By Andrew Rogers,2014-06-19 11:13
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    Unit 8

    Language work:

    1. L2 inconsiderable a. /???????????????????/ rather small;

    not worth considering; the word inconsiderable is almost always used together

    with the word not. 不重要的; 微不足道的

     e.g. This is not an inconsiderable sum of money. I must get it back.

     Do not let such an inconsiderable matter worry you.

    2. L3 trait n. / ??????/ ( fml ) a particular quality, esp. of a person;


    e.g. Annes generosity is one of her most pleasing traits.

    3. L3 mark n. / ???? /

     (1) sth., such as a spot or cut, on a surface that would otherwise be plain or clean


     e.g. Dont you think these marks in the sand are some kind of message?

     The girl had a red mark on her arm where she had burnt herself.

     (2) a figure or printed or written sign which shows something 记号

     e.g. Every garment in the shop has a price mark on it.

     Some students never use punctuation marks correctly.

     (3) a fact of action that is a sign or proof of a quality, feeling, or condition 标志

     e.g. As a mark of respect, they all stood up when the teacher entered the room.

     It is a mark of the companys strength that it has recovered so quickly from

    such a major setback.

    4. L6 evidence n. / ???????? / sth., such as a fact, sign, or object that

    gives proof or reasons to believe or agree with sth. else 证据, 证物

     e.g. Is there any evidence for believing that the world is round?

     When the police arrived, he had already destroyed the evidence of his guilt.

    5. L7 capacity n. / ????????? /

     (1) ability or power 智能, 才能, 能力

     e.g. He has a great capacity for enjoying himself.

     Her capacity to remember facts is remarkable.

     (2) role; a particular position or duty地位

     e.g. I am speaking in my capacity as Minister of Trade.

     She is employed by them in an advisory capacity.

     (3) the amount that something can hold or contain容量

     e.g. The fuel tank has a capacity of 12 gallons.

     The seating capacity of the theater is 5,000.

    6. L7 endeavor n. / ?????????? / (fml) (an) effort 努力, 尽力

     e.g. They couldnt do it despite their best endeavors.

     The climbing of Mt. Qomolangma was an outstanding example of human


    7. L11 precision n. / ??????????? / preciseness; exactness精确, 精密度

     e.g. Scientific instruments have to be made with great precision.

     That scientist performs experiments with immense precision.

8. L12-15 The quite shocking slovenliness and vulgarity of much of the spoken

    English, as well as not a little of the written English, which one hears and sees,

    proves beyond peradventure that years of attendance upon schools and colleges

    that are thought to be respectable have produced no impression. —— The

    shocking fact that much of the spoken English, as well as quite a lot of the written

    English, which one hears and sees, is not arranged in a proper order, or is

    carelessly organized, and shows a lack of fine feeling or good judgment in the

    choice of what is suitable or beautiful demonstrates or confirms beyond any

    shadow of doubt that years of attending classes in schools and colleges which are

    considered to show socially acceptable standards have turned out no good results.

     L12 slovenliness n. / ???????????? / state of being not clean, neat, or

    orderly; state of being untidy 懒散, 不修边幅

     e.g. How can you bear to live in such conditions of slovenliness?

     There are three women in this village who are characterized by slovenliness.

     L12 vulgarity n. / ?????????? / the state or quality of being indecent

    where the quality is spoiled, or the standard is lowered; the state that shows a lack

    of good judgment in the choice of what is suitable or beautiful粗俗, 粗俗语,


     e.g. I was extremely shocked by her appalling vulgarity.

     His habits and manners are characteristic of a certain degree of vulgarity.

     He uttered a vulgar remark.

     L14 beyond peradventure —— beyond any shadow of doubt; undoubtedly


     e.g. Shanghai is becoming an international metropolis beyond peradventure.

     You have made remarkable progress beyond peradventure.

     L14 attendance n. / ??????????? / the act or fact of attending, esp.

    regularly; the

    number of people present 出席, 出席的人数

    e.g. Attendance at school is demanded by law.

     He has a poor attendance record.

     We had an attendance of over 5,000 spectators at the open-air concert.

