Evaluating occupational performance using the assessment of motor

By Gail Alexander,2014-06-18 09:35
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Evaluating occupational performance using the assessment of motor

    Evaluating occupational performance

    using the assessment of motor and process skills

    The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) (Fisher, 2003), is an

    innovative assessment of occupational performance that is utilised widely by

    occupational therapists in Australia and throughout the world. Its focus is on

    evaluating the individual’s ability to perform the daily life tasks he or she needs

    and/or wants to perform. Thus, providing the occupational therapist with critical

    information about their unique perspective on function, occupation (Fisher, 1994).

    The AMPS enables therapists to measure the quality of a person’s performance

    of the domestic (instrumental) or personal activities of daily living (ADL) that are

    meaningful and/or relevant to them.

    The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model, provides a framework for

    integrating occupation based assessment and intervention into everyday practice

    (Fisher, 1998). Once information is gathered to establish the context of the

    client’s occupational performance and their current strengths and problem areas,

    the AMPS can be utilised to assess their occupational performance.

    The assessment is administered according to standardised procedures and

    usually takes between 30 and 40 minutes to complete. The therapist interviews

    the client to ascertain which of the 83 AMPS tasks may be of an appropriate

    challenge, as well as being familiar and culturally relevant to them. The client

    then chooses two or three tasks that they want and/or need to perform. Following

    familiarisation with the environment and confirmation that all tools and materials

    needed are available, the therapist observes the client perform the chosen tasks

    in their natural setting. The therapist evaluates the quality, efficiency, safety and

    independence of the actions, namely motor skills and process skills, that

    comprise and support ADL performance. The ADL motor and ADL process skill

    items represent universal, goal-directed actions that are observed during ADL

    task performances. Motor skills refers to the observable goal-directed actions the

    person enacts to move oneself or a task object during task performance (e.g.

    position the body, reach for, lift and transport objects). Process skills refers to

    the observable goal directed actions the person enacts to logically sequence the

    actions of the ADL task performance over time, select and use appropriate tools

    and materials, and adapt his or her performance when problems are encountered

    (e.g. search for and locate tools and materials, organise the workspace,

    initiate and sequence actions, accommodate actions when problems occur)

    (Fisher, 2003).

    The AMPS computer-scoring program generates summary reports of the client’s

    performance, as well as an ADL motor and ADL process ability measure. The

    measurement model used to develop the AMPS allows this ability measure to be

    adjusted to account for rater severity, the challenge of the specific tasks the client

    performed, as well as the individual clients scores (Fisher, 1993). This

    information can be utilised to determine why the person is experiencing

    difficulties, what level of task challenge the person can manage, the type of

    intervention/s to use and whether ADL performance has improved as a result of intervention.

    The AMPS has been researched extensively, the findings indicating excellent reliability and validity, including validity for use with males and females aged between 3 and 90 years of age, across numerous cultures and diagnostic groups (e.g. Dickerson & Fisher, 1997; Duran & Fisher, 1996; Goldman & Fisher, 1997; Goto, Fisher, & Mayberry, 1996). In addition it has been utilised widely to examine differences in ADL performance within and between diagnostic groups (e.g. Bernspang & Fisher, 1995; Cooke, Fisher, Mayberry, & Oakley, 2000; Doble, Fisk, Fisher, Ritvo, & Murray, 1994; Pan & Fisher, 1994)

    Therapists who use the AMPS have completed a five day training course. AMPS courses are held regularly in Australia. The next course in NSW is scheduled for March 2004. Further details will be published in upcoming newsletters. Alternatively contact OT Australia (NSW).

    In addition Anne Fisher will be in Australia in August/September this year. She will be offering more comprehensive training courses on the Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model. Please contact OT Australia (Vic) or (SA) for details.

    For further information and a full AMPS reference list see the AMPS

    Karen Urlic

    On behalf of the AMPS Project, Australia.



    Bernspang, B., & Fisher, A. (1995). Differences between persons with right

    or left CVA on the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Archives

    of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 76(1144-1151). Cooke, K., Fisher, A. G., Mayberry, W., & Oakley, F. (2000). Differences in

    activities of daily living process skills of persons with and without

    Alzheimer's Disease. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, 20,


    Dickerson, A., & Fisher, A. (1997). The effects of familiarity of task and

    choice on the functional performance of young and old adults.

    Psychology and Aging, 12, 247-254.

    Doble, S. E., Fisk, J. D., Fisher, A. G., Ritvo, P. G., & Murray, T. J. (1994).

    Functional competence of community-dwelling persons with multiple

    sclerosis using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills.

    Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 843-851. Duran, L., & Fisher, A. (1996). Male and female performance on the

    Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Archives of Physical

    Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 1019-1024.

    Fisher, A. (1993). The Assessment of IADL motor skills: An application of

    Many-Faceted Rasch Analysis. American Journal of Occupational

    Therapy, 47(4), 319-329.

    Fisher, A. (1994). Functional assessment and occupation: Critical issues

    for occupational therapy. New Zealand Journal of Occupational

    Therapy, 45(2), 13-18.

Fisher, A. (2003). Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Development,

    Standardization, and Administration Manual. (5th ed. Vol. 1).

    Colorado: Three Star Press Inc.

    Fisher, A. G. (1998). Uniting Practice and Theory in an Occupational

    Framework. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(7), 509-


    Goldman, S., & Fisher, A. (1997). Cross-cultural validation of the

    Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). British Journal of

    Occupational Therapy, 60(2), 77-85.

    Goto, S., Fisher, A., & Mayberry, W. (1996). Amps applied cross-culturally to

    the Japanese. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 60(2), 119-


    Pan, A. W., & Fisher, A. G. (1994). The Assessment of Motor and Process

    Skills of persons with psychiatric disorders. American Journal of

    Occupational Therapy, 48, 775-780.

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