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In discussing regulation of credit markets in the UK, it is

By Theresa Jackson,2014-05-16 16:48
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In discussing regulation of credit markets in the UK, it is

    Looking beyond our shores:

    consumer protection regulation lessons from the UK

Elaine Kempson (Personal Finance Research Centre, University of

    Bristol)

UK credit regulation has been undergoing substantial reform in the past three years.

    This paper reviews these reforms and discusses how they take account of criticisms of

    previous regulatory regimes. It then attempts to draw out some of the strengths and

    weaknesses of regulation in the UK from the consumers’ perspective. In doing so, there is a need to distinguish between mortgages, and other forms of consumer credit

    as there are two quite different regulatory regimes for the conduct of business,

    including consumer protection. It is also important to note that the paper is restricted

    to retail markets and does not cover prudential regulation.

Mortgage regulation

    Since 31 October 2004, all mortgage lending has been fully regulated by the Financial 1Services Authority (FSA) through its mortgage Conduct of Business Rules. This includes all sub-prime as well as prime mortgages and also all intermediaries that sell

    mortgages to the public.

    The FSA is a relatively new regulatory body and was set up under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 with four statutory objectives covering: market

    confidence; public awareness; consumer protection, and reduction of financial crime.

    It now covers all retail and wholesale financial markets, with the single exception of 2unsecured consumer credit.

    At the time that the FSA was set up, mortgages were still covered by a self-regulatory 3regime. However an independent review for HM Treasury recommended that only a statutory regulatory regime for mortgages, including intermediaries as well as lenders,

    offered sufficient protection to consumers. Consumer groups supported this

    conclusion as did the bulk of the mortgage industry, including the Council of 4Mortgage Lenders (their trade body).

    Under the new regime, lenders and intermediaries have to be authorised to carry out

    business and must comply with the FSAs Conduct of Business Rules. This rule book is wide-ranging and over 300 pages in length. It covers sale and advice standards; pre-

    application disclosure; disclosure at the offer stage, start of contract and after sale;

     1 http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/documents/financial_services/mortgages/fin_mort_reglend.cfm 2 In addition, although retail banking is regulated by the FSA, in practice the powers to regulate the

    conduct of business in this area are currently switched off and devolved to the Banking Code self regulation by the industry which is described under unsecured consumer credit below. 3 Banking Services Consumer Codes Review Group, Cracking the Codes for Customers. HM Treasury, May 200: para 3.17 4 CML responds to Treasury announcement on Mortgage Regulation, Council of Mortgage Lenders Press Release 26th October 2001

equity release advising and selling standards; equity release product disclosure; APRs

    (and total cost of credit); responsible lending; charges (including early settlement and

    arrears charges); and the handling of arrears and possessions. Some of the important

    changes it introduced include:

? consumers must receive pre-sale clear information about mortgage terms,

    conditions and costs in a standard ‘key facts’ format to enable them to shop

    around more easily;

    ? where firms give advice, they must ensure they offer the consumer a suitable

    mortgage product;

    ? price information (including the APR) in any mortgage advertising and

    marketing material must be clear, and any advantageous features of products

    quoted in advertising must be balanced by a description of any associated

    drawbacks;

    ? both lenders and advisers have to consider the affordability of any mortgage that

    they identify for individual consumers (this involves a detailed fact find); ? lenders must put in place measures to help borrowers in arrears on their

    mortgage or facing repossession;

    ? lifetime mortgages (a form of equity release) are subject to additional disclosure

    requirements to take account of the higher risks associated with these products;

    and

    ? mortgage borrowers have access to an independent dispute resolution service

    the Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS) (see below) - and to the Financial

    Services Compensation Scheme (FSCS).

    In general, the rules do not distinguish sub-prime lending from other forms of

    residential mortgages. So firms involved with sub-prime mortgages need to comply

    with all the standard rules. That said, some of the standard rules are likely to have

    increased relevance for sub-prime mortgages, and in the current climate it is worth

    spelling some of these out. For example:

    ? sub-prime advertising referring to paying off unsecured debts must include a

    specific risk warning (MCOB 3.6.13R(2));

    ? advertising targeted at sub-prime borrowers must include an APR (MCOB

    3.6.17R);

    ? where the APR in a promotion will vary depending on the consumer's

    circumstances, the promotion must include a risk statement encouraging the

    customer to seek a personalised illustration (MCOB 3.6.25R); ? if the intermediary may charge a fee for advising or arranging, as is often the case

    for sub-prime business, any promotion must disclose this (MCOB 3.6.27R); ? a firm specialising only in sub-prime business will not be able to describe itself as

    either 'whole of market' or 'independent' (MCOB 4.3.4R);

? where debt consolidation is a main purpose of any mortgage, there are added

    obligations on the adviser when they are recommending the most suitable product

    (MCOB 4.7.6R); and

    ? mortgage lenders have to report to the FSA quarterly on the level of advances they

    have made to consumers with an impaired credit history.

