitalization of private banks; increasing and maintenance of transparency in the
Turkish banking system are the main objectives of the strengthening strategy. It is also
aiming at providing interaction between the real sector and the financial sector, opening
up a new perspective to the restructuring process.
Thus, the recapitalization process is structured to achieve the above objectives, based on
the following principles:
? Equal and fair treatment of all banks in capital strengthening,
? Process subject to clear and objective rules with a precise agenda,
? Avoidance of any moral hazard effects through guarantees obtained for public funds
? Limiting costs of restructuring through rapid intervention and limited/controlled
provision of funds,
? Transparency of the process and informing the public at each step,
? Incentives for banks’ shareholders to increase capital.
The legal basis of the recapitalization process was set up within the framework of
these objectives and principles consists of the regulations below:
1. Amendment to the Banks’ Act through Act No. 4743,
2. Regulation on Principles and Procedures related to the Restructuring of the Banking
3. Regulation on the Principles and Procedures of Private Independent Audit to be
Carried Out According to Provisional Article 4 of the Banks’ Act.
Strengthening The Capital Structure Of Private Banks
Scope: Privately owned deposits banks that are established in Turkey
The Phases of Recapitalization: The process of strengthening the capital structure consist of three main steps;
1. Audit and Assessment:
? Auditing of the bank’s contracted independent auditor
? Auditing of the first independent auditing company’s report by a second independent auditor for
compliance with the announced principles and procedures of independent auditing
? BRSA’s assessments of all these inputs using on-site and off-site supervision results
2. Bank Recapitalization: In case of loss that can not be covered by provisions, some banks will need to hold, in addition to ordinary General Assembly, an Extra-ordinary General Assembly, to perform a write-
down of capital, authorize new capital, submit business plans, and raise additional capital within the
strict limit of regulation.
3. State Support: Providing state support to the banks whose Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) is under 8 percent and meeting the necessary conditions
The Methods of Recapitalization: Capital support shall be done in two ways:
a) Investing direct capital not more than the amount paid by the shareholders to increase the CAR to 5
percent (participation to common equity)
b) Providing subordinated debt (convertible bonds with 7-year maturity) to increase CAR to 9 percent
Conditions for State Support: ? All banks that have positive CAR and has an asset share of at least 1 percent in the banking sector as
of September 30, 2001 or increased their shares to this level by mergers and acquisitions may benefit
from both participation to common equity and subordinated debt supports.
? The banks that have an asset share under 1 percent in the sector can only benefit from the
subordinated debt support if they increase their CAR to 5 percent.
Objectives of Recapitalization Scheme:
? Ensuring transparency and enhancing confidence in banking sector
? Maximizing capital contributions by banks’ owners
? Minimizing the fiscal cost by preventing transfer of viable banks to SDIF
? Encouraging mergers and acquisitions
? Enabling banks to start extending credits to real sector
? Contributing to efficient functioning of corporate debt restructuring schemes
? Creating an appropriate environment for removing blanket guarantee, thus restoring market
Measures to Ensure Efficient and Appropriate Use of Public Funds:
? Direct capital injection by SDIF will be limited with the amount paid by the shareholders.
? SDIF will be shareholder on behalf of government in the direct capital injection
? Subordinated debt will be given with a yield that is consistent with market conditions
? Subordinated debt will be convertible to equity share
? The stocks of the major shareholders shall be taken as pledge
? Any bank in which SDIF holds equity, it would have board representation with veto rights
? Banks will submit comprehensive business plans, projections and commitments to performance
measures as a condition for state support
? Banks will extend 60 percent of Tier 1 capital support as credits to non-group firms by the end of
? Law On Restructuring Of Debts To Financial Sector And Amendments To Some
Law on Restructuring of Debts to Financial Sector and Amendments to Some Laws
was published in Official Gazette dated January 31, 2002.
The aim of this Law is to enable the debtors that have been involved in a credit relationship with banks and other financial organisations and that experience financial bottleneck to fulfil their repayment obligations towards the financial sector and to continue to create value added with such measures as extending maturities, renewing the credit (loan), extending a new credit, reducing principal and/or interest, waiving interest, converting credits into participations in whole or in part, assigning or transferring the credits against a consideration in cash, in kind or subject to collection, liquidating the credits fully or partly against assets in kind belonging to debtors or third persons, making protocols by acting together with other banks, which measures shall be taken under the conditions and periods to be determined under financial restructuring for the credits opened before the effective date of this Law by banks, special finance institutions and other financial establishments operating in Turkey under the permissions obtained pursuant to their special legislations.