     L15 respectable a. / ?????????????? / showing standards of

    behavior, appearance, etc. that are socially acceptable可敬的, 有名望的, 高尚的,


     e.g. How could you expect me, a respectable married woman, to do such a thing?

     It is not respectable to get drunk in the street.

     I must go and put on a clean shirt and make myself look respectable.

    9. L16 with pure diction —— in a way that words are pronounced perfectly well,

    not mixed with any impure or non-standard sound

     e.g. He speaks standard English, with pure diction.

    10. L19-20 refined and gentle manners, which are themselves the expression of

    fixed habits of thought and action. —— good manners showing education,

    delicacy of feeling and gentleness of behavior, which express or embody

    established habits of thought and action.

    11. L21 Manners make the man. —— The quotation from Wykeham William

    means A persons habits and behavior tell us much about him.

    12. L22-23 When manners are superficial, artificial, and forced, no matter what

    their form, they are bad manners. —— If ways of behaving are insincere,

    strained or unnatural, showing a lack of true feelings, they are impolite or poor

    manners, no matter how they are embodied.

    L22 superficial a. / ???????????????????? / not deep, on

    the surface; shallow; not thorough or complete 表面的, 肤浅的, 浅薄的

     e.g. There is only a superficial resemblance between the two sisters.

     She has only a superficial knowledge of the language.

     L22 artificial a. / ???????????? / insincere, lacking true feelings;

    happening as a result of human action 人造的, 假的

     e.g. She welcomed me with an artificial smile.

     I dont like his artificial manners.

     High import taxes give their homemade goods an artificial advantage in the


     L23 forced a. / ????? / unnatural; produced unwillingly and / or with


    被迫的, 强迫的, 动用武力的

    e. g. I thought their laughter was rather forced.

     I am fed up with his forced manners.

    13. L23-25 When, however, they are the natural expression of fixed habits of

    thought and action, and when they reveal a refined and cultivated nature, they are

    good manners. —— When manners naturally express or convey ever fixed habits

    of thought and action, and when they show a gentle and cultured nature, they are

    known as good manners.

     L25 reveal v. /???????? / show or allow sth. previously hidden to be

    seen; make known sth. previously secret or unknown展现, 显示, 揭示, 暴露

     e. g. The curtains opened, revealing a darkened stage.

     The investigation has revealed some serious faults in the system.

     I can now reveal that the new director is to be James Johnson.

     L25 cultivated a. / ??????????? / cultured; showing good education,

    manners, etc. 有教养的

    e.g. A cultivated person shows good education, good manners, etc.

     As soon as the singer sang a very beautiful song, the cultivated audience

    stood up, cheering and clapping their hands.

     The child has become cultivated, showing good education and good


    14. L27 instinctively adv. / ????????????? / in a way resulting from

    ones instinct, i.e. ones natural ability or tendency to act in a certain way; in a

    manner following ones instinct 本能地

    e.g. Instinctively, she knew that she was being followed.

     He ducked instinctively as the bullet whistled past his head.

    15. L30 the power and habit of reflection —— the great ability and habit of

    thinking about things carefully and profoundly

    e.g. He cultivated his power and habit of reflection through constant reading.

    16. L34 induce v. / ?????????????????????? /

    (1) lead sb. to do sth., often by persuading劝诱

    e.g. Nothing could induce her to be disloyal to her motherland.

     Advertisements induce people to buy.

    (2) cause or produce促使, 导致, 引起

    e.g. The medicine may induce drowsiness.

     The author by his choice of words has induced a particular frame of mind in

    the reader.

    17. L36 persist v. / ??????? / continue in a course of action or way of behaving,

    firmly and perhaps unreasonably in spite of opposition or warning坚持, 持续

     e.g. If you persist in causing trouble, the company may be forced to dismiss you.

     Must you persist in misunderstanding me?

    18. L40 multiply v. / ?????????? / to greatly increase in number or

    amount 增加

    e.g. He has acquired a good knowledge of Chinese and English, which has

    multiplied his chance of success.

     Spending on military equipment has multiplied in the last five years.

