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THE RIGHTS OF LESBIAN AND GAY TEACHERS

By Brenda Sanchez,2014-08-12 22:40
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THE RIGHTS OF LESBIAN AND GAY TEACHERS ...

    Agenda: 07 Doc: 07E

    The Rights of Lesbian and Gay Teachers and Education Personnel:

    2001-2004 Triennial Report

    “Within every age, culture, nation, and people in the world, women have loved women and men have

    loved men. Social contexts and constructs differ, as do interpretations and assumptions. Lifestyles

    differ, and the question of identity has varies responses. But (some) women emotionally and physically

    love women and (some) men emotionally and physically love men. In short or prolonged periods of

    their lives, secretly or openly. They always have, and they always will”.

    The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, 2001

    In terms of human rights and the legal context there has been important progress in the last part of ththe 20 century. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights as interpreted at the Vienna United Nations’ Conference on Human Rights in 1993 states that “All human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and interrelated. The international community must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner, on the same footing and with the same emphasis. While the significance of national and regional particularities and various historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in mind, it is the duty of States, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms”.

    At the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995), paragraph 96 of the Platform for Action, in the women and health section reads: “The human rights of women include their right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health, free of coercion, discrimination, and violence”. Agenda Item:07 Doc: 7E

    In terms of decriminalisation of lesbians and gays at national level change has been fought for successfully in many countries in the last decades, with South Africa, Ecuador and Fiji including sexual orientation as a ground for non-discrimination in their constitutions.

    The dominant interpretation of democracy at the international, national and local levels increasingly includes the principle of being against political and social discrimination or exclusion of any sort, including nationality, sex, race, gender, beliefs, social status, or sexual orientation.

The European Union (EU) for the first time had clear competence to act in the field of anti-stdiscrimination legislation through the Amsterdam Treaty, which came into force on May 1, 1999. In

    November 2000 the EU adopted the principle of equal treatment in employment, occupation and vocational training irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

    Many countries have established special bodies to monitor and combat discrimination on different grounds, including sexual orientation. In Sweden the Act on a Ban on Discrimination in Working Life on grounds of Sexual Orientation (May 1999) includes a provision for the establishment of a specialized body to monitor and combat discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and promote full compliance with the Act.

    In the last years, countries like the Netherlands and Belgium have given gay and lesbian couples the right to full civil marriage. Numerous other countries recognize same-sex partnerships in law, including Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Portugal and Sweden.

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    Countries that extend some benefits to same-sex partners, or contain jurisdictions that do so, include: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Israel, Italy, New Zeeland, South Africa, Spain and the United States.

    In 2003, the Brazilian government introduced a draft resolution on “Human Rights and Sexual thOrientation” at the 59 Session of the UN Human Rights Commission because discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation remains a serious problem throughout the world. The draft resolution (E/CN.4/2003/L.92) affirms the universality of human rights and the basic principle that lesbians, gays and bisexuals are entitled to the same human rights protections as other human beings. The resolution was co-sponsored by a broad range of states that confronted the resistance of right wing fundamentalist groups. During the 2004 session Brazil announced that the resolution had been postponed and would be put forward at a later time.

    The worldwide campaign organized around the Brazilian resolution includes a broad spectrum of social and political forces, among them major global trade unions working to challenge discrimination based on sexual orientation. The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU), which represents the interests of major trade union federations in many countries around the world, lobbied thfor the Brazilian resolution at the 60 session of the UN HR Commission in Geneva in 2004.

    Education International (EI) and its member organizations stated in 1998 (inter alia) that they:

    5. Defend the human rights of all teachers and students;

    6. Clearly state that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is a violation of human

    ; rights

    8. Promote education against prejudice, discrimination and harassment, including on the

    grounds of sexual orientation, as an essential part of every teacher’s role;

    10. Have anti-discrimination and equal opportunities policies on the grounds of sexual

    orientation in their internal procedures and organization;

    11. Support the right of teachers not to hide their sexual orientation in the workplace.

    In 2003, EI and Public Services International (PSI) agreed to launch the first international GLBT workers’ forum, which will be held in Brazil in July 2004 prior to the EI Congress. The Forum will be an advisory body to both the EI Executive Board and the PSI Committee.

The Forum activities aim at:

    - creating awareness among EI and PSI member organizations which have not yet developed

    anti-discrimination policies;

    - documenting cases of discrimination and harassment on the basis of sexual orientation in the

    public sector, including the education sector;

    - organizing training programs;

    - advocating the inclusion of GLBT workers’ rights in the ILO Programs and Tripartite bodies

    - seeking the active cooperation of all Global Unions.

