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By Sharon Patterson,2014-10-05 12:11
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speaking

    speaking

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    Letter in the Centerville College News

    The administration has plans to acquire a new sculpture for campus. We should all oppose this plan. The universitys poor financial condition

    led it to increase the price for campus housing and tuition by 15% this past year. Surely then it is no financial position to purchase such an expensive sculpture. Moreover, just look at the sculpture: several 60-foot ling steel plates, jutting out of the earth at odd angles! It

    s so large, itll take up all the green space in front of the campus center! This is public space that should be reserved for students to use. Groupthink

    One process by which groups may make bad or irrational decisions is known as groupthink. Individual members of a group attempt to conform their opinions to what they believe to be the group consensus even though the result may be negative. There are many reasons why groupthink happens. These include the desire to be liked, fear of losing a job, or even not wanting to be the one employee delaying a decision that seems inevitable. These kinds of implicit pressures to conform lead group members to ultimately make decisions that each, by himself or herself, might normally not make.

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    Bus Service Elimination Planned

    The university has decided to discontinue its free bus service for students. The reason given for this decision is that few students ride the buses and the buses are expensive to operate. Currently, the buses run from the center of campus past university buildings and through some of the neighborhoods surrounding the campus. The money saved by eliminating the bus service will be used to expand the overcrowded student parking lots.

    Social Interaction

    People deal with each other every day. This interaction is at the heart of social life. The study of social interaction is concerned with the influence people have over one anothers behavior. People take each other

    into account in their daily behavior and in fact, the very presence of others can affect behavior. For example, one principle of social interaction, audience effects, suggests that individuals work is

    affected by their knowledge that they are visible to others, that the presence of others tends to alter the way people behave or perform an activity.

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Hot Breakfasts Eliminated

    Beginning next month, Dining Services will no longer serve hot breakfast foods at university dining halls. Instead, students will be offered a wide assortment of cold breakfast items in the morning. These cold breakfast foods, such as breads, fruit, and yogurt, are healthier than many of the hot breakfast items that we will stop serving, so health-conscious students should welcome this change. Students will benefit in another way as well, because limiting the breakfast selection to cold food items will save money and allow us to keep our meal plans affordable.

    Cognitive Dissonance

    Individuals sometimes experience a contradiction between their actions and their beliefsbetween what they are doing and what they believe they should be doing. These contradictions can cause a kind of mental discomfort known as cognitive dissonance. People experiencing cognitive dissonance often do not want to change the way they are acting, so they resolve the contradictory situation in another way, they change their interpretation of the situation in a way that minimizes the contradiction between what they are doing and what they believe should be doing.

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    Evening Computer Classes May Be Added

    The computer department is considering offering evening classes in the fall. The proposal to add the classes is a response to student complaints that daytime computer classes have become increasingly overcrowded and there are no longer enough computers available. The department has decided that despite some added expense, the most cost-effective way of addressing this problem is by adding computer classes in the evening. It is hoped that this change will decrease the number of students enrolled in day classes and thus guarantee individual access to computers for all students in computer classes.

    Verbal and Nonverbal Communication

    When we speak with other people face-to-face the nonverbal signals we giveour facial expressions, hand gestures, body movements, and tone of voiceoften communicate as much as, or more than, the words we utter. When our nonverbal signals, which we often produce unconsciously, agree with our verbal message, the verbal message is enhanced and supported, made more convincing. But when they conflict with the verbal message, we may be communicating an entirely different and more accurate message than what we intend.

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    Campus Dining Club Announced

    Starting this year, the university dining hall will be transformed into The Campus Dining Club for one week at the end of each semester. During the last week of each semester, the dining hall will feature special meals prepared by the university's culinary arts students. The school feels that this will give students who are studying cooking and food preparation valuable experience that will help them later, when they pursue careers. The university has announced that it will charge a small additional fee for these dinners in order to pay for the special gourmet food ingredients that will be required.

    Target Marketing

    Advertisers in the past have used radio and television in an attempt to provide information about their products to large, general audiences; it was once thought that the best way to sell a product was to advertise it to as many people as possible. However, more recent trends in advertising have turned toward target marketing. Target marketing is the strategy of advertising to smaller, very specific audiences audiences that have

    been determined to have the greatest need or desire for the product being marketed. Target marketing has proved to be very effective in reaching potential customers.

