Comprehensive English book 4
Unit 1 Learning is good for you!
This unit includes two passages on learning, one focusing on its curing effects on
patients, and the other advocating lifelong learning for adults. The idea is learning
can benefit the ill, the old and other adults physically, mentally and emotionally.
The passages may serve as a good basis for a discussion on the important role
learning can play in life.
I. Teaching aims and demands
1) reading：reading for gist, detail and inference
2) writing：learning about writing a summary
3) Translating：practicing translation skills
2. Vocabulary development----word power
1) Learning words and expressions that appear in the text：
Ａ. Receptive words and phrases：alleviate, pharmacist, symptom,
chronic illness, prescribe, medication, chime in with, surgery, dispense,
stipulate, stipulate, divide(n.)bleak, staggering, auxiliary, accommodation
B. productive words and phrases：take up, option, sign up, coincide,
facility, refer to ,in response to, nominate, on one‟s own, package, specify,
come off, in despair, dwell on, entitle sb to sth, highlight, beat the odds,
stand a prayer, foster, at a disadvantage, justifiable, initiative, be engaged
in, get through, tap
2) Word inference：learning to infer the meaning of new words and
1) Reviewing verb tenses and using them
2) Learning the use of static verbs
II Detailed study of the texts
„try encouraging patients„to take up learning, rather than prescribing
them pills to alleviate their condition：„try encouraging patients„to engage in
learning instead of ordering pills to make them feel better
take up：(1)interest oneself in；engage in
eg Mark Twain had tried many ways to earn a living before he
book up writing as a career.
eg Let‟s take up the tale at the point where it was interrupted.
(3)occupy (time, space)
eg It‟s unwise to let your hobbies take up all your spare time.
2)„offer patients the option of a free ticket to sign up for a course„
„offer patients the option of a free ticket to sign up for course„
option：the right or power of choosing；choice
eg (1) I have no option but to accept the surgery.
(2) The newcomer was given two options：to either accept the job or go
Sign up：join an organization or group；hire
Eg (1) Shortly after the war broke out, Tom volunteered to sign up for the
(2)Satisfied with the young man‟s performance in the interview, the manager
decided to sign him up.
3)If the scheme announced to take place at the same time as
If the plan which was announced to take place at the same time as „proves
Coincide：happen at the same time；be in harmony or agreement
Eg (1) It‟s hard for the couple to travel together because his vacation never
coincide with hers.
(2) The judges‟ opinions didn‟t coincide. 4)„every medical practice„will eventually have a facility to refer patients
to„：„every medical group„will gradually be able to provide a service to
direct patients to „
facility：something designed, built, built, or installed to provide a specific
convenience or service
eg(1) Modern facilities enable the great masses to travel all over the world for
(2) We were impressed with the sports facilities of the university. Refer„to „
eg The arrow refers the patients to a dental clinic situated behind this building.
5)in response to ：as an answer to
eg (1)Many young people volunteered to work in remote areas 8in response to
the Party‟s call.
(2)In response to your inquiry, I hereby send you my qualifications.
6)Nominate：propose for election or appointment
Eg (1) The committee nominated Mr. Smith for the award.
(2) She nominated her secretary as her representative to the negotiation.
7)It also included working on one’s own from a provided package„：
It(learning )also included working by oneself using all the learning material
provided to him„
On one’s own：(1) alone Eg The writer lives on his own on an isolated island.
(2) independently of an employer eg He is trustworthy, so he can be left to work on his own.
eg As fa5r as craftsmanship is concerned, the old carpenter is on own.
Package：a group or combination of related parts offered as a unit Eg The president vetoed the new tax package.
8)„or they specified actual physical benefit, or they noticed other indicators of
their well-being„：„or they mentioned exact benefits their state of health„
specify：mention or name definitely
eg(1) The regulations specify that no books are to be taken out of the reading
room without permission.
(2)The patient was asked to specify what symptoms he had suffered from.
Well-being: the state of health, happiness and prosperity
Eg(1)For the well-being of the nation, an individual sometimes has to brush
aside many of his own ideas.
(2) He won‟t have a sense of well-being until for knowledge is satisfied. 9)By no means: not at all
Eg(1)Artificial rainfall is by no means a thorough solution to the increasingly
severe water shortage in North China.
