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Crisis Planning - Practical Information on Crisis Planning A

By Jerry Bell,2014-05-24 04:43
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Crisis Planning - Practical Information on Crisis Planning A

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This report was produced under U.S. Department of Education Contract No. ED-01-CO-

    0082/0006 with Westat. Connie Deshpande served as the contracting officer’s technical

    representative.

U.S. Department of Education

    Rod Paige

    Secretary

Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools

    Judge Eric Andell

    Deputy Under Secretary

Bill Modzeleski

    Deputy Associate Under Secretary

Connie Deshpande

    Sr. Policy Analyst

Jennifer Medearis

    Policy Analyst

May 2003

This report is in the public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part is granted.

    While permission to reprint this publication is not necessary, the citation should be: U.S.

    Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Practical Information on Crisis

    Planning: A Guide for Schools and Communities, Washington, D.C., 2003.

To order copies of this report,

    write to: ED Pubs, Education Publications Center, U.S. Department of Education, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD 20794-1398;

or fax your request to: (301) 470-1244;

or email your request to: edpubs@inet.ed.gov;

    or call in your request toll-free: 1-877-433-7827 (1-877-4-ED-PUBS). If 877 service is not yet available in your area, call 1-800-872-5327 (1-800-USA-LEARN). Those who use a

    telecommunications devise for the deaf (TDD) or a teletypewriter (TTY), should call 1-800-437-

    0833;

or order on-line at: www.ed.gov/about/ordering.jsp

This report is also available on the Department’s Web site at www.ed.gov/emergencyplan

On request, this publication is available in alternate formats, such as Braille, large print,

    audiotape, or computer diskette. For more information, please contact the Department’s

    Alternate Format Center (202) 260-9895 or (202) 205-8113.

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    Contents

    Page

Section 1: Introduction

     Introduction ............................................................... 1-1

     Why This Guide? ....................................................... 1-3

     An Important Note on Research ............................... 1-4

     What Is a Crisis? ........................................................ 1-5

     The Sequence of Crisis Management ....................... 1-6

    Take Action! Key Principles for Effective Crisis

    Planning ............................................................ 1-8

     Using This Guide ..................................................... 1-12

Section 2: Mitigation/Prevention

     Action Checklist for Mitigation/Prevention

     Mitigation/Prevention .............................................. 2-1

     Mitigation ................................................................... 2-3

     Prevention .................................................................. 2-4

     Action Steps ............................................................... 2-5

Section 3: Preparedness

     Action Checklist for Preparedness

     Preparedness .............................................................. 3-1

     Action Steps ............................................................... 3-3

Section 4: Response

     Action Checklist for Response

     Response..................................................................... 4-1

     Action Steps ............................................................... 4-2

Section 5: Recovery

     Action Checklist for Recovery

     Recovery ..................................................................... 5-1

     Action Steps ............................................................... 5-2

     Closing the Loop ........................................................ 5-7

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    Contents (cont.)

    Page

Section 6: Closer Look:

    Defining What Constitutes a Crisis .......................... 6-2

    FEMA Resources ........................................................ 6-3

    Leadership .................................................................. 6-5

    Terrorism .................................................................... 6-7

    Volunteers .................................................................. 6-9

    Communication ....................................................... 6-10

    Preparedness ............................................................ 6-13

    Community Collaboration ...................................... 6-17

    Incident Command System..................................... 6-19

    The Media ................................................................ 6-22

    Products.................................................................... 6-24

    Considerations of Special Needs

    Staff and Students ............................................. 6-30

    Student Release ........................................................ 6-32

    Preparing Students, Staff,

    and Stakeholders to Respond ........................... 6-35

    Staff Training ........................................................... 6-37

    Tabletop Exercises ................................................... 6-40

    Families .................................................................... 6-42

    Models of Crisis Invention for Students ................ 6-46

Appendix A.

     Resources ........................................................... A-1

Appendix B.

    Emergency School Safety, Planning,

    Response, and Recovery Meeting

    Participants ................................................... B-1

Appendix C.

     Crisis Planning Interview Participants ................... C-1

List of Exhibits

    Exhibit 1.1 Cycle of Crisis Planning ............................................ 1-7

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Exhibit 3.1 Lockdown, Evacuation, or

Relocation Decisions ........................................... 3-9

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“As a former superintendent of the nation’s

    seventh largest school district, I know the

    importance of emergency planning. The

    midst of a crisis is not the time to start

    figuring out who ought to do what. At that

    moment, everyone involved?from top to

    bottom?should know the drill and know each

    other.”

    -Secretary Rod Paige Introduction

    Families trust schools to keep their children safe during the day.

    Thanks to the efforts of more than millions of teachers, principals,

    and staff across America, the majority of schools remain a safe

    haven for our nation’s youth. The unfortunate reality is, however,

    that school districts in this country may be touched either directly

    or indirectly by a crisis of some kind at any time.

    Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, fires,

    and tornados can strike a community with little or no warning.

    School shootings, threatened or actual, are extremely rare but are

    horrific and chilling when they occur. The harrowing events of

    September 11 and subsequent anthrax scares have ushered in a

    new age of terrorism. Communities across the country are

    struggling to understand and avert acts of terror.

    Children and youth rely on and find great comfort in

    the adults who protect them. Teachers and staff must know how

    to help their students through a crisis and return them home

    safely. Knowing what to do when faced with a crisis can be the

    difference between calm and chaos, between courage and fear,

    between life and death. There are thousands of fires in schools

    every year, yet there is minimal damage to life and property

    because staff and students are prepared. This preparedness needs

    to be extended to all risks schools face. Schools and districts need

    to be ready to handle crises, large and small, to keep our children

    and staff out of harm’s way and ready to learn and teach.

    The time to plan is now. If you do not have a crisis

    plan in place, develop one. If you have one, review it, update

    and practice your plan.

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    Why This Guide?

Taking action now can save lives, prevent injury, and minimize

    property damage in the moments of a crisis. The importance of

    reviewing and revising school and district plans cannot be

    underscored enough, and Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A

    Guide for Schools and Communities is designed to help you navigate

    this process. The Guide is intended to give schools, districts, and

    communities the critical concepts and components of good crisis

    planning, stimulate thinking about the crisis preparedness process,

    and provide examples of promising practices.

    This document does not provide a cookbook approach to crisis preparedness. Each community has its own history,

    culture, and way of doing business. Schools and districts are at

    risk for different types of crises and have their own definitions of

    what constitutes a crisis. Crisis plans need to be customized to

    communities, districts, and schools to meet the unique needs of

    local residents and students. Crisis plans also need to address

    state and local school safety laws.

    Experts recommend against cutting and pasting plans from other schools and districts. Other plans can serve as useful

    models, but what is effective for a large inner-city school district

    where the population is concentrated may be ineffective for a

    rural community where schools and first responders are far apart.

    An Important Note on Research

The research on what works in school-based crisis planning is in

    its infancy. While a growing body of research and literature is

    available on crisis management for schools, there is little hard

    evidence to quantify best practices. Fortunately, major crises,

    especially catastrophic events, are rare in our nation’s schools.

    Few cases can be formally evaluated. Much of the information in

    this Guide draws heavily on what we know about crisis

    management in many settings. These promising practices could

    effectively be adapted and applied to school settings.

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