By Cynthia Taylor,2014-08-12 23:33
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Criminology ...


Chapter 1

    Is the scientific study of crime, criminals, and criminal behavior.


    Not only identify crime problems, but also analyze, interpret

    and systematically organize the relevant data.

    Criminologists in the typical definition are a specialized entity of professionals.

    I also state that all police should be criminologists.

Criminology and the Scientific Approach


     Refers to the ability and willingness on the part of the student or researcher to study the subject matter of a given field without prejudice or bias.

     But we are humans and we all have prejudices and biases.

     Can we eliminate these feelings and preconceived conditions?

     This is particularly important when it comes to the research

    part as if they are not controlled, you will format the data

    accrued to reflect that what it is you believe in, versus that

    which the information portrays.

     Factual Data and Precision

     It has to be factual and not personal beliefs or

    speculation. Involves maintaining a high degree of accuracy in the collection and analysis of data. Must develop a research design

    which defines all aspects and particulars of the method for collection of data.

     Verification and Appraisal

     Outside sources have to agree as to what it is you are

     attempting to claim.

Criminological Perspectives

    There are three main theoretical perspectives as to the causes of crime:

    1. Functionalist or Consensus Perspective

     ….stresses social factors that reinforce cooperation

     and harmony in society

     We function within the law in proper manners because of

     the positive influence that an accepted society has upon us.

     We do not commit crimes because it is not condoned in our


Criminal Behavior:

     [Text; pg 11] Crimes are perceived as acts that violate the accepted legal code of the jurisdiction within which they occur. That is, behavior is “not a crime unless it is prohibited by the criminal law [that] is defined conventionally as a body of specific rules regarding human conduct which have been promulgated by political authority, which apply uniformly to all members of the classes to which the rules refer and which are enforced by punishment administered by the state”.

     Criminal Behavior: is any behavior that is in violation of the

     criminal law.


    Was that preceding statement really true?

     Does all crime have to be defined in law before it can be


     Are some acts that are not defined as criminal

     potentially criminal?

     When does something that is recognized as legitimate

     become criminal?

     Are the laws really applied uniformly & equally to


     Should only the State administer punishment?

Professor John E. Lamphere‟s definition of:


The commission of an act prohibited,

Or the Omission of an act required;

    By the Penal Code of an organized political state.

2. The Conflict Perspective

     Is based on the theory that many groups have conflicting

     social values and that these value conflicts are the basis of

     much crime.

     Conflict, rather than consensus or agreement, is the

    normative for society.

     The different groups within society compete for wealth,

    scarce resources, high social status and power.

     This desire leads to strife and conflict which often times

    lead to deviant and criminal behavior.

     This theory states that those with the power make the

    rules and as a result, tend to inhibit those who do not have.

    These groups decide what are the social norms for a society;

    those patterns of positive and accepted expected behavior.

     Conflict Perspective rejects the premise that laws serve to

    protect and benefit everyone; that there is equal application.

3. The Interactionist Perspective

     Focuses on social behavior from the standpoint of the

     individuals involved in day-to-day interaction.

     Defines criminal behavior as a product of social learning.

     People learn non-criminal and criminal ideas and behaviors

    from others through the ongoing process of symbolic

    interaction the use of words, gestures, and actions to

    communicate the meaning of events, situations and behavior.

Wait……… are these the only reasons crime occurs?

     How many of you in here have committed a criminal

     offense of some sorts?

     Hopefully not a felony……….

     Was the reason for your action because of the

    aforementioned theories?

     Do some people do it just because they like to do it?

     What about those who would normally not commit crimes

    but do so out of necessity?

     What about the female doctoral student who prostitutes

    to pay her school bills…?

     What about all those other reasons we have always

    heard about such as biological, psychological, etc….?


     Where do these fit in?

The Nature of Deviant & Criminal Behavior

     All society establishes norms and identifies behavior that is

    deviant or criminal


     [noun] a person or thing that deviates or

    departs markedly from

    the accepted norm

     [adj] deviating especially from an

    accepted norm


     relating to, involving, or being a crime

     Deviant Behavior is then defined as:

     behavior that does not conform to the social norms of

     a society, group or institution.

     Criminal Behavior is then defined as:

     behavior that violates the criminal laws of society.


     Is all deviant behavior criminal?

     Is all criminal behavior deviant?