(2)By no means should we yield to this unreasonable demand.
10)„come off medication for angina:„do not depend on medical treatment for a
come off: become detached or separated
eg(1)No sooner had he mounted the horse than he came off it.
(2)He was surprised to find that all buttons had come off the
new shirt he bought last week. 11)In despair：having lost all hope
Eg(1) Having lost contact with the base camp for days on end, the mountaineers
were in despair.
12) dwell on: think speak or write for a long time about
eg Jack still dwells on the mischief he did to his high school teacher, and
can‟t find peace of mind.
4 13) My attacks of depression occurred with increased frequency : I suffered
from depression more and moue frequently…
with increased frequency: more and more frequently
eg Owing to the deforestation in upstream areas, floods attack the Yangtze
River with increased frequency.
14) Doctors who have seen the survey results confirm that they chime in with
their experiences…: Doctors who have seen the investigation results prove
that the results are consistent with their experiences…
chime in with : be consistent with
eg Jack‟s proposal was dismissed because it didn‟t chime in with the whole
15) Three GP‟s practices based on council estates: The community of patients who
live in estates provided by the town council and who are regularly served
by three general practitioners… 16) Rather than rip a leaf off a pad to take to a chemist, the GPs, with a patient‟s
agreement, will be able to hand over a chitty which entitles them to free of
almost free learning: Instead of tearing a prescription off a pad for a
patient to take to a pharmacist, the doctor, if the patient agrees, will be able
to give a note which enables to have free or almost free learning. Here,
“rip a leaf off a pad” means writing a prescription and tearing it off.
Entitle… to…: give the power or right to
Eg This ticket will entitle you to a free concert this evening.
17) …will fund a learning adviser to move between the surgeries dispensing
advice on learning opportunities…: … a learning adviser hired with
money will move between the clinics giving advice on learning
opportunities to help the patients recover
surgery: the science and practice of treating injuries and diseases by manual and
doctor‟s and dentist‟s room where patients come to consult him
dispense: mix and give out (medicines)
eg She works at the pharmacy dispensing prescriptions.
18) … the highlight of the week will be the awards to celebrate the inspiring
stories of those who have beaten the odds and turned heir lives around
through learning:… the most important activity of the week will be the
awards to honor those with inspiring stories, who have overcome
unfavorable conditions and changed their fate through learning.
highlight: the most important part
eg The highlight of the opening ceremony is the lighting of the Olympic
The highlight of the evening is Mary‟s soprano solo. Celebrate: praise or honor
Eg His book celebrated the freedom from constraints of society and the joy of
living close to nature.
Beat the odds: overcome unfavorable conditions
Eg This autobiography tells us how the author beat the odds and became the
master of her own life.
19) It‟s not often that you come across a competition that stipulates a minimum
age of 85, but in reality you don‟t stand a prayer of winning…: You don‟t often
encounter a competition that sets a minimum age of 85, but actually you have
no chance of winning…
stand a prayer: have a very small chance
eg Before he won the championship, nobody thought he stood a prayer of
20) foster: bring up; promote the growth or development of
eg Quite a few American couples offered to foster an abandoned Chinese
21) … so they won‟t be at a disadvantage with their homework:… so they won‟t
be in an unfavorable condition when doing their homework.
At a disadvantage: in an unfavorable condition
Eg His inability to speak English puts him at a disadvantage when he attends
22) … in acknowledgement that her own lack of formal education created limits
for the amount of help she could give: … admitting that she couldn‟t give
the children more help because she didn‟t have enough formal education
Acknowledgement: the act of admitting the truth
Eg He was forced into the acknowledgement that it was arbitrary to reach
such a conclusion.
23) This was the last straw: This was the last bit of unpleasantry; she couldn‟t bear
it any longer. “The last straw” refers to the last straw that breaks the
camel‟s back, meaning an additional burden beyond endurance.
Eg His Christmas was becoming a series of disagreeable surprises. The
presence of yet another unexpected guest was the last straw.
24) I was feds up with feeling out of my depth: I was tired of this feeling of
out of one‟s depth: in water too deep to stand; unable to cope
eg If you can‟t swim, don‟t go out of your depth.
