Is the scientific study of crime, criminals, and criminal behavior.
Not only identify crime problems, but also analyze, interpret
and systematically organize the relevant data.
Criminologists in the typical definition are a specialized entity of professionals.
I also state that all police should be criminologists.
Criminology and the Scientific Approach
Refers to the ability and willingness on the part of the student or researcher to study the subject matter of a given field without prejudice or bias.
； But we are humans and we all have prejudices and biases.
； Can we eliminate these feelings and preconceived conditions?
； This is particularly important when it comes to the research
part as if they are not controlled, you will format the data
accrued to reflect that what it is you believe in, versus that
which the information portrays.
• Factual Data and Precision
It has to be factual and not personal beliefs or
speculation. Involves maintaining a high degree of accuracy in the collection and analysis of data. Must develop a research design
which defines all aspects and particulars of the method for collection of data.
• Verification and Appraisal
Outside sources have to agree as to what it is you are
attempting to claim.
There are three main theoretical perspectives as to the causes of crime:
1. Functionalist or Consensus Perspective
….stresses social factors that reinforce cooperation
and harmony in society
We function within the law in proper manners because of
the positive influence that an accepted society has upon us.
We do not commit crimes because it is not condoned in our
[Text; pg 11] Crimes are perceived as acts that violate the accepted legal code of the jurisdiction within which they occur. That is, behavior is “not a crime unless it is prohibited by the criminal law [that] is defined conventionally as a body of specific rules regarding human conduct which have been promulgated by political authority, which apply uniformly to all members of the classes to which the rules refer and which are enforced by punishment administered by the state”.
Criminal Behavior: is any behavior that is in violation of the
Was that preceding statement really true?
Does all crime have to be defined in law before it can be
Are some acts that are not defined as criminal
When does something that is recognized as legitimate
Are the laws really applied uniformly & equally to
Should only the State administer punishment?
Professor John E. Lamphere‟s definition of:
The commission of an act prohibited,
Or the Omission of an act required;
By the Penal Code of an organized political state.
2. The Conflict Perspective
Is based on the theory that many groups have conflicting
social values and that these value conflicts are the basis of
• Conflict, rather than consensus or agreement, is the
normative for society.
• The different groups within society compete for wealth,
scarce resources, high social status and power.
• This desire leads to strife and conflict which often times
lead to deviant and criminal behavior.
• This theory states that those with the power make the
rules and as a result, tend to inhibit those who do not have.
These groups decide what are the social norms for a society;
those patterns of positive and accepted expected behavior.
• Conflict Perspective rejects the premise that laws serve to
protect and benefit everyone; that there is equal application.
3. The Interactionist Perspective
Focuses on social behavior from the standpoint of the
individuals involved in day-to-day interaction.
• Defines criminal behavior as a product of social learning.
• People learn non-criminal and criminal ideas and behaviors
from others through the ongoing process of symbolic
interaction – the use of words, gestures, and actions to
communicate the meaning of events, situations and behavior.
Wait……… are these the only reasons crime occurs?
How many of you in here have committed a criminal
offense of some sorts?
； Hopefully not a felony……….
； Was the reason for your action because of the
； Do some people do it just because they like to do it?
； What about those who would normally not commit crimes
but do so out of necessity?
； What about the female doctoral student who prostitutes
to pay her school bills…?
； What about all those other reasons we have always
heard about such as biological, psychological, etc….?
； Where do these fit in?
The Nature of Deviant & Criminal Behavior
• All society establishes norms and identifies behavior that is
deviant or criminal
– [noun] a person or thing that deviates or
departs markedly from
the accepted norm
– [adj] deviating especially from an
– relating to, involving, or being a crime
Deviant Behavior is then defined as:
behavior that does not conform to the social norms of
a society, group or institution.
Criminal Behavior is then defined as:
behavior that violates the criminal laws of society.
； Is all deviant behavior criminal?
； Is all criminal behavior deviant?