Chapter 2

     The Nature & Extent of Crime: Measuring Behavior

Survey Research

     Survey data is obtained through the use of questionnaires

     and/or interviews [polls].


     Pose several problems

     Non-response on the part of the person the questionnaire is

    sent to. Simply ignore it and dispose of the form.

     Respondents may misinterpret or misunderstand particular

    questions found on the form

     Respondent prefers to give answers that please the

    researcher versus being truthful

     Respondent may not answer the same on similar questions

     Unconscious bias of the investigator may affect his or her

    questions. This data will support [inaccurate]

    predetermined conclusions.

     Information obtained is raw data and requires


    DO YOU FEEL SAFE? Confidential Poll

     The following poll is being conducted by the students of Criminal Justice 113 Criminology and is confidential. Any

    information you provide will not reveal your identity in any manner and is for educational purposes only. The only requirement is that you answer in a truthful manner as information accrued from this will be used for academic and potential administrative purposes. All data results of this poll will be available by seeing Prof. Lamphere at F166.

     Sex Male Female

     Age ____________

    Questions please answer this truthfully and accurately. 1. Have you ever been the victim of a crime? Yes


    2. Has any family member been the victim of a crime?

     Yes No

    3. Do you own a firearm? Yes No

    4. Where do you keep it normally? Home Vehicle Other N/A

    5. Do you own or carry a personal defense spray? Yes


    6. Do you carry a knife or dangerous instrument regularly?

     Yes No

    7. If you are a CCC student, do you bring any of the items asked in 3, 5 or 6 with you to school?

     Yes No N/A

    8. Do you feel safe in the community you live in? Yes


    9. Do you feel safe in the neighborhood you live in? Yes


    10. Do you leave your house/apartment unlocked at night?

     Yes No

    11. If you own a vehicle, do you leave the keys in the vehicle at night? Yes No N/A

Crime Poll Continued

    12. Do you walk alone in your neighborhood at night? Yes


    13. Do you view law enforcement [police] as an entity that tends to hassle and infringe on your rights?

     Yes No

    14. Do you feel the potential for violence and crimes against persons is as great at the college as it is at home or your workplace? Yes No N/A

    15. Do you feel safe on the Fulton CCC Campus? Yes


    16. Do you feel there is adequate police protection offered to the

    campus? [Poll taker must identify as to term police]

     Yes No

    17. Do you feel there is adequate Campus Security protection?

     Yes No

    18. Do you feel that the Campus Security Officers should carry firearms? Yes No

    19. Did you participate in the CCC poll offered last Fall and if so, did you respond differently to the security questions at that time? Yes No N/A

    20. Do you feel that the Fulton Campus should increase security measures offered to the students, faculty and employees?

     Yes No

     If you answered Yes to Question #20 - what

    recommendations would you suggest increasing security

    measures at the college?

    Thank you for participating in this poll. All information from this will be formulated and posted at a later date. All information is confidential and your identity will not be disclosed. Students, faculty and employees of Cayuga Community College are able to participate in this poll. The poll is offered by CJ 113 Section 150 and not at the request of Cayuga Community

Survey Research The Interview

     An interview is a face-to-face conversation between two or more people, or one that can also be done over the telephone, for the purpose of obtaining information.

     The person conducting the interview an interviewer asks

    the person being interviewed the respondent predetermined

    questions [sometimes called a script], usually with specific

    answers to select from to eliminate outside variables.

    While this is more time consuming, the advantages are:

    1. The problem of the survey being disregarded is eliminated.

    2. More specific, personal or intimate questions can be asked

    by the interviewer.

    3. The respondent is allowed to ask questions to the

    interviewer and, allows the interviewer to reword in order

    to eliminate misunderstanding in order to complete the


     These selected people interviewed are taken from an area called a population a specific group targeted in relation to that survey. For our survey, our target population will be people associated with the Fulton Campus of Cayuga Community College and I will provide the script.

The Uniform Crime Report

     The Uniform Crime Report, commonly called the UCR, is statistical data of specific reported criminal offenses compiled

    by every law enforcement agency in the United States and sent in to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. It is broken down into two categories:

     Part I Offenses

    1. Criminal Homicide

    2. Forcible Rape

    3. Robbery

    4. Aggravated Assault

    5. Burglary

    6. Larceny-theft

    7. Motor Vehicle Theft

    8. Arson

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