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    Comprehensive English book 4

    Unit 1 Learning is good for you!

    This unit includes two passages on learning, one focusing on its curing effects on

    patients, and the other advocating lifelong learning for adults. The idea is learning

    can benefit the ill, the old and other adults physically, mentally and emotionally.

    The passages may serve as a good basis for a discussion on the important role

    learning can play in life.

    I. Teaching aims and demands

    1. Skills

    1) readingreading for gist, detail and inference

    2) writinglearning about writing a summary

    3) Translatingpracticing translation skills

    2. Vocabulary development----word power

    1) Learning words and expressions that appear in the text

    . Receptive words and phrasesalleviate, pharmacist, symptom,

    chronic illness, prescribe, medication, chime in with, surgery, dispense,

    stipulate, stipulate, divide(n.)bleak, staggering, auxiliary, accommodation

    B. productive words and phrasestake up, option, sign up, coincide,

    facility, refer to ,in response to, nominate, on ones own, package, specify,

    come off, in despair, dwell on, entitle sb to sth, highlight, beat the odds,

    stand a prayer, foster, at a disadvantage, justifiable, initiative, be engaged

    in, get through, tap

    2) Word inferencelearning to infer the meaning of new words and


    3. Grammar

    1) Reviewing verb tenses and using them

    2) Learning the use of static verbs

    II Detailed study of the texts


    try encouraging patientsto take up learning, rather than prescribing

    them pills to alleviate their condition:„try encouraging patientsto engage in

    learning instead of ordering pills to make them feel better

    take up(1)interest oneself inengage in

    eg Mark Twain had tried many ways to earn a living before he

    book up writing as a career.

    (2)assumebegin afresh


    eg Lets take up the tale at the point where it was interrupted.

    (3)occupy (time, space)

    eg Its unwise to let your hobbies take up all your spare time.

    2)offer patients the option of a free ticket to sign up for a course

    offer patients the option of a free ticket to sign up for course

    optionthe right or power of choosingchoice

    eg (1) I have no option but to accept the surgery.

    (2) The newcomer was given two optionsto either accept the job or go


    Sign upjoin an organization or grouphire

    Eg (1) Shortly after the war broke out, Tom volunteered to sign up for the


     (2)Satisfied with the young mans performance in the interview, the manager

    decided to sign him up.

    3)If the scheme announced to take place at the same time as

    proves popular

    If the plan which was announced to take place at the same time as proves


    Coincidehappen at the same timebe in harmony or agreement

     Eg (1) Its hard for the couple to travel together because his vacation never

    coincide with hers.

    (2) The judges opinions didnt coincide. 4)every medical practicewill eventually have a facility to refer patients

    to„:„every medical groupwill gradually be able to provide a service to

    direct patients to

    facilitysomething designed, built, built, or installed to provide a specific

    convenience or service

     eg(1) Modern facilities enable the great masses to travel all over the world for


    (2) We were impressed with the sports facilities of the university. Referto

    eg The arrow refers the patients to a dental clinic situated behind this building.

    5)in response to as an answer to

    eg (1)Many young people volunteered to work in remote areas 8in response to

    the Partys call.

    (2)In response to your inquiry, I hereby send you my qualifications.

    6)Nominatepropose for election or appointment

    Eg (1) The committee nominated Mr. Smith for the award.

     (2) She nominated her secretary as her representative to the negotiation.


    7)It also included working on ones own from a provided package

    It(learning )also included working by oneself using all the learning material

    provided to him

    On ones own(1) alone Eg The writer lives on his own on an isolated island.

    (2) independently of an employer eg He is trustworthy, so he can be left to work on his own.

    (3) outstanding

    eg As fa5r as craftsmanship is concerned, the old carpenter is on own.

    Packagea group or combination of related parts offered as a unit Eg The president vetoed the new tax package.

    8)or they specified actual physical benefit, or they noticed other indicators of

    their well-being„:„or they mentioned exact benefits their state of health

    specifymention or name definitely

    eg(1) The regulations specify that no books are to be taken out of the reading

    room without permission.

     (2)The patient was asked to specify what symptoms he had suffered from.

    Well-being: the state of health, happiness and prosperity

    Eg(1)For the well-being of the nation, an individual sometimes has to brush

    aside many of his own ideas.

    (2) He wont have a sense of well-being until for knowledge is satisfied. 9)By no means: not at all

    Eg(1)Artificial rainfall is by no means a thorough solution to the increasingly

    severe water shortage in North China.