Supervision of mortgage lending

FSA supervision of firms takes a risk-based approach and uses two main methods:

    assessing risk in individual firms and thematic supervision, which assesses risk across 5a range of firms within a particular market or industry sector. This has included 6major reviews of mortgage market generally, as well as specific reviews of, for 78example, the sub-prime market and self-certification of income.

This work has shown that there are still some significant short-comings in the

    behaviour of firms that sell and advise on mortgages. Despite this, there is general

    consensus that bringing mortgages within the regulatory framework of the FSA has

    delivered higher levels of consumer protection.

    Regulation of unsecured consumer credit

As noted above, unsecured consumer credit is the only area of retail financial services

    that is not covered by the FSA. Indeed, regulation in this area is much less

    straightforward and has aspects to be commended and ones that are not!

After many years of waiting, the legislation covering unsecured credit has recently

    been revised by the Consumer Credit Act 2006 which up-dates, but does not entirely supersede, the Consumer Credit Act 1974. Both pieces of legislation (as with almost all UK legislation) are enabling, with most of the detail set out in a set of specific

    regulations laid under them and precise interpretations often being set through case

    law. The 2006 Act covers all forms of consumer credit including payday lending, which was not previously covered.

This Act and the regulations laid to bring it into force, have already (since April 2007)

    introduced two important changes: introducing a new unfair relationship test to

    protect consumers from abuses in the market and bringing consumer credit within the

    remit of the Financial Ombudsman Service. From 2008, there will be a tightening of

    the licensing regime for lenders. Each of these is discussed more fully below.

     5 See http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/About/What/thematic for a the major thematic work plan for 2007/2008 6 See http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pubs/other/mortgage_review.pdf 7 See http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Doing/small_firms/mortgage/practice/subprime/index.shtml

    http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Doing/small_firms/mortgage/practice/sub_prime.shtml 8See http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Doing/small_firms/mortgage/practice/self-

    certification_mortgages.shtml

    http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pages/Doing/small_firms/mortgage/practice/scm_details.shtml

    http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pubs/consumer-research/crpr46.pdf

Credit licences

    To lend in the UK, a company needs to hold a consumer credit licence, which is

    issued by the Office of Fair Trading (OFT), the UK's consumer and competition

    authority and a non-ministerial government department established by statute in 1973.

    Local Trading Standards Officers (employed by local authorities, not the OFT)

    investigate alleged breaches of licenses and report to the OFT who are responsible for

    enforcement. In the past the licensing regime has been heavily criticised not least

    by Trading Standards Officers with criticisms centring on the ease of obtaining a licence, the very low likelihood of a license being rescinded even when lenders have

    engaged in criminal activities, and the fact that individuals who had lost a license

    were able to find their way round the rules and obtain a new license enabling them to 9start a new lending business . There have also been growing concerns about the activities of unlicensed lenders and the failure to take action against them.

    From April 2008, the licensing regime will be tightened considerably. The OFT will

    have an enhanced ability to ensure applicants are fit to hold a licence and to monitor

    their ongoing conduct. They will also have stronger powers to investigate suspected

    cases of misconduct and to apply a wide range of sanctions where lenders breach the

    terms of their licence, including fines of up to ?50,000 (about $100,000) or the

    suspension of credit licences previously the only sanction was to revoke the licence. The OFT has recently put out two consultation papers on the proposed licensing

    regime.The first of these covers the factors it intends to consider when assessing

    whether or not a consumer credit license holder or an applicant is fit to hold a licence 10and how it plans to exercise its powers to impose requirements on license holders.

    The second consultation covers key factors the OFT will consider when assessing

    whether or not to impose a financial penalty on a license holder who has failed to

    comply with a requirement imposed on it and sets out the factors it will to take into

    account in assessing the amount of any penalty it will impose. The final guidance

    should be published by the end of 2007.