Claims of banks and special finance institutions and other financial establishments, Saving Deposits Insurance Fund and Türkiye Emlak Bankası AŞ which is in the Process of Liquidation may be restructured or subjected to new repayment plans, by providing additional finance when necessary, under the Financial Restructuring Framework Agreements which will be prepared by the Banks Association of Turkey, which will be signed by the authorised representatives of creditor organisations and whose general conditions concerning approval and acceptance will be stated in a regulation to be issued by the Banking Regulation and Supervision Board, provided that they are embodied in financial restructuring contracts within a three-year period from the date when the said Agreements have been approved by the Banking Regulation and Supervision Board.
? Amendment in Provisioning Regulation
Regulation making an amendment on the Regulation on the Principles and Procedures Related to the Determination of the Loans and Other Receivables for which Provisions Shall be Set Aside by Banks and to the Provisions to be Set Aside was published in Official Gazette on January 31, 2002. An explanatory circular was also published to clarify the implementation related issues. By the amendments, existing procedures on the restructuring of NPLs and other claims are revised in order to improve the efficiency of the voluntary corporate debt restructuring programs.
? Regulations On Independent Auditing
Both Regulation on the Principles and Procedures of Independent Auditing and Regulation on The Authorization of Independent Auditing Institutions were published in Official Gazette dated January 31, 2002, setting out the principles and procedures of independent auditing and authorization of independent auditing companies. With the regulation on principles and procedures of independent auditing, the procedures and principles to be applied in independent auditing are brought to international auditing standards and regulated in a more detailed fashion.
? Regulation On The Principles And Procedures Of Banking Sector
Regulation on the principles and procedures for the recapitalization scheme designed for the private owned deposit-taking banks incorporated in Turkey with the ultimate aim to establish a sound and transparent banking system is published in Official Gazette dated February 1, 2002. The Regulation stipulates the following in compliance with Provisional Article 4 of the Banks Act No. 4389: details of the general assembly to be held by banks; the procedures regarding an increase or decrease of the banks’ capital; the measures that need to be taken based on assessments of the Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency; the transfer period for shares which are subject to the capital increase; the issuance of convertible bonds and triggers for the conversion of these bonds into shares; the sale of banks’ shares taken over by the Savings Deposit Insurance Fund and conversion of subordinated debts to capital.
? Regulation On Principles And Procedures Of Independent Auditing To Be
Carried Out In Banks According To Provisional Article 4 Of The Banks Act No.
Regulation on the principles and procedures for independent audits of the privately owned comercial banks established in Turkey was published in Official Gazette on February 1, 2002. According to the Regulation consolidated and unconsolidated financial statements will be prepared to reflect the banks’ true financial position, by
incorporating losses arising from required provisions from loans and other claims, from adverse exchange rate changes or from other activities. The audits of the privately-owned commercial banks by the independent audit institutions is authorized by the legislation related to this regulation, and will be based on the banks’ financial statements set up as of 31 December 2001. These financial statements must incorporate the effects of this Regulation for determining the consolidated and unconsolidated capital adequacy standard ratios, based on Provisional Article 4 of the Banks’ Act Nr. 4389 added to Act No.4743, to determine the true financial condition of these banks. The audit reports prepared by the independent audit institutions shall be assessed by a second independent auditing institution, which shall be determined by the Agency and which shall perform its work in accordance with the principles and procedures of independent audit.
? Regulation on principles and procedures about the implementation of the
Foreign Exchange Net Position/Own Funds Standard Ratio
Regulation on principles and procedures about the implementation of “the Foreign Exchange Net Position/Own Funds Standard Ratio” for banks on consolidated and unconsolidated basis was published in Official Gazette dated January 31, 2002. With this regulation, compliance with the changes in the definition of the own funds and consolidated own funds is provided.
? Anti-money Laundering Regulation
As it is known the Financial Crimes Investigation Board (FCIB) is the responsible authority on anti-money laundering activities and carries out preliminary investigations in order to determine whether money laundering offences have been committed or not. FCIB is authorized to set the types of suspicious transactions as guidance to the financial institutions.
Regarding the fight against terrorism after September 11, 2001 an amendment was made in Communique no.2 on the national anti-money laundering by FCIB, published in Official Gazette dated February 7, 2002. With this amendment, a paragraph has been added to the list of the suspicious situations in Communique no.2 that financial institutions are obliged to report them to the FCIB. This paragraph states that whether a suspicious situation exists or not considering funds that are suspected as having a relation with terrorism or terrorist actions.