     (2)By no means should we yield to this unreasonable demand.

    10)come off medication for angina:do not depend on medical treatment for a

    heart disease

    come off: become detached or separated

    eg(1)No sooner had he mounted the horse than he came off it.

     (2)He was surprised to find that all buttons had come off the

    new shirt he bought last week. 11)In despairhaving lost all hope

    Eg(1) Having lost contact with the base camp for days on end, the mountaineers

    were in despair.

    12) dwell on: think speak or write for a long time about

     eg Jack still dwells on the mischief he did to his high school teacher, and

    can‟t find peace of mind.

    4 13) My attacks of depression occurred with increased frequency : I suffered

    from depression more and moue frequently…

     with increased frequency: more and more frequently

     eg Owing to the deforestation in upstream areas, floods attack the Yangtze

    River with increased frequency.

    14) Doctors who have seen the survey results confirm that they chime in with

    their experiences: Doctors who have seen the investigation results prove

    that the results are consistent with their experiences

     chime in with : be consistent with

     eg Jacks proposal was dismissed because it didnt chime in with the whole

    construction project.

    15) Three GPs practices based on council estates: The community of patients who

    live in estates provided by the town council and who are regularly served

    by three general practitioners… 16) Rather than rip a leaf off a pad to take to a chemist, the GPs, with a patients

    agreement, will be able to hand over a chitty which entitles them to free of

    almost free learning: Instead of tearing a prescription off a pad for a

    patient to take to a pharmacist, the doctor, if the patient agrees, will be able

    to give a note which enables to have free or almost free learning. Here,

    rip a leaf off a pad means writing a prescription and tearing it off.

     Entitle to: give the power or right to

     Eg This ticket will entitle you to a free concert this evening.

    17) will fund a learning adviser to move between the surgeries dispensing

    advice on learning opportunities: a learning adviser hired with

    money will move between the clinics giving advice on learning

    opportunities to help the patients recover

     surgery: the science and practice of treating injuries and diseases by manual and

    instrumental operations

     doctors and dentists room where patients come to consult him

     dispense: mix and give out (medicines)

     eg She works at the pharmacy dispensing prescriptions.

    Text 2

    18) the highlight of the week will be the awards to celebrate the inspiring

    stories of those who have beaten the odds and turned heir lives around

    through learning: the most important activity of the week will be the

    awards to honor those with inspiring stories, who have overcome

    unfavorable conditions and changed their fate through learning.


     highlight: the most important part

     eg The highlight of the opening ceremony is the lighting of the Olympic


     The highlight of the evening is Marys soprano solo. Celebrate: praise or honor

     Eg His book celebrated the freedom from constraints of society and the joy of

    living close to nature.

     Beat the odds: overcome unfavorable conditions

     Eg This autobiography tells us how the author beat the odds and became the

    master of her own life.

    19) Its not often that you come across a competition that stipulates a minimum

    age of 85, but in reality you dont stand a prayer of winning: You dont often

    encounter a competition that sets a minimum age of 85, but actually you have

    no chance of winning

     stand a prayer: have a very small chance

     eg Before he won the championship, nobody thought he stood a prayer of


    20) foster: bring up; promote the growth or development of

     eg Quite a few American couples offered to foster an abandoned Chinese


    21) so they wont be at a disadvantage with their homework: so they wont

    be in an unfavorable condition when doing their homework.

     At a disadvantage: in an unfavorable condition

     Eg His inability to speak English puts him at a disadvantage when he attends

    international conferences

    22) in acknowledgement that her own lack of formal education created limits

    for the amount of help she could give: admitting that she couldnt give

    the children more help because she didnt have enough formal education


     Acknowledgement: the act of admitting the truth

     Eg He was forced into the acknowledgement that it was arbitrary to reach

    such a conclusion.

    23) This was the last straw: This was the last bit of unpleasantry; she couldnt bear

    it any longer. The last straw refers to the last straw that breaks the

    camels back, meaning an additional burden beyond endurance.

     Eg His Christmas was becoming a series of disagreeable surprises. The

    presence of yet another unexpected guest was the last straw.


    24) I was feds up with feeling out of my depth: I was tired of this feeling of


     out of ones depth: in water too deep to stand; unable to cope

     eg If you cant swim, dont go out of your depth.