The new legislation does not address the issue of illegal (that is unlicensed) lending

    but, in 2004, the Government established two pilot schemes, in Glasgow and

    Birmingham, to tackle this problem. In these two cities, specially trained Trading

    Standards Officers working with the police have identified 200 loan sharks

    (unlicensed lenders) and shut down loan books worth more than ?3 million (about $6

    million). An evaluation of the pilots concluded that they had been effective and 11represented good value for money. Consequently, the Government has allocated ?3

     9 For an overview see E Kempson and C Whyley (1999) Extortionate credit in the UK: a report to the

    Department for Trade and Industry. London: Department for Trade and Industry http://www.pfrc.bris.ac.uk/Reports/Extortionate%20Credit%20in%20the%20UK.pdf 10Office of Fair Trading (2007) Consumer credit licensing: general guidance for licensees and

    applicants - draft guidance on fitness and requirements consultation paper . OFT

    http://www.oft.gov.uk/shared_oft/consultations/oft920con.pdf 11 A. Ellison and , S Collard (2007) Evaluation of the illegal moneylending pilots. London: Department

    for Trade and Industry

    http://www.pfrc.bris.ac.uk/publications/credit_debt/Reports/Illegal%20lending%20pilot%20evaluation.

    pdf

million (about $6 million) to enable the pilot scheme to be rolled out across Britain,

    with an expansion of the geographical coverage of the existing two teams and the

    establishment of six new ones.

Unfair credit bargains

Consumer credit legislation has for some time sought to protect consumers against

    extortionate credit bargains, but the 1974 Act defined this narrowly and primarily in

    terms of charges. It did not, however, set a usury level, although the Moneylenders Act 1927 (which it replaced) provided that a rate of more than 48 per cent was prima

    facie excessive. It was widely acknowledged the extortionate credit provisions of the

    1974 Act did not work as intended for two main reasons. First, it set the definition of

    extortionate too narrowly, and was interpreted as referring to basic charges, while

    many of the market abuses related to wider terms and conditions. Secondly, the

    legislation relied on individual consumers to apply to a court to have the terms of their

    agreement reviewed and very few did. It has been estimated by the OFT that between

    1977 and 1989 only 23 cases went to the courts. Although this has been challenged as

    an underestimate it is unlikely that more than more than a few hundred cases have 12reached the courts in the 30 years since the provisions were enacted. Consequently, the great majority of judges have no personal experience of such cases and almost no

    case law to guide them should they get one. It is not, therefore, surprising to find that 13many did not feel competent to form judgements in this area. Moreover, class actions cannot be brought in the UK and so even in the small number of cases where

    judges found that credit terms were extortionate, only the individual plaintiff 14benefited and the defendant continued to lend to others on the same terms. The 2006 Act has sought to tackle these problems in two ways. First an unfair relationship test replaces the extortionate credit bargain provision in the 1974 Act.

    This test is considerably wider and allows a court to consider all the relevant

    circumstances of a credit relationship to determine its fairness including:

    ? any of the terms of the credit agreement and any related agreement;

    ? the way in which the creditor has exercised or enforced any of its rights, and

    ? ‘any other thing done by or on behalf of the creditor either before or after the

    making of the agreement or any related agreement. The intentionally broad scope of this test therefore gives sweeping powers to the

    courts to examine every aspect of a credit relationship, not just the written terms of

    any credit agreement. The provisions apply to all new agreements made on or after 6

    April 2007 and any existing agreements that continue beyond 6 April 2008. It is,

     12 E Kempson and C Whyley (1999) Extortionate credit in the UK: a report to the Department for

    Trade and Industry. London: Department for Trade and Industry

    http://www.pfrc.bris.ac.uk/Reports/Extortionate%20Credit%20in%20the%20UK.pdf 13 ibid 14 There is, however, provision for a small number of nominated bodies to initiate a ‘super-complaint’ under the Enterprise Act 2002, which may result in a full inquiry by the Competition Commission.

    Two recent cases have resulted in investigation of the charges on credit and store cards and of lending

    terms and practices in the sub-prime home credit industry. Both resulted in lenders as a whole having

    to take remedial action.

therefore too early to tell how well they are working, although they have received a

    warm welcome by the major consumer bodies.

Secondly the Act brought consumer credit within the remit of the Financial

    Ombudsman Service (FOS) so that consumers have access to a means of alternative

    dispute resolution as well as the courts (see below).

