Criminal Justice Style Sheet
; Cap after colon if complete sentence (per previous ed.) ; Lowercase all prepositions, regardless of length.
; Use serial comma
; Spell out i.e., e.g., and etc. in text.
; Style per Chicago, 15/e; spelling: per Webster’s 11th
; Author style: ―upon‖ okay; no distinction: ―since/because‖
―while/whereas/although‖; use of contractions okay; ―above/below‖ used in
prev. ed. but trying to avoid in this one
; Superlatives: best-known law, longest-running show, fastest-growing group,
better-prepared agencies, lower-income households (per Chicago) ; Possessives: Congress‘s, Morris‘s, but United States‘, series‘, Hopkins‘,
; No italic for the ―v.‖ in case titles: United States v. Granada
; Web addresses use full address: http://www.apbnews.com/…, except
; En dash: Chicago-based crime unit, Los Angeles–based crime unit
; Questions: More precisely, we might ask, ―Why does a particular person
commit a particular crime on a given occasion and under specific
; X-refs: ... discussed in detail in Chapter 5, ―Policing: Legal Aspects.‖
; Dates: Future dates in sources, including website access dates, okay as long
as they do not extend beyond publication date (per AU 4/12/06) ; Acronyms: Spell out at first appearance in each chapter. Acronym follows
spelled-out term and is enclosed in parens. Okay to use acronym alone from
then on in chapter.
; Retain comma with Jr. and Sr.: Jesse L. Jackson, Sr.; but Robert S. Mueller
; Use space around initials in personal names: O. J. Simpson.
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; Italics: Use italics for titles and subtitles of books; names of TV series; words
as words (the term hacker); letters as letters (a red letter A); sparingly for
emphasis; aka‘s (known as the Bill of Rights; the social product we call
; Use ital for In re, Ex parte, id., ante, supra, cert. denied, aff’d, aff’d per
curiam, aff’g, rev’d, rev’d en banc, rev’d sub nom; but See, e.g., slip op. at
34, slip op. 37, Cf.
; Use quotation marks for irony; nonliteral use of word (a ―road map‖ to
criminal justice); newly coined terms.
; In glossary, use bold for cross-references; italics for aka‘s (per prev. ed.)
; Style note: Burbank (California) Police Department, Broward County (Florida)
; the city of New York, New York City; state of Washington, Washington State ; white, black, Hispanic
; Court of Appeals of Kentucky, the appeals court; a U.S. district court in
; Titles of people: capitalize if immediately precedes name (President George W.
Bush), but lowercase if comes after or stands alone (the chief of police of the
city of Seattle), except in margin quote attributions (Tony Fabelo, Executive
Director, Texas Criminal Justice Policy Council)
; Coshocton County (Ohio) municipal judge David Hostetler
; divorce court, judge, etc., but Court, Judge, Etc. okay if in quoted court case
; the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, the First and Eighth Circuit Courts of
Appeal, appeals court, courts of appeals (plural)
; the U.S. Supreme Court, the Court, the justices; Warren Court, Warren and
; a state board of education, but the California State Board of Education
; the national Constitution, but a state constitution, constitutional question ; First Amendment; the Supremacy Clause, the Establishment Clause, the Free
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o the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments
; Texas Penal Code, Texas Code, the code, but Model Penal Code, the Code, the
Code Commentaries and United States Code, the Code (per usual law book
style for these two main codes)
; Megan‘s Laws, Justinian Code
; Safe Streets and Crime Control Act of 1968; the Safe Streets Act, the act ; Catholic Church, Anglican Church, the church; the Christian church ; Washington Post, Wall Street Journal in a note (no ―The‖), but the
Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal in running text (note lowercase
; Spell out one to ten (except taller than 6 feet, 1 inch); use numerals for 11
and above (including 1 million).
; Ages: eight-month-old (n, adj); ages one and three; 21-year-old (n, adj);
―Jackson, 45, had been arrested...‖
; Ordinals: Generally spell out: second-grade teacher, twelfth-grade student,
twenty-first century, mid-nineteenth century (n), late-nineteenth-century (adj)
; Birth-death years: Daniel Webster (1782–1852); Robert Merton (1910– )
; 1,312 10,562
; Use numerals with percentages: 50%; 8% to 19%
; Use numerals with dollars: $3 billion
; one-half, two-thirds
; four years‘ imprisonment, term of two years and eight months
; .40-caliber, .357-caliber (adj); 9mm (adj)
; 5–4 opinion; voted 5 to 4
; a factor of four, a ratio of two to one
; Phone: (888) 813-USSS 9-1-1 call 900-number
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; 9/11 (shortened version of September 11, 2001) post-9/11 Lists: ... including
; Cap then entry
; Cap then entry
; Cap then entry
; Use sentence punc. if full sentences.