     When people start talking about nuclear physics, I am out of my depth

    25)With justifiable pride: with pride that is reasonable and proper

    26) But without wanting to take anything away from the achievements of all these

    adult learners, you cant help concluding that the lifelong learning initiative has been far from an unmitigated success: But even with no intention to ignore the

    achievements of all the adult learners, you cant help concluding that the

    preliminary efforts have not been entirely successful.

     Initiative: a first or introductory step in a process

     Eg The local government has taken the initiative in harnessing the polluted


     Unmitigated: complete, absolute

     Eg an unmitigated disaster or evil

    27) and the divide between and is as wide as ever: and the gap

    between and has not been reduced

     divide: barrier, gap

     eg At the continental divide, rivers flow east and west.

    28) staggering: amazing, astonishing

     eg Nobody had foreseen that the immigration would impose a staggering

    problem on the government.

    29) get through (to sb): arrive at; reach ; communicate to

     eg When the message got through to his hometown, he was already on his way


     I cant get through to him that hes ruining his life.

    30) The picture looks bleaker still when you discover that there has been a 20%

    fall in participation by retired people : The whole situation seems to be more

    depressing when you find out that the retired people participating in learning

    are 20% less

     picture : situation or set of circumstances

     eg Absorbed in the details, he missed the big picture.

     Bleak: dreary, depressing

     Eg He is glad to have got through the bleak years of scarcity and hardship.

    31) untapped resources: resources that have not been made use of

    tap: use, develop


     eg Its estimated that 90% of the minds potential remains untapped.

    III Homework

     Unit 2 Austria

     Isolated from other continents, Australia has a lot of unique features that may bewilder many outsiders. This unit is an interesting introduction to those features

    that can be modified by superlatives, such as the largest island, the smallest

    continent, the emptiest range, the remotest city, the most extreme weathers, and so

    on. Ask demonstrate their extensive knowledge.

    I. Teaching aims and demands

    1. Skills

    1) Reading: reading for gist, detail and inference

    2) Writing: learning to write summaries of information provided in tabular form 3) Translating: practicing translation skills

    2. Vocabulary development----word power

    1) Learning words and expressions that appear in the text:

    A. receptive words and expressions: asset, irony, imply, prosperity, commodity,

    affluence, flavor, superlative, inhospitable, arid, interior, temperate, resort,

    commonplace, occurrence, unenviable, scramble

    B. productive words and expressions: owe to, criterion, match, stem from,

    surplus, distinctive, bypass, undoubtedly, all but, qualify as, in terms of, vice

    versa, apply to, notable, consequence, feel at home, superb, spectacular,

    complex ( n.), monotonous

    2) Word inference: guessing the meaning of new words

    3) Word building: understanding compound words

    3. Grammar

    1) Relative clauses of time, place and reason

    2) Adverbial clauses of concession

    II. Detailed study of the text 1) though not without some irony: though with some irony (双重否定)

    2) the author implying that its prosperity owed more to luck than good

    judgment:the author implying that its prosperity depended to a large degree

    on luck rather than on good judgment (ie Australian management had nothing

    to boast of.)

    eg (1) He is more like a friend than a teacher.


    (2)He is more brave than wise.

    (3)The popularity of the film star owes more to television commercials than to her

    performance in films.

    3a drop in overseas demand for export commodities: a decrease in overseas demand for its export goods

    drop: (n.) decline

    eg (1) With a drop in its efficiency, the plant now has trouble maintaining the lead

    in the steel industry.

    (2)An increase in population usually leads to a drop in the average standard of


    4by almost any criterion: according to almost any standard of judgment criterion: (pl. criteria ) standard of judgment

    eg (1) Scores should not be viewed as the only criterion of success in one‟s study.

    (2) By almost any criterion, she is a perfect mother.

    5)matched in few other parts of the world: few other parts of the world could

    be as affluent and free as Australia

    match: be equal, similar, or corresponding to

    eg (1) No one can match him in knowledge on these tiny insects.

    (2) They are a well-matched pair: neither stands a better chance of winning the


    6) The good fortune stems from abundant mineral resources and an agriculture

    sector that in most years, produces a large surplus of food to export: The good

    luck come from rich mineral resources and an agriculture that produces more than

    enough food for export.

    Stem from: have as origin

    Eg (1) It is believed that dancing may stem from religious rites.

    (2) Suspicion stemming from jealousy made Othello lose his sense.