Supervision of compliance with consumer credit legislation

Responsibility for the supervision of compliance with consumer credit legislation lies

    with the OFT, through the credit licensing regime. As indicated above, this was

    somewhat circumscribed by the 1974 legislation, added to which there were

    complaints that the OFT did not use the powers it had at its disposal. The proposed

    new licensing arrangements will give the OFT much wider powers and a broader

    range of sanctions. It remains to be seen how this will operate in practice, but it is

    still likely to fall short of the mortgage supervision exercised by the FSA.

Self regulation of unsecured consumer credit

Perhaps because of past failures in the supervision of compliance with consumer

    credit legislation, consumer credit lending in the UK is also subject to self-regulation 15through the Banking Code and the Finance and Leasing Association (FLA) Lending 16Code.

The Banking Code is sponsored by three trade associations: the British Bankers

    Association (representing banks) the Building Societies Association (representing the

    mutual building societies most of whom of do not offer unsecured credit) and the

    Association of Payment Clearing Systems (APACS representing credit card issuers).

    All retail banks and building societies that offer consumer credit and credit card

    issuers in the UK are signatories of the Banking Code and between them cover 63 per

    cent of UK unsecured lending. Companies that have signed up to the FLA Lending

    Code include those that offer consumer and car finance including store cards and in-

    store finance. The association has 53 companies in membership who, between them

    cover 30 per cent of unsecured lending in the UK. Many of these specialise in the

    sub-prime market. In other words, less than 10 per cent of unsecured lending is not

    covered by either Code. For the most part, this will be mail order and traditional sub-

    prime lenders, such as home credit companies and pawnbrokers (who have their own

    self-regulatory regimes, although these fall short of the Banking and FLA Codes).

Broadly speaking the content of these two Codes is similar. Both have sections on

    marketing and advertising, on responsible lending and on dealing with customers in

    financial difficulty. In both cases, the requirements placed on lenders with regard to

    dealing with customers in financial difficulty have been the subject of extensive

    consultation with independent, not-for-profit debt advisers. The Banking Code also

    has a separate section dealing with credit cards. The key difference lies in the fact that

     15 http://www.bankingcode.org.uk/libraryhome.htm 16 http://www.tlr.ltd.uk/fla/lendingcode.aspx

the Banking Code is accompanied by detailed Guidance for Subscribers, which 17provides details of how they are expected to interpret and implement the Code.

In contrast, the procedures for revising the content of the two Codes are rather

    different, with Banking Code procedures being rather more rigorous than those of the

    FLA Lending Code. The Banking Code is subject to independent review every three years (previously every two years). An independent reviewer is appointed who takes

    written evidence from a broad range of stakeholders and, following one or more 18round-tables, makes recommendations for changes to the Code and Guidance. This

    report is then considered by the three sponsoring bodies who issue a public response 19and amend the Code and Guidance accordingly. In theory the Code sponsors can ignore the recommendations of the Code reviewer. In practice they accept the great

    majority of them. One of the areas where recommendations have not been

    implemented in full relates to responsible lending.

    Supervision of compliance with the Codes

The Banking Code has an independent monitoring body the Banking Code 20Standards Board. The Board itself includes the chief executives of the three

    sponsoring bodies but independent non-executives are in the majority and the chair is

    drawn from these independents. It has an executive whose primary role is to assess

    compliance with the Code. This is done through a range of methods that are very

    similar to those used by the FSA in monitoring compliance by mortgage lenders. All

    subscribers are required to file a detailed annual statement of compliance. In addition,

    BCSB staff undertake general compliance monitoring and themed investigations.

    Both involve visits to subscribers, scrutiny of files and sitting in while staff do their

    jobs, including taking calls from the public. In addition mystery shopping is used in

    themed reviews. General reports are produced on themed reviews and are available 21through the BCSB website. See, for example, the 2007 review of credit assessment.

Detailed discussions are held with Code subscribers who are not fully compliant, with

    a view to putting things right. Serious breaches are referred to the disciplinary

    committee of the Board members (with independents in the majority) that has an

    independent chair who does not sit on the Board. There is a right of appeal to the full

    Board. The BCSB does not have the power to fine, but it can require a subscriber to

    compensate customers. It can also name and shame, which is a very powerful sanction as breaching your own Code of Practice is seen as worse than breaching an

    externally imposed rule. See, for example, the disciplining of Capital One for breach

    of the Code sections prohibiting the mailing of credit card cheques to people likely to 22be in financial difficulty. Very serious breaches would result in a subscriber being

    ‘expelled’ from the Code.