    The international legal system is obviously in a period of transition. Different forces are undermining its effectiveness.

    Economic globalisation is the basis for a process that influences global interaction in a fundamental way. Never before were the people of the world so connected and interdependent through

    revolutions in communications and in travelling; through the reorganising of civil society (from local to global, with horizontal and vertical connections); through a global tendency to promote human rights and democracy; in the rapid spread of diseases between countries (HIV/AIDS, SARS); the spread of criminal activities (weapons, trafficking of human beings particularly women and children-, drugs,

    terrorist activities) and of different types of fundamentalism (religious, social and economic).

    The struggle between progressive democracy and conservative fundamentalism (of whatever kind) is quite often fought over the rights of women and racial and sexual minorities, i.e. body integrity rights,

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    Agenda: 07 Doc: 07E

    The Rights of Lesbian and Gay Teachers and Education Personnel:

    2001-2004 Triennial Report

    intercultural education, migration policies or same sex marriage and gay priesthood. The fight over rights is what divides communities. Therefore the link between sexual politics and the gender dimension, between sexuality and power has never been clearer.

    At the level of social reality lesbian and gay lifestyles continue to be considered controversial. Most world religions have conservative and liberal teachings, and the three issues which are most fought over are:

    ; Violence against women and children

    ; Reproductive rights of women (access to and information about contraceptives and abortion)

    ; Lesbian and gay identity and lifestyles

    In too many countries lesbians, gays, transgender and bisexual people continue to face discrimination at many levels, including in employment and access to services (education, health care, housing, employment), in penal and civil law; in the failure to recognize their relationships and families; in the lack of support for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender youth; and through violence, harassment and other threats to life.

    In general, economic progress tends to increase the acceptance of and social space for minorities. With an increase in educational and health services topics like the rights of girls and women, sexual rights and personal assertiveness (for instance for AIDS prevention) become important values.

    On the other hand economic polarization (at national and international levels) increases poverty, discrimination and social marginalisation. That leads to many forms of exclusion and exploitation such as sex-tourism and trafficking, child labour, an increase in violence against women and children, an increase in the use of firearms etc. Such polarization is always detrimental to minorities, be they indigenous, ethnic, GLBT communities or people with special needs, etc.

    The whole question of discrimination is changing dramatically. According to Mr. Doudou Diene, UN Special Rapporteur, “the ideological context, dominated by the priority given to the fight against “terrorism”, is tending to marginalize the struggle against discrimination. At the same time, owing to

    this major ideological and political shift, the whole breeding ground of discrimination has been

    Agenda Item:07 Doc: 7E rendered more complex by the confusion of race or ethnic groups with religious and cultural loyalties”.

    On a more positive note there is a growing movement of citizens at local, national, regional and global levels who are organising under the broad belief that “another world is possible”’. The World Social Forum, which actually started in Porto Alegre, Brazil, is resonating in many countries and regions. There is increasing evidence that citizens want to organise to take more control over their own lives

    and that they are demanding leadership roles at political and corporate level.

    Today 115 million children receive no education at all. 246 million children work fulltime or part time. Obviously these children are imprisoned in the limiting world of domestic services or other dirty and dangerous workplaces.

    The UN Millennium Development Goals (which are international political promises accepted by the UN General Assembly in 2000) are very clear in their aim to have equal school attendance for girls and boys by 2005, and education for all by 2015. The agreement by the 1971 UN General Assembly that Western countries should provide 0.7 % of their gross national product for ODA (Overseas Development Aid) has been implemented by only a handful of countries. International processes such as debt relief, and the Fast Track Initiative for Education, are attempts by (some) governments and (many) civil society organizations to put pressure on political leaders at different levels to implement their promises, especially the promise of “Education for All”.

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The two major global campaigns are the “Global March against Child Labour” and the “Education for

    All Campaign”. EI plays a leading role in both. These two campaigns are very much interconnected, with many teachers’ unions, NGO’s, parents and children now fighting against child labour, and for education.

    Within these campaigns the rights of lesbian and gay teachers and students often appear minor, and do not receive sufficient attention. At the same time, only few GLBT organizations work on non-discrimination campaigns with much broader perspectives and interconnections.

    Education International advocate strongly for an improvement and reinforcement of teacher and education personnel unions’ alliances with civil society organizations to eliminate discrimination on any grounds (including sexual orientation) in education.