When people start talking about nuclear physics, I am out of my depth
25)With justifiable pride: with pride that is reasonable and proper
26) But without wanting to take anything away from the achievements of all these
adult learners, you can‟t help concluding that the lifelong learning initiative has been far from an unmitigated success: But even with no intention to ignore the
achievements of all the adult learners, you can‟t help concluding that the
preliminary efforts have not been entirely successful.
Initiative: a first or introductory step in a process
Eg The local government has taken the initiative in harnessing the polluted
Unmitigated: complete, absolute
Eg an unmitigated disaster or evil
27)… and the divide between… and … is as wide as ever: … and the gap
between… and… has not been reduced
divide: barrier, gap
eg At the continental divide, rivers flow east and west.
28) staggering: amazing, astonishing
eg Nobody had foreseen that the immigration would impose a staggering
problem on the government.
29) get through (to sb): arrive at; reach ; communicate to
eg When the message got through to his hometown, he was already on his way
I can‟t get through to him that he‟s ruining his life.
30) The picture looks bleaker still when you discover that there has been a 20%
fall in participation by retired people …: The whole situation seems to be more
depressing when you find out that the retired people participating in learning
are 20% less
picture : situation or set of circumstances
eg Absorbed in the details, he missed the big picture.
Bleak: dreary, depressing
Eg He is glad to have got through the bleak years of scarcity and hardship.
31) untapped resources: resources that have not been made use of
tap: use, develop
eg It‟s estimated that 90% of the mind‟s potential remains untapped.
Unit 2 Austria
Isolated from other continents, Australia has a lot of unique features that may bewilder many outsiders. This unit is an interesting introduction to those features
that can be modified by superlatives, such as the largest island, the smallest
continent, the emptiest range, the remotest city, the most extreme weathers, and so
on. Ask demonstrate their extensive knowledge.
I. Teaching aims and demands
1) Reading: reading for gist, detail and inference
2) Writing: learning to write summaries of information provided in tabular form 3) Translating: practicing translation skills
2. Vocabulary development----word power
1) Learning words and expressions that appear in the text:
A. receptive words and expressions: asset, irony, imply, prosperity, commodity,
affluence, flavor, superlative, inhospitable, arid, interior, temperate, resort,
commonplace, occurrence, unenviable, scramble
B. productive words and expressions: owe to, criterion, match, stem from,
surplus, distinctive, bypass, undoubtedly, all but, qualify as, in terms of, vice
versa, apply to, notable, consequence, feel at home, superb, spectacular,
complex ( n.), monotonous
2) Word inference: guessing the meaning of new words
3) Word building: understanding compound words
1) Relative clauses of time, place and reason
2) Adverbial clauses of concession
II. Detailed study of the text 1) though not without some irony: though with some irony (双重否定)
2) „the author implying that its prosperity owed more to luck than good
judgment:„the author implying that its prosperity depended to a large degree
on luck rather than on good judgment (ie Australian management had nothing
to boast of.)
eg (1) He is more like a friend than a teacher.
(2)He is more brave than wise.
(3)The popularity of the film star owes more to television commercials than to her
performance in films.
3）a drop in overseas demand for export commodities: a decrease in overseas demand for its export goods
drop: (n.) decline
eg (1) With a drop in its efficiency, the plant now has trouble maintaining the lead
in the steel industry.
(2)An increase in population usually leads to a drop in the average standard of
4）by almost any criterion: according to almost any standard of judgment criterion: (pl. criteria ) standard of judgment
eg (1) Scores should not be viewed as the only criterion of success in one‟s study.
(2) By almost any criterion, she is a perfect mother.
5)„matched in few other parts of the world: „few other parts of the world could
be as affluent and free as Australia
match: be equal, similar, or corresponding to
eg (1) No one can match him in knowledge on these tiny insects.
(2) They are a well-matched pair: neither stands a better chance of winning the
6) The good fortune stems from abundant mineral resources and an agriculture
sector that in most years, produces a large surplus of food to export: The good
luck come from rich mineral resources and an agriculture that produces more than
enough food for export.
Stem from: have as origin
Eg (1) It is believed that dancing may stem from religious rites.