     17 http://www.bankingcode.org.uk/libraryhome.htm 18 http://www.bba.org.uk/content/1/c4/47/59/Full_Kempson_review1.pdf 19 http://www.bba.org.uk/content/1/c4/47/61/Subscribers_response.pdf 20 http://www.bankingcode.org.uk/home.htm 21 http://www.bankingcode.org.uk/wpdocs/Credit%20assessment%20themed%20review.doc 22 http://www.bankingcode.org.uk/press/BCSB%20-

    %20Capital%20One%20Press%20Release%20%20FINAL%20071106.doc

The Banking Code regime is, therefore, as rigorous as that applied by the FSA.

    Indeed, a review of self-regulation conducted for the Treasury described it as ‘an

    exemplar.

In contrast, compliance with the FLA Lending Code is less extensive and until

    recently has been primarily based on complaints received and annual compliance

    statements from subscribers. It is overseen by a Lending Code Group (with

    independent members in the majority) and the compliance regime has recently been

    strengthened by visits undertaken by the chair of the Group, a second group member

    and the FLA compliance officer. As with the Banking Code, detailed discussions are

    held with Code subscribers who are not fully compliant, with the aim of improving

    procedures and practices. Serious breaches are referred to the Lending Code Group

    for the subscriber to explain their procedures and proposals for improvement. The

    ultimate sanction is expulsion from the Code and there are plans to establish a 23Disciplinary Committee of the FLA Board to carry out this function. .

The Financial Ombudsman Service

The Financial Ombudsman Service, like the Financial Services Authority, was set up

    under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 and was formed in 2001 from a

    merger of seven Ombudsman schemes covering specific aspects of financial services.

The function of the Financial Ombudsman Service is to resolve individual disputes

    between consumers and financial services firms fairly, reasonably, quickly and

    informally. It covers all retail financial firms that are regulated by the Financial

    Services Authority (FSA) and deals with all complaints about activities that are

    regulated by the FSA, including mortgages, accepting deposits, providing insurance

    policies and providing or advising on investment products. Since 2007 it has also

    handled all complaints about consumer credit, bringing in 60,000 businesses that had

    never before been subject to an ombudsman scheme previously it could only deal

    with credit offered by regulated firms (principally the banks). The service is free to

    consumers and informal in nature.

Complaints are handled first by the Customer Contact Division where they can

    discuss the matter and be advised whether or not their complaint falls within the

    jurisdiction of the Financial Ombudsman Service. If the complaint is within

    jurisdiction and remains unresolved, the case is passed to an adjudicator for

    assessment and investigation. Cases may be resolved through mediation and or by

    formal adjudication. Complainants or firms can ask for their case to be referred to an

    ombudsman if they are dissatisfied with the assessment or adjudication issued by an

    adjudicator. Disputed cases may also be referred directly to an ombudsman by an

    adjudicator.

The approach taken by adjudicators and ombudsmen when looking at cases is to

    decide what is fair and reasonable in the circumstances of each particular case. This

    includes taking into account relevant law, codes of practice, and regulatory rules and

     23http://www.fla.org.uk/downloads/download.asp?Ref=4357&hash=fa12c724b96a2cbb59a694269ea53

    9f9

guidance. If the evidence is contradictory, or the two sides of the story do not tally,

    they make decisions on the basis of what they believe is most likely to have happened

    on the balance of probability. Although the ombudsman service is not bound by legal

    precedent, adjudicators and ombudsmen aim to be consistent in the approach they

    take to particular types of complaints. Decisions are binding on firms although

    consumers who do not accept the decision they receive may take their case to the

    courts.

If the Service upholds a complaint it can require the firm at fault to make appropriate

    redress to the complainant. The aim is to put complainants back into the financial

    position that they would have been in, had the situation giving rise to the complaint

    not occurred.

In 2006-2007, the Service received 627,814 enquiries- half of which were about

    endowment mortgages. A total of 94,392 new cases were taken on by adjudicators,

    with 46,134 of these relating to endowment mortgages. Just 1,755 were about other

    types of mortgage, secured or unsecured loans and 2,731 about credit cards. This, of

    course, pre-dates full coverage of consumer credit. Three quarters of all new cases

    were initiated by consumers themselves; the remainder by bodies acting on their 24behalf.