    But it is the increased knowledge about quality of education that is important here. There is plenty of research to show that feeling accepted as a person is a pre-requisite to positive learning, and this is a challenge for many schools in their dealing with either girls, ethnic or cultural minorities and

    certainly in their positive inclusion of lesbian and gay students and teachers. Recent research shows increasingly the importance of emotional intelligence (not just cognitive skills) and empathy as a

    basic skill to understand one-self and others, to cope with diversity.

    115 million children do not have access to education, but 1.4 billion children do. If half of these educated children (i.e. girls) do not feel sufficiently safe, appreciated or challenged, what does it mean to them personally? And what loss of talent is it to society?

    Similarly if 5 10% of pupils and students are forced into hiding their sexual orientation: What is the price of emotional exclusion? And what price does society pay for this in the long run?

    Education for all is needed to reduce poverty, to reduce exclusion and to empower young people. Education for all includes access to professional education about sexuality and to reproductive health services; it also includes involving teachers, young people and parents in the decision-making processes that deal with these matters.

    In at least 70 countries homosexuality (mostly male, because female homosexuality is often considered non-existent and invisible and therefore not an offence in penal codes) is still illegal. In Iran, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Mauritania, Sudan and Yemen it is a capital offence. In Pakistan and Guyana it may be punished with life imprisonment. Sex change or gender-reassignment is illegal in Portugal, Iran, Ghana, Slovenia, Albania and Macedonia.

    Other forms of persecution regularly practiced against sexual minorities around the world today include unfair arrest, arbitrary detention, unfair and unsubstantiated charges, imprisonment, fines, flogging, unlawful killings and executions, disappearances, beating, torture, rape, mobbing and persecution at work, loss of employment, bullying in schools, and invasion of privacy.

    Transgender persons remain excluded from the human rights scope in many countries. Gender identity refers to a person’s experience of self-expression relative to the social perception of

    masculinity or femininity (gender). Gender identity is closely linked to sexual orientation. Certain forms of gender identity may lead to the experience of abuse. The United Nations’ Special Rapporteur on Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment has drawn attention to the vulnerability of transgender people to human rights violations and the need to protect them (A/56/156).

    According to the UN Special Rapporteur, there is a disproportionately high number of cases where members of sexual minorities are subjected to such treatment, precisely because they do not conform

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    Agenda: 07 Doc: 07E

    The Rights of Lesbian and Gay Teachers and Education Personnel:

    2001-2004 Triennial Report

    to socially constructed gender expectations. Furthermore, they have only limited access to justice and receive insufficient medical treatment because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

    Gay and lesbian teachers and students are often victims of discrimination in both public and private schools, in high schools and school faculties as well as in tertiary level institutions.

    GLBT people are not victims because of any personal disposition but they become the target of violent attacks because of their stigmatisation. Despite the relatively high number of criminal offences many studies point to the fact that the victims seldom press charges.

    The most common abuse is verbal discrimination in the form of lesbian or gay jokes, whispered behind the backs of those in question, often followed by the withholding of information, sexual harassment and/or physical violence, and the fact of being bypassed for any promotion.

    Homosexuality represents a challenge to the deep-rooted patriarchal power structures within many societies and its organizations.

    When schools are safe neither for students nor for teachers we cannot ignore the fact and should react. One of the worst consequences of being a victim of discrimination is the feeling of being isolated. The social reality in schools for lesbian and gay teachers and students is often very difficult. Some examples might help us to better understand this:

    Uganda: In 1999, 25 students were suspended from Ntare high school. In October 1999 a 14-year-old boy was expelled from school on the grounds of his homosexuality. Another four gay students were sent home for being gay. The same year a gay teacher was sentenced to six years in prison. In December, 2003 Paula Rwomushana, a senior student at St. Joseph’s Secondary School, Nsambya, was found dead in her bed in an apparent suicide, following accusations that she was a lesbian (Behind the Mask).

    Nigeria: A group of students beat to death Yakubu, a homosexual final year student of Government

    Agenda Item:07 Doc: 7E College, Birnin-Kudu in Jigawa State, at his university. The state government in a press statement regretted the incident. The Commission of Education constituted a committee to investigate the matter and recommended ways of preventing a recurrence (The News, 22/04/2002).

    Zimbabwe: 45 girls from Langham School were expelled because they were lesbians (Gay and Lesbian of Zimbabwe statement, 2003).