(2) Suspicion stemming from jealousy made Othello lose his sense.
Surplus: amount in excess of requirement
Eg (1) A surplus of supply will lead to a drop in price.
(2) With a surplus of employees, the company is unlikely to hire new workers.
7)„that contains many echoes of European and North American ( particularly Californian ) ways but has also developed a distinctive flavor of its own:„that
imitates much the European and North American (especially Californian) ways
but has also developed a clearly marked characteristic of its own.
Contain many echoes: Here it is used figuratively to mean“have many similarities
with, just like an echo is similar to the sound from which it originates”.
Distinctive: serving to mark a difference
Eg (1) With his distinctive uniform, the policeman can be easily spotted in the
(2) What‟s distinctive about this corporation‟s staff training?
8)„the affluence and freedom have largely bypassed one group of Australians:„
one group of Australians are largely excluded from the wealth and freedom.
Bypass: go around, ignore
Eg (1)These problems cannot be bypassed.
(2)The customer decided to bypass the sales manager and made complaints
directly to the C.E.O.
9) „it is undoubtedly a land of superlatives:„it‟s certainly a land of
extraordinary features which can be described using superlatives.
Eg (1) The job, though not well-paid, has undoubtedly its own distinctive charm.
(2) Undoubtedly, this is the most impressive speech I speech I have ever attended.
10) All but one of these cities----the federal capital, Canberra----are situated on the
coast: All of these cities are located on the coast except the federal capital,
All but: all except
Eg (1) All but this room have been painted.
(2) The earthquake has destroyed all the houses but the church.
11) It is difficult for most foreigners to appreciate the size and e4mptiness of
Australia: Most foreigners have difficulty understanding the size and emptiness of
Appreciate (1) realize, understand
Eg I appreciate the efforts you have made to get the design through.
(2)understand and enjoy
eg Travelers can hardly appreciate the beauty of the waterfall if they stay too close
12)Perth„probably qualifies as the4 most isolated city in the world: Perth qualify as: be entitled to
eg (1) The Great Wall qualifies as one of the most spectacular ancient sites in the
(2) Despite all the difficulties, Boon has finally qualified as a lawyer.
13)Even in the semi-arid but more productive rough grazing country farther east
and north„: Even in the rough grazing country ly8ing farther east and north which is half dry but more productive than the wasteland in the west„
14)„and measure their stock density in terms of hectares or acres per head of
10 cattle rather than vice versa：„and measure their stock density by how many hectares or acres there are for each head of cattle rather than how many heads of
cattle there are per hectare or cattle rather than how many heads of cattle there are
per hectare or acre.
In terms of: according to; with reference to ; by means of
Eg (1) An experience in arts can enrich one‟s insight in science and technology,
and vice versa.
(2) The policeman believed that the pedestrian should pay for the driver‟s loss
rather than vice versa.
15) Superlatives apply to the climate, too : The climate also has many
extraordinary features which can be described as extreme.
Apply to : be proper with
Eg (1) Now studying abroad is commonplace and even taken for granted.
(2)Although regarded by critics as commonplace, the novel is a bestseller.
17)„is an annual occurrence: „occurs every year 18)Only in relatively restricted areas, notably along the south-east coast, is rainfall
at all reliable: Only in comparatively small areas, especially along the south-east
coast, is rainfall predictable.
Eg (1)The former political leader is now living on an island with restricted
(2)In a relatively restricted space, astronauts still manage to do some physical
exercises to keep fit.
Notice the inverted order of the sentence starting with “only”.
19)Australia‟s image as a sunburnt land contains a lot of truth, and as one
consequence, Queensland,(“the Sunshine State”) holds the unenviable record of
having the world‟s highest incidence of skin cancer：It‟s reasonable to view
Australia as a land rich in sunshine, and as a result, Queensland (“the Sunshine
State”) keeps the record of having the world‟s highest incidence of skin cancer, a
record that deserves no envy.
Consequence: result or effect of sth
Eg (1) Until recently many people failed to realize the consequences of economic
(2) Mr. White, a former miner, died of lung cancer as a consequence of long-time
exposure to mine dust.
20) „camels„ feel more at home than any other livestock:„camels„feel more
comfortable than any other livestock.