Ann independent review of the Service concluded that it provided a high quality and

    accessible service that was fair and reasonable in both the decisions it made and the 25procedures it followed. A second review has just been commissioned.

Strengths and weaknesses of the current system

Recent changes have led to much more wide-ranging and robust statutory regulation

    of both mortgages and unsecured credit. This goes far beyond requirements for

    information disclosure and provides extensive consumer protection, both when they

    purchase products and afterwards. Regulation of mortgages is, currently more

    extensive than that of consumer credit, which is supplemented by self-regulation.

    That may change as the Consumer Credit Act 2006 is implemented in full.

At present, self-regulation plays an important part in providing full consumer

    protection in areas of responsible lending and dealing with customers in financial

    difficulty (both of which are covered by the FSA conduct of business rules for

    mortgages). This is not necessarily a weakness, however, as self-regulation has

    proved itself able to respond more quickly to abuses in the marketplace than full

    regulation. As self-regulation involves a mutual acceptance of the need to conform to

    mutually-agreed norms of behaviour, it has also driven up standards across the

    industry. Companies are expected to comply with the spirit not the letter of the

    Banking Code or FLA Lending Code. A key weakness is that only 63 per cent of

    unsecured lending is covered by a rigorous Code and compliance monitoring that

     24Financial Ombudsman Service Annual review: financial year 2006/07.

    http://www.financialombudsman.org.uk/publications/ar07/index.html 25 E Kempson, S Collard and N Moore (2004) Fair and reasonable; an independent assessment of the

    Financial Ombudsman Service. Bristol: University of Bristol

    http://www.pfrc.bris.ac.uk/Reports/Financial_Ombudsman_Service.pdf

    approaches the level for mortgages. 30 per cent is covered by a less detailed but still rigorous Code, but one where compliance monitoring is weaker and just under 10 per cent of lending is not covered by adequate self-regulation at all. As this sector specialises in small loans to people on low incomes, it means that many vulnerable consumers have inadequate protection.

    A key omission from the UK regulatory framework is that there is nothing similar to the US Community Re-investment Act or Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, although

    have been various calls for CRA-like legislation. In general, there is little evidence of red-lining and geographical discrimination, although that is not to say that everyone has access to mortgages and credit. Instead debates centre on providing access to affordable consumer credit and a Financial Inclusion Taskforce has been set up by Treasury Ministers to oversee work in this area, reporting annually to Ministers and, through them, to Parliament.

    Legislation alone is not sufficient to ensure consumer protection; compliance needs to be monitored and enforced. Compliance monitoring by statutory regulators is, undoubtedly, far more extensive for mortgages that it is for unsecured credit, where has primarily been undertaken through self-regulation. In the past the Office of Fair Trading has had limited powers and been slow to use them. Even when the new credit licence regime is introduced in 2008, it is likely to fall well short of the supervision of mortgages by the Financial Services Authority. Mindful of this shortcoming, the banking industry has put in place a robust system of compliance monitoring of the Banking Code which mirrors the procedures of the FSA. Other

    consumer credit companies, through their trade body the Finance and Leasing Association, are also tightening the way that compliance with their Lending Code is

    monitored and enforced. Together this ensures that most firms do act responsibly in their dealings with their customers. Self-regulation does not, however, include the power to fine or to remove to right of a company to trade. The maximum penalty is ‘naming and shaming’ and expelling a firm from membership of the Code. In practice, though, this is seldom needed and the real value of self-regulation is the way that firms approach it. BCSB compliance officers, for example, achieve a great deal through informal negotiation with firms to ensure that policies and procedures are fully compliant with the Banking Code. The overwhelming majority of firms feel a

    strong pressure not to breach their own mutually-agreed rules.

    Compliance monitoring, especially for unsecured credit, is a complex system that requires Memorandums of Understanding between the main players to avoid over regulation (and double jeopardy) and under-regulation. It is open to criticism for its complexity, resulting in periodic calls for consumer credit also to be brought within the ambit of the FSA. In time that seems the most likely outcome.

    Finally, until very recently, the only means of redress for consumers with extortionate credit agreements was, individually, through the courts and very few cases had been brought. Bringing consumer credit into the remit of the Financial Ombudsman Service should mark an important improvement in consumer redress. But, without provision for class actions through the courts, there are limits on wider benefits deriving from individual complaints. Input from the Financial Ombudsman Service to the independent review of the Banking Code has brought about substantial changes to

    its provisions. And the super-complaints brought by consumer bodies, under the

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