Assignment item 1. Case study
Question 1. What ways can AOs at Nll satisfy higher-order needs in the current context and what
could be done to improve their opportunities?
From the case we know that AOs’ role is to respond to requests by employees of the
company whose jobs depend on the effective use of computers. AOs do not usually resolve
their requests quickly enough; they are not friendly, which make the customers unhappy. Thia
tell us that most of AOs are tired of their works that repeat again and again. This may be a
serious problem that restricts their need for higher level needs.
An individual’s willingness to perform is directly related to the needs, expectations and
values of the individual and their link to the incentives or aspirations presented by the
organizational reward system.
If the outcome or goal is attained, then the individual experiences a reduction in pressure or
tension, and foal attainment positively reinforces the expended effort to achieve the outcome.
As a result of these positive experiences, the individual may repeat the cycle. On the other
hand, if the outcome is frustrated after a reasonable passage of time, like AOs in the context
who are always complained by other employees or satire by them and their leaders are always
ignore them, which lead to AOs’ frustrated and more and more tired of their job.
Higher-order needs are esteem and self-actualization needs in Maslow’s hierarchy, that is ,
being all that one can be. Esteem needs consist of need for esteem of others, respect, prestige,
recognition, self-esteem and a personal sense of competence. The AOs haven’t got respect
form other employees and they also haven’t got enough recognition from their leaders.
Self-actualization needs consist of need to fulfill one’s self, to grow and to use abilities to their
fullest and most creative extent. For the AOs, their works are simple and they should repeat
them everyday, they could not get more opportunities to try other jobs, especially for the
full-time OAs. They could not get higher pay or reward.
For managers, only meeting is not enough. Rewards and empowerment are necessary.
Managers also should provide opportunities to promotion and empowerment to AOs.
Empowerment is designed to improve self-efficacy by providing employees with greater
autonomy and by increasing knowledge and control over factors directly related to job
The theory of McClelland’s acquired needs encourages managers to learn how to identify
the presence of nAch, nAff, and nPower in them and in others, and how to create work
environments that are responsive to the respective need profiles of different employees.
Question 2. Assume that casual workers prefer full-time employment at Nll. Describe how a
casual worker could use expectancy theory to work out how to gain full-time
employment. How can Nll send clearer massages to its casual workers about the way
to get a full-time job?
There are three key terms in the expectancy theory, expectancy, instrumentality and valence.
Expectancy theory argues that work motivation is determined by individual belies about
effort-performance relationships and the desirability of various work outcomes from
different performance levels. Simply, the theory is based on the logic that people will do what they can do when they need to.
The motivation = expectancy × instrumentality × valence
This relationship means that the motivational appeal of a given work path is sharply reduced whenever any one or more of these factors approaches the value of zero. Conversely, for a given reward to have a high and positive motivational impact as a work outcome, the expectancy, instrumentality and valence associated with the reward must all be high and positive.
In this case, casual AOs say many of them don’t bother this work and they would like to
apply for full-time positions, but they don’t know how to be better. From this, we can get that
for many casual AOs, they would like to be accepted by managers and they treat this job as a job that worthy to do. Their expectancy is that they could become full-time employee and undertake the job without any problem. They should ask themselves “Can I achieve the
desired level of task performance?” “What work outcomes will be received as a result of the
performance?” and “How highly do I value the work outcomes?”
For managers in Nll, they should do as follow:
; Select workers with ability; train workers to use ability; support individual ability with
organizational resources; identify performance goals.
; Clarify psychological contracts; communicate performance-reward possibilities;
confirm performance-reward possibilities by making actual rewards contingent on
; Identify individual needs or outcomes; adjust available rewards to match these. In these ways, the casual workers would motivated by themselves and external environment and they could be better with positive attitude, which also lead to a higher level performance.
Question 3. Compare employee motivation for full-time and casual employees at Nll. Explain why
they might be different.
In this case, we know that as a full-time AO, he or she would get a better work environment and higher pay than a casual worker. Casual AO positions are advertised several times a year since staff turnover is high. Full-time AO positions are infrequently available. Once employed full-time, AOs are given annual pay increments, are eligible to participate in training programs and, after a year, apply for further position. Most go on to higher-level positions in the ITS. This means that full-time AOs’ job has more flexibility and less control
by supervisors and full-time AOs have better motivate factors, have more opportunities to get higher level positions.
The reasons may have two: first reason is managers in tension to remain talents; second, is to empowerment to employees and motivate casual workers to competite for full-time positions. To keep talents are essential for an organization. Managers make some decision that merits to full-time AOs because they are formal employees in this organization and they got the formal position via working hard and nice performance. So give them rewards that are received with feeling of equity can foster job satisfaction and performance. Then, the casual AOs would working hard for full-time position and treat their job as worthy in order to get better work environment and satisfy their high-level needs.