    19. L43-44 By that time it is usual to settle down to life on a level of more or less

    contented intellectual interest and activity —— By that time when they are in

    their mid-twenties it is normal for most people to live a stable and satisfactory life,

    engaged in intellectual activities in which they are interested and which they are

    somewhat satisfied.

    20. L48 efficiency n. / ????????? / the power to work well, very quickly

    and without waste; the power to do well 效率, 功效

     e.g. She is well known for her possession of high efficiency.

     We must achieve efficiency in our study.

    21. L49 visionary a. / ????????????????????????? / that

    exist only in the mind and probably can not be fulfilled 幻影的, 幻想的, 梦想的

     e.g. He is a hardworking scientist; he is never a visionary dreamer.

    22. L50 exercise v. / ????????? /

     (1) ( cause to ) take exercise训练, 锻炼

    e.g. You are getting fat; you should exercise more.

     She was exercising her horse in the park.

    (2) use ( a power, right, or quality ) 行使, 运用,利用

    e.g. The judge thought it appropriate to exercise leniency on most juvenile


     That official exercises his power to the fullest degree.

    23. L52 companionship n. / ????????????? / friendship; close

    relationship between partners 交谊, 友谊

    e.g. The companionship between the two partners can be said to be pure and


    24. L54 outline n. / ???????? /

     (1) a line showing the shape of sth. 轮廓, 略图, 外形

    e.g. The outline of her face in the candlelight is very attractive.

     He sketched a rough outline map of the Peoples Republic of China.

    (2) the main ideas or facts of sth., without details 大纲, 要点, 概要

    e.g. He has read An Outline of World History.

     This is an outline of the main points of the talk.

    25. L54 Given these five characteristics, one has the outline of an educated man.

     If one possesses these five characteristics, he has the basic qualities of an

    educated man

    26. L55 scholarship n. / ????????? / knowledge; exact and serious study;

    the academic attainments of a scholar 学问, 学识

     e.g. He is a man of profound scholarship.

     Her book is a fine piece of scholarship.

    27. L56 professional zeal —— professional enthusiasm; showing eagerness to

    engage in ones profession; being keen on pursuing or developing ones profession;

    being enthusiastic in performing ones professional work or conducting ones

    professional study

    28. L56 business competence —— business ability and skill

     e. g. His business competence is beyond any doubt.

    29. L57 leadership n. / ????????? /

     (1) the position of a leader 领导地位

     e.g. He was elected to the leadership of the Labor Party.

     That country has lost her leadership in the shipbuilding industry.

     (2) the qualities necessary in a leader 领导能力

     e.g. She lacks leadership though she possesses strong professional competence.

     (3) a group of people who lead 领导者,领导阶层

     e.g. The leadership of the movement are in agreement on this issue.

    30. L57-61 So long as the framework or outline is there, the content may be pretty

    much what you will, assuming, of course, that the fundamental elements in human

    personality, in letters, in science, in the fine arts, and in human institutions, are all

    present. —— As long as there exists the outline, the content may well satisfy

    your wish or aspiration if the basic components of civilization and its remarkable

    achievements in human character, in literature, in science, in the fine arts, and in

    human institutions, are all contained in the outline. / So long as you are in

    possession of this framework, you may be very satisfied if you boast the basic

    elements of civilization, possess wonderful human qualities, and have achieved

    great success in literature, in science, in the fine arts, and in human institutions.

    L58 assume v. / ???????????????????? / suppose; believe

    something to be true without actually having proof that it is 假定, 设想

    e.g. If he is not here in five minutes, we shall assume that he is not coming.

     Assuming that you are right about this, what shall we do?

    L58 the fundamental elements —— the basic or most important components

    L60 in human personality —— in human nature or character

    L60 letters n. / ????????? / (fml) literature in general文学, 学问

e.g. They are students of art and letters.

     John was a man of letters with no interest in current affairs.

     She was one of the foremost figures in English letters at the turn of the


     He is considered to be one of the giants of letters in China.

    L60 institution n. / ????????????????????????????????? / a habit, custom, etc., which has been in existence for a long time 风俗;习惯;制度 e.g. Before 1959, serfdom was an institution in Tibet.

     In some parts of the world, marriage is no longer an institution observed by

    some young people.

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