6History Seminars Should Be Shorter

    Currently, all of the seminar classes in the history department are three hours long. I would like to propose that history seminars be shortened to two hours. I make this proposal for two reasons. First, most students just cannot concentrate for three hours straight. I myself have taken these three-hour seminars and found them tiring and sometimes boring. Also, when a seminar lasts that long, people stop concentrating and stop learning, so the third hour of a three-hour seminar is a waste of everyones time. Two-hour seminars would be much more efficient.

    Explicit Memories and Implicit Memories

    In everyday life, when people speak of memory, they are almost always speaking about what psychologists would call explicit memories. An explicit memory is a conscious or intentional recollection, usually of facts, names, events, or other things that a person can state or declare. There is another kind of memory that is not conscious. Memories of this kind are called implicit memories. An individual can have an experience that he or she cannot consciously recall yet still display reactions that indicate the experience has been somehow recorded in his or her brain.

7Sculpture Courses to Be Discontinued

    University administrators announced yesterday that the sculpture program, a division of the art department, will be eliminated. "The main reason is a lack of student interest," reported one administrator. "Although the number of art students has increased, fewer and fewer art majors are taking sculpture classes." Furthermore, the department's only sculpture professor is retiring this year. "Given the art department's limited budget,'' the administrator explained, "it just doesn't make sense to hire a new full-time professor to teach sculpture for only a handful of students."

    Behavior Modification

    Individuals often modify their behavior based on what they have learned about the possible consequences of their actions When an individual learns through experience that a certain behavior results in pleasant consequences, that behavior is likely to be repeated. An unpleasant consequence, on the other hand, discourages further repetition of the behavior. While behavior modification can be observed in experiments, it also occurs frequently in everyday settings, when individuals change their behavior based on what they have learned about the consequences of that behavior.

8Music Coming to Cafeterias

    Mary Dixon, Director of the Student Life Committee, announced yesterday that beginning next semester university cafeterias will broadcast classical music during mealtimes. Music will foster a more relaxed

    atmosphere. said Dixon, "Students' lives are hectic, and mealtimes provide important opportunities to take a break and catch up with friends before moving on to the next class or assignment." Added Dixon. "We're also hoping that, if we provide the music, students will unplug their personal music devicestheir walkmans and mp3 players or whateverand

    will spend more time talking to each other. When students have their headphones on. they're not connecting with each other."

    Revealing Coloration

    Many animals use coloration to protect themselves from predators. One defensive strategy involving the use of coloration is what is known as revealing coloration. Animals employing this strategy have an area of bright color on some part of their body; this bright color is usually hidden from predators' view. When approached by a predator, the animal suddenly reveals the area of bright color; this unexpected display of

    color startles or confuses the predator and provides the would-be prey with an opportunity to escape.

9Required Work Experience

    The business studies department at State University will now require all students enrolled in its program to complete one semester of work experience in a local corporation or small business. It is felt that students will benefit from this work experience by developing leadership and organizational skills that would not normally be learned in a classroom or campus setting. Furthermore, the relationships that students establish with the company that they work for may help them to secure permanent employment with that company once they have completed the program and graduated.

    The Establishing Shot

    Film directors use different types of camera shots for specific purposes. An establishing shot is an image shown briefly at the beginning of a scene, usually taken from far away, that is used to provide context for the rest of the scene. One purpose of the establishing shot is to communicate background information to the viewer, such as the settingwhere and when

    the rest of the scene will occur. It also establishes the mood or feeling of the scene. Due to the context that the establishing shot provides, the characters and events that are shown next are better understood by the viewer.

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    (4)Entrainment merchandising

    An effective, widely used marketing practice in the entrainment industry is entertainment merchandising. Entertainment merchandising is a form of marketing in which the brand or the image from one product is also used to sell another .the practice of entertainment merchandising Often occurs in connection with movies and tv shows especially those associated with children

    .for example ,the success of a popular childrens tv show may result in

    the marketing of toys that are designed to look like characters in the show or the situation may be reversed when a childrens tv show is written

    to include characters that are based on already popular toys.