    Surplus: amount in excess of requirement

    Eg (1) A surplus of supply will lead to a drop in price.

    (2) With a surplus of employees, the company is unlikely to hire new workers.

    7)that contains many echoes of European and North American ( particularly Californian ) ways but has also developed a distinctive flavor of its own:that

    imitates much the European and North American (especially Californian) ways

    but has also developed a clearly marked characteristic of its own.

    Contain many echoes: Here it is used figuratively to meanhave many similarities

    with, just like an echo is similar to the sound from which it originates.

    Distinctive: serving to mark a difference


    Eg (1) With his distinctive uniform, the policeman can be easily spotted in the


    (2) What‟s distinctive about this corporation‟s staff training?

    8)the affluence and freedom have largely bypassed one group of Australians:

    one group of Australians are largely excluded from the wealth and freedom.

    Bypass: go around, ignore

    Eg (1)These problems cannot be bypassed.

    (2)The customer decided to bypass the sales manager and made complaints

    directly to the C.E.O.

    9) it is undoubtedly a land of superlatives:it‟s certainly a land of

    extraordinary features which can be described using superlatives.

    Undoubtedly: certainly

    Eg (1) The job, though not well-paid, has undoubtedly its own distinctive charm.

    (2) Undoubtedly, this is the most impressive speech I speech I have ever attended.

    10) All but one of these cities----the federal capital, Canberra----are situated on the

    coast: All of these cities are located on the coast except the federal capital,


    All but: all except

    Eg (1) All but this room have been painted.

    (2) The earthquake has destroyed all the houses but the church.

    11) It is difficult for most foreigners to appreciate the size and e4mptiness of

    Australia: Most foreigners have difficulty understanding the size and emptiness of


    Appreciate (1) realize, understand

    Eg I appreciate the efforts you have made to get the design through.

    (2)understand and enjoy

    eg Travelers can hardly appreciate the beauty of the waterfall if they stay too close

    to it.

    12)Perthprobably qualifies as the4 most isolated city in the world: Perth qualify as: be entitled to

    eg (1) The Great Wall qualifies as one of the most spectacular ancient sites in the


    (2) Despite all the difficulties, Boon has finally qualified as a lawyer.

    13)Even in the semi-arid but more productive rough grazing country farther east

    and north: Even in the rough grazing country ly8ing farther east and north which is half dry but more productive than the wasteland in the west

    14)and measure their stock density in terms of hectares or acres per head of

    10 cattle rather than vice versa:„and measure their stock density by how many hectares or acres there are for each head of cattle rather than how many heads of

    cattle there are per hectare or cattle rather than how many heads of cattle there are

    per hectare or acre.

    In terms of: according to; with reference to ; by means of

    Eg (1) An experience in arts can enrich one‟s insight in science and technology,

    and vice versa.

    (2) The policeman believed that the pedestrian should pay for the driver‟s loss

    rather than vice versa.

    15) Superlatives apply to the climate, too : The climate also has many

    extraordinary features which can be described as extreme.

    Apply to : be proper with

    Eg (1) Now studying abroad is commonplace and even taken for granted.

    (2)Although regarded by critics as commonplace, the novel is a bestseller.

    17)is an annual occurrence: occurs every year 18)Only in relatively restricted areas, notably along the south-east coast, is rainfall

    at all reliable: Only in comparatively small areas, especially along the south-east

    coast, is rainfall predictable.

    Restricted: limited

    Eg (1)The former political leader is now living on an island with restricted


    (2)In a relatively restricted space, astronauts still manage to do some physical

    exercises to keep fit.

    Notice the inverted order of the sentence starting with “only”.

    19)Australia‟s image as a sunburnt land contains a lot of truth, and as one

    consequence, Queensland,(“the Sunshine State”) holds the unenviable record of

    having the world‟s highest incidence of skin cancerIt‟s reasonable to view

    Australia as a land rich in sunshine, and as a result, Queensland (“the Sunshine

    State”) keeps the record of having the world‟s highest incidence of skin cancer, a

    record that deserves no envy.

    Consequence: result or effect of sth

    Eg (1) Until recently many people failed to realize the consequences of economic


    (2) Mr. White, a former miner, died of lung cancer as a consequence of long-time

    exposure to mine dust.

    20) camels feel more at home than any other livestock:camelsfeel more

    comfortable than any other livestock.

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