; Numbered items in text: (1), (2), etc.; numbered items in margin definitions
also the same, not 1.), 2.), etc.
Notes (per AU 4/8/06 e-mail, ―existing citation styles should be retained unless they are in error.‖)
Charles E. Silberman, Criminal Violence, Criminal Justice (New York: Random House, 1978), p. 12.
Lawrence W. Sherman et al., Preventing Crime, 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 1997). (Chicago 15/e now says to use 2nd, 3rd)
Philip B. Kurland and John Doe, ―Robert H. Jackson,‖ in Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel, eds., The Justices of the United States Supreme Court 1789–1969: Their
Lives and Major Opinions, Vol. 4 (New York: Chelsea House, 1969), p. 2565. Jill Peay, ―Dangerousness—Ascription or Description,‖ in M. P. Feldman, ed., Violence,
Vol. 2 of Developments in the Study of Criminal Behavior (New York: John
Wiley, 1982), p. 211, citing N. Walker, ―Dangerous People,‖ International
Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Vol. 1 (1978), pp. 37–50.
Coramae Richey Mann, ―The Reality of a Racist Criminal Justice System,‖ in Barry W.
Hancock and Paul M. Sharp, eds., Criminal Justice in America: Theory, Practice, and Policy, 14 vols. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996), pp. 51–59.
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States (Washington, DC: FBI,
2006). (per AU 4/8/06, do not use ―Author‖ as the publisher when repeated.)
Effects of NIBRS on Crime Statistics, Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report (Washington, DC: BJS, 2000), p. 1.
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North Carolina Justice Academy, Miranda Warning Card (Salemburg, NC: North
Carolina Justice Academy).
Ramiro Martinez, Jr., and Matthew T. Lee, ―On Immigration and Crime,‖ in National Institute of Justice, Criminal Justice 2000, Volume 1: The Nature of Crime—
Continuity and Change (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2000).
1967 Presidential Commission, The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society (Washington,
DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1967).
National Institute of Justice, Newport News Tests Problem-Oriented Policing, National
Institute of Justice Reports (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January/February 1987).
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Career Guide to Industries, 2004–2005 (Washington, DC:
U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005).
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports: Crime in the United States, 2004 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005). Journal Article:
Gene Edward Carte, ―August Vollmer and the Origins of Police Professionalism,‖
Journal of Police Science and Administration, Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1973), pp.
Edward A. Farris, ―Five Decades of American Policing: 1932–1982,‖ Police Chief
(November 1982), pp. 30–36.
Magazine, Newsletter, or Newspaper Article:
Debbie Howlett, ―Chicago Plans Advanced Surveillance: Emergency Services Would Be Linked to 2,000 Cameras,‖ USA Today, September 10, 2004, p. 3A.
―Cries of Relief,‖ Time, April 26, 1993, p. 18. (doesn‘t have to have reporter name)
―Battered Women Tell Their Stories to the Senate,‖ Charlotte (N.C.) Observer, July 10,
1991, p. 3A.
Wire Service Report: ―For the Record,‖ Washington Post wire service, northern
edition, March 3, 1994. (May include name of reporter) (Associated Press should
Book on CD-ROM: The American Heritage Dictionary on CD-ROM (Boston: Houghton
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Television Program: ABC News, September 16, 2001, 7:08 P.M.
ABC News, September 11, 2001. Christopher was repeating a phrase generally
attributed to former U.S. Supreme Court Justice Arthur Goldberg. Speech: ―Remarks by the President on Project Safe Neighborhoods,‖ Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 14, 2001. Web posted at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/05/20010514-1.html (accessed April 2, 2002).
Website: American Civil Liberties Union website,
http://www.aclu.org/issues/criminal/iscj.html (accessed January 22, 2002). Video: Norval Morris, ―Crime, the Media, and Our Public Discourse,‖ National Institute of Justice, Perspectives on Crime and Justice video series, recorded May 13, 1997.