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11 Housing Renovations Planned

    Over the last ten years, the number of Central College students living on campus in dormitories has decreased by twenty percent. In an effort to counteract the trend, the college has announced a plan to renovate its on-campus housing. The renovations will take two years, and they will include improvements to the bathrooms, lighting, and heating in the dormitories. "A lot of people are moving off campus because the dorms arent in great shape," explained the college president. "By renovating the dorms, we can make them more appealing than off-campus housing, and more students will choose to remain on campus

    Outsider Art

    Outsider Art is a term used to describe art that is made by people who choose to live and work outside society. The artists who produce this kind of art-Outsider Artists-work in isolation from other artists and have little or no formal artistic training. Because they do not learn conventional artistic techniques from teachers or other artists. Outsider Artists must invent their own ways of doing things. As a result of the unconventional methods that Outsider Artists often use, their work can look strange and not at all like traditional art to the observer.

12 College Radio Station to Undergo Major Changes?

    The university is considering making major changes to the college radio station. Changes would include an expansion of the station's broadcasting range, which would allow the radio's programming to reach nearby towns. One goal of the plan is to attract more students to apply to its

    communications program. Another goal is to provide the university with an extra source of revenue. University officials expect the enhanced radio station to significantly increase the number of listeners, which will in turn encourage businesses to place commercials on the radio. Subliminal Perception

    Humans are constantly perceiving visual and auditory stimuli. Sometimes our perception of these stimuli occurs consciously: we are aware of a stimulus and know that we are perceiving it. But our perception of a stimulus can also occur without our awareness: an image might appear and disappear before our eyes too quickly for us to notice that we saw it, or a sound might be too faint for us to realize that we heard it. This phenomenonthe perception of a stimulus just below the threshold of conscious awarenessis called subliminal perception. Experiments have shown that subliminally perceived stimuli can influence people's thoughts and attitudes.

13 New Stadium

    A university official announced plans to spend $2 million to build a new athletic stadium, commenting that a new stadium would help the university achieve its goal of attracting more top students. The official also said that, additionally, building a new stadium would allow the university to strengthen its relationship with the town since a new and larger stadium would have the space to seat not only students, parents, and alumni, but members of the local community as well.

    Perceptual Constancy

    How an object affects our senses depends in part on external conditions, and these conditions are always changing. An object viewed from one angle presents a different shape to our eye than when viewed from another angle; similarly, as the distance from which we view an object changes, the object will appear larger or smaller. In spite of this, even as conditions change and we see objects differently, we still recognize that they remain the same. This is what is known as perceptual constancy. If not for perceptual constancy, we might have difficulty recognizing familiar objects if we viewed them in a new and different context.

14 University Should Allow Eating in Class

    Currently, there is a university-wide policy that prohibits eating in the classroom. I disagree with this policy. I think students should be allowed to eat in class. This change would be good for two reasons. For one thing, if students were permitted to eat, they would be able to concentrate better,

    because students often get hungry during long classes, and hunger makes it difficult to concentrate. Also, if food were allowed in classrooms, it would be possible for us to have in-class parties on the last day of classwith snack foods and beveragesto celebrate the end of each

    semester.

Sincerely,

    Nancy Myers

    Comfort Zone Bias

    Psychologists have found that when people make important decisions, they often choose to stay in their "comfort zones"; that is, they prefer remaining in comfortable, familiar situations, rather than entering into new, unfamiliar ones. This tendency is often referred to as the comfort zone bias. When people are reasonably content, they often decide not to pursue a new opportunity, even if it attracts them and offers more advantages. Psychologists believe that the comfort zone bias exists not only because we have a natural preference for what we already know, but also because we want to avoid taking risks.

15 University Should Pave Running Trails

    The university has about three miles of unpaved dirt running trails that pass through the forest near campus. I think these trails should be paved with cement. One reason for paving the trails would be to increase their safety. When it rains, the dirt turns to mud and becomes very slippery, so the runners who use them can slip and fall. Pavement would solve this problem. Also, paving would make the trails look nicer, which would encourage students to use them. Bumps in the trail would be smoothed out and weeds would be paved over, making the trail more attractive to runners.

Sincerely,

Sally Jacobs

    Experimenter Effect

    One objective of any experiment is, of course, to obtain accurate results. Sometimes, however, problems occur that lead to inaccurate results. One such problem is the experimenter effect. The experimenter effect occurs

    when a researchers expectations affect the outcome of the experiment. The researcher expects a particular result from the experiment, and that expectation causes the researcher to act in ways that influence the behavior of the experiment participants, thereby invalidating the results of the experiment.

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