? Milli Aydın Bankası T.A.Ş. (Tarişbank)
Upon decision of the Banking Regulation and Supervision Board dated July 9, 2001, the management and supervision of Milli Aydın Bankası T.A.Ş. (Tarişbank) had been
transferred to the Savings Deposit Insurance Fund according to Article 14 paragraph (3) of the Banks’ Act No: 4389, due to the fact that it did not take the measures instructed according to the provisions of the Banks’ Act, that its losses have exceeded its own
funds thus endangering external resources and that the current value of its total liabilities exceed the current value of its total assets.
It has been decided to suspend the execution of the initiated administrative process with the resolution No: 2001/608, dated 23.11.2001 given by the General Assembly of Judicial Administrative Chambers as regards the trial opened with file No: 2001/2275 of the Chamber 10 of the Council of States. Within this framework, while waiting for the court decision on the subject, the partnership rights and management and supervision of Milli Aydın Bankası T.A.Ş. has been transferred back to its previous shareholders by the Banking Regulation and Supervision Board through putting into effect the resolution on suspension of the execution.
? Principles On Establishment Of Asset Management Companies
The establishment of asset management companies, the operation principles of
which are to be regulated by the Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency, has been stipulated by the Law 4743 dated 31.01.2002, for the purpose of taking over and managing the receivables and other assets of banks, special finance houses and other financial institutions. The law gives authority to the Savings Deposit Insurance Fund (SDIF) to participate in these asset management companies with the condition that the SDIF share is not to exceed twenty percent of the company’s capital. The law also states that all transactions to be performed by the AMC, including the establishment of operations and the documents to be prepared in relation with these transactions shall be subject to tax exemptions.
An action plan concerning the establishment of such an asset management
company has been prepared. The attached schedule foresees a formation process of approximately six months, to be carried out under the SDIF initiative. It is aimed at obtaining maximum participation of both the real and financial sector representatives at all stages of the process. This participation is expected to ensure a better design and support for the scheme by reflecting the expectations and needs of the real and financial sectors. Such feedback is also expected to make it possible to determine the potential investors and to commence a dialogue with them.
This initiative by the SDIF should not impede the establishment of asset
management companies by persons or institutions other than the SDIF and it also does
not imply that the SDIF will not participate in companies to be established by other
persons or institutions. The SDIF is ready to support other such initiatives that shall
result in the establishment of efficient and effective asset management companies.
? Liquidity and Reserve Requirements
Pursuant to an amendment on the application of liquidity and reserve requirements,
made in April 2002, the total of reserve requirement ratio and liquidity ratio for TL
deposits is reduced from 12 percent to 10 percent while that of FX deposits from 14
percent to 12 percent, which would be started from May 10, 2002. This time, interest
would be also paid quarterly to the reserve requirements to be held as FX deposits with
the Central Bank.
TL Denominated FX Denominated
RR LR(Total RR LR Total
Deposits %6 %4 %10 %11 %1 %12
Other Liabilities %6 %4 %10 %11 %1 %12
RR: Reserve Requirement
LR: Liquidity Requirement
GS: Government Securities.
? Regulation On Principles And Procedures Of Second Independent Audit To Be
Carried Out In Banks According To Provisional Article 4 Of The Banks Act No.
This Regulation sets out the principles and procedures for the auditing of the
independent audit reports drawn up pursuant to "Regulation No. 4389, Concerning the
Principles and Procedures of Independent Auditing to be Carried Out in Banks
according to Provisional Article 4 of the Banks Act No. 4389" by a second independent
audit institution for purposes of ensuring compliance with the independent auditing
rules, and the principles and procedures and principles concerning the determination of
the second independent audit institutions by the Agency.
? Milli Aydın Bankası A.Ş.
Upon the court decision on the suspension of execution of the initiated administrative
process regarding Milli Aydın Bankası A.Ş. the partnership rights and management and supervision of Milli Aydın Bankası T.A.Ş. had been transferred back to its previous
shareholders by the Banking Regulation and Supervision Board through putting into
effect the resolution on suspension of the execution. But, with the retrial of the court
decision the demand on the suspension of execution of the initiated administrative
process has been rejected, and the previous decision became invalid. Thus, the decision
about the transfer of Milli Aydın Bankası A.Ş. to the Saving Deposit Insurance Fund by
the Banking Regulation and Supervision Board is still in effect.