Online Article: ―Weekend of Terror,‖ APB Online, July 5, 1999. Web posted at
http://... (accessed January 2, 2000). (May include name of reporter) (Lowercase
―online‖ with newspaper titles)
Philip Taylor, ―Civil Libertarians: Giuliani‘s Efforts Threaten First Amendment,‖ Freedom Forum Online. Web posted at http://www.freedomforum.org (accessed June 13, 2006).
Paper presented: D. McBride, ―Trends in Drugs and Death,‖ paper presented at the
annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Denver, CO, March 1983. Proceedings: Mark M. Pollitt, ―Cyberterrorism: Fact or Fancy?‖ in Proceedings of the
Twentieth National Information Systems Security Conference, October 1997, pp.
Private communication: Telephone conversation with FBI officials, April 21, 1995.
Press release: ―Attorney General Ashcroft and Deputy Attorney General Thompson
Announce Reorganization and Mobilization of the Nation‘s Justice and Law
Enforcement Resources,‖ U.S. Department of Justice press release, November 8, 2001.
; If repeated directly below previous cite, then use ―Ibid.‖
; If different page number, then ―Ibid., pp. 67–72.‖
; If more than one cite removed, use shortened author and/or just title if no
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Nolan and Nolan-Haley, Black’s Law Dictionary, p. 1026.
Baker et al., Criminal Law, pp. 32–56.
―Cries of Relief.‖
Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 353 (1963). (note no ital on ―v‖; may include
information for other legal reporters)
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (officially known as the Public Company Accounting
Reform and Investor Protection Act), Pub. L. 107–204, 116 Stat. 745 (July 30, 2002). (OR spell out Public Law when stands alone)
18 U.S.C., Section 922(q)(1)(A). U.S. Code, Title 28, Section 20.3 (2[d]). Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, 10.
18 U.S.C., Section 1028.
H. R. 4797, 102d Cong. 2d Sess. (1992). H. R. 1731 (2004). Andersen v. U.S., U.S. Supreme Court, No. 04-368 (decided May 31, 2005). Source lines: Same style as notes. Note that some source lines says ―Reference(s),‖ some ―Source(s).‖ Leave as is, because ―reference‖ means that author wrote it using the various references listed and no permission is needed; if it
says ―source,‖ then it‘s a quote for the most part and may need permission.
(Hint: Look for the logo.)
(Note: This feature is available only if your instructor has chosen the Research
Navigator option available with a new textbook.)
(See Table 4–1.)
―crime stopper‖ group
―get tough,‖ ―get tough on crime‖ (adj)
―missing persons‖ report
―war on drugs‖
? 235(b) (note space after section sign)
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.D. 200; 1700 B.C.; between A.D. 527 and 565 A
ABC News/Prentice Hall Video Library Abdel-Rahman, Omar (Egyptian sheik) actus reus
administrations: Bush administration
Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AOUSC)
adviser, not advisor
African-American (n, adj) (use instead of black unless awkward) agreed-to obligation
aka, not AKA (also known as)—no need to spell out Allen charge
al-Qaeda (n, adj) (lowercase a per FS e-mail 7/6/05) American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) analytic, not analytical
anti compounds are closed: antiabortionist, anticrime, antidrug, antigang,
antigovernment, antirights, antistalking, antiterrorism, antitrust (but anti–drug abuse ‗cuz compound)
Arab-American (n, adj)
Asian-American (n, adj)
attorneys general (pl), attorneys‘ fees
automated teller machine
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baby boom, baby boomer (n), baby-boom (adj)
batterer, battered women‘s shelter, battered women‘s syndrome biblical
Bill of Rights
bin Laden, Osama
boot camp (adj), boot camp-type (adj) (quote marks for first use)
Brawner rule (per 6e)
breakup (n, adj), break up (vb) Breathalyzer
broken windows thesis
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) cabinet-level position
carjacker, carjacking (n)
cell block (n), cell-block (adj) certiorari
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child-care, child-neglect (adj), child-savers movement
chop shop (n)
Christmas-time (per FS)
Citizen Service System
civil rights (n, adj), civil rights era, civil rights movement
class D felony
co compounds are closed: coauthor, BUT co-conspirator Code of Hammurabi
comes stabuli (sing.), comites stabuli (pl.) (ch05)
common law (n, adj)
community policing (n, adj)
computer crime (n), computer-crime (adj) Congress, congressional
corporal punishment, not corporeal
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