The Nature & Extent of Crime: Measuring Behavior
Survey data is obtained through the use of questionnaires
and/or interviews [polls].
• Pose several problems
• Non-response on the part of the person the questionnaire is
sent to. Simply ignore it and dispose of the form.
• Respondents may misinterpret or misunderstand particular
questions found on the form
• Respondent prefers to give answers that please the
researcher versus being truthful
• Respondent may not answer the same on similar questions
• Unconscious bias of the investigator may affect his or her
questions. This data will support [inaccurate]
• Information obtained is raw data and requires
DO YOU FEEL SAFE? Confidential Poll
The following poll is being conducted by the students of Criminal Justice 113 – Criminology – and is confidential. Any
information you provide will not reveal your identity in any manner and is for educational purposes only. The only requirement is that you answer in a truthful manner as information accrued from this will be used for academic and potential administrative purposes. All data results of this poll will be available by seeing Prof. Lamphere at F166.
Sex Male Female
Questions – please answer this truthfully and accurately. 1. Have you ever been the victim of a crime? Yes
2. Has any family member been the victim of a crime?
3. Do you own a firearm? Yes No
4. Where do you keep it normally? Home Vehicle Other N/A
5. Do you own or carry a personal defense spray? Yes
6. Do you carry a knife or dangerous instrument regularly?
7. If you are a CCC student, do you bring any of the items asked in 3, 5 or 6 with you to school?
Yes No N/A
8. Do you feel safe in the community you live in? Yes
9. Do you feel safe in the neighborhood you live in? Yes
10. Do you leave your house/apartment unlocked at night?
11. If you own a vehicle, do you leave the keys in the vehicle at night? Yes No N/A
Crime Poll – Continued
12. Do you walk alone in your neighborhood at night? Yes
13. Do you view law enforcement [police] as an entity that tends to hassle and infringe on your rights?
14. Do you feel the potential for violence and crimes against persons is as great at the college as it is at home or your workplace? Yes No N/A
15. Do you feel safe on the Fulton CCC Campus? Yes
16. Do you feel there is adequate police protection offered to the
campus? [Poll taker must identify as to term police]
17. Do you feel there is adequate Campus Security protection?
18. Do you feel that the Campus Security Officers should carry firearms? Yes No
19. Did you participate in the CCC poll offered last Fall and if so, did you respond differently to the security questions at that time? Yes No N/A
20. Do you feel that the Fulton Campus should increase security measures offered to the students, faculty and employees?
• If you answered Yes to Question #20 - what
recommendations would you suggest increasing security
measures at the college?
Thank you for participating in this poll. All information from this will be formulated and posted at a later date. All information is confidential and your identity will not be disclosed. Students, faculty and employees of Cayuga Community College are able to participate in this poll. The poll is offered by CJ 113 Section 150 and not at the request of Cayuga Community
Survey Research – The Interview
An interview is a face-to-face conversation between two or more people, or one that can also be done over the telephone, for the purpose of obtaining information.
The person conducting the interview – an interviewer – asks
the person being interviewed – the respondent –predetermined
questions [sometimes called a script], usually with specific
answers to select from to eliminate outside variables.
While this is more time consuming, the advantages are:
1. The problem of the survey being disregarded is eliminated.
2. More specific, personal or intimate questions can be asked
by the interviewer.
3. The respondent is allowed to ask questions to the
interviewer and, allows the interviewer to reword in order
to eliminate misunderstanding in order to complete the
These selected people interviewed are taken from an area called a population – a specific group targeted in relation to that survey. For our survey, our target population will be people associated with the Fulton Campus of Cayuga Community College and I will provide the script.
The Uniform Crime Report
The Uniform Crime Report, commonly called the UCR, is statistical data of specific reported criminal offenses compiled
by every law enforcement agency in the United States and sent in to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. It is broken down into two categories:
Part I Offenses
1. Criminal Homicide
2. Forcible Rape
4. Aggravated Assault
7. Motor Vehicle Theft