    Egypt: Police arrested two homosexual students, aged 19 and 22 respectively, after catching them by making a date with them in a chat room. One of the students, who had decided not to appear in court, has since been sentenced in absentia to two years in jail, of which one was suspended under certain conditions. The other student received six months, of which three were suspended under certain conditions (Behind the Mask 2002).

    South Africa: Statistics on hate crimes against lesbians do not exist. Every second lesbian, especially if she has grown up in a township and she's relatively 'out', has experienced abuse or a hate crime of some sort, whether it's intimidation, stalking, verbal abuse, her family accusing her every day of being ill, or physical violence. Many women choose not to report hate crimes because of police apathy or the secondary victimization they suffer at their hands, according to a lesbian campaigner of “The Rose has Thorns” (Behind the Mask).

    Costa Rica: Minor Navarro, a 33 year old teacher, was transferred against his wishes from the school “Escuela Central de Tres Rios”, where he had worked for three years, when school personnel became aware of his HIV status. No law or policy prevents this from happening to other teachers (IGLHRC Action Alert, 1997)

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    United Kingdom: An 11 year-old boy, Damilola Taylor, was murdered in November 2000. His mother told the press that Damilola had been the victim of an assault a few days before the fatal attack. His assailants accused him of being gay. Several newspapers, as well as BBC News, reported that Damilola suffered homophobic bullying and taunts of "gay boy". But the trial and the subsequent inquiry into the failed prosecution blanked out these crucial facts and failed to even consider any possible links between the anti-gay bullying of Damilola and his subsequent murder. (Outrage!)

    Ukraine: Christian Democratic Movement (KDH) MP Anna Záborská said that although her party was against discrimination of all kinds, she thought that it was "questionable whether [homosexuals] are able to fulfil all occupations", such as teachers. The leader of her party, Pavol Hrušovský, who is also

    the speaker of parliament, later said that his party continued to oppose the passage of an anti-discrimination law that would expressly ban discrimination on grounds of race, gender, physical handicaps, religion, or sexual orientation (I CARE news April 11, 2002)

    United Kingdom: Teacher Shirley Pearce, 55, took a discrimination case to the House of Lords. She had been subjected to "a sustained campaign of harassment over five years in the form of homophobic abuse by pupils", but earlier employment tribunals and the Court of Appeal had dismissed her claims for compensation, ruling that the abuse was not because she was a woman and was, therefore, not covered by the Sex Discrimination Act which was "blind" to the issue of sexual orientation. (The Guardian, January 2003)

    Chile: Mayra Espinoza, a high school student in Viña del Mar, was expelled from school for kissing a female classmate while parting at the school's door. After engaging in difficult negotiations that involved the Ministry of Education, the school issued Ms. Espinoza an early graduation certificate, effectively preventing her from returning to classes (IGLHRC, Action Alert, September 2002).

    United States: According to some studies many teachers are not comfortable being identified as gay or lesbian to their supervisor, but having a teacher who is openly gay or lesbian helps students who are gay or lesbians themselves. Another study found that having a personal acquaintance who is gay or lesbian is linked to holding fewer negative attitudes toward lesbian, gay and transgender individuals. In other circumstances, it definitely helps to have teachers who are out because students will have positive images and gays and lesbians will have role models (Hatred in the Hallways: Violence and Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender”, HRW 2001)

    During the recent years a large variety of initiatives have been taken by EI affiliates. For example, many national Congresses have adopted resolutions on gay and lesbian rights, and quite a number of policy implementation activities on GLBT issues have been reported by EI affiliates (AEU, AOb, CAUT/ACCPU, CTF-FCE, CSQ, GEW, NEA, NUT, NASUWT, and SNES-FSU, among others).

    There is important development of materials, undertaking of research, new project initiatives on discrimination based on sexual orientation. For example, the EQUAL Program, which is financed by the European Social Fund, has sponsored a transnational partners’ initiative that involves public services, among them teachers’ unions, GLBT organizations, public institutions and other civil society organizations.

    In several EU states, e.g. United Kingdom, Austria, Spain, anti-discrimination laws for the workplace exempt religious organizations. Unfortunately, the relevant EU directive allows faith schools to discriminate against gay and lesbian teachers.

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    Agenda: 07 Doc: 07E

    The Rights of Lesbian and Gay Teachers and Education Personnel:

    2001-2004 Triennial Report

    During the last few decades important progress has been made in eradicating illiteracy and increasing access to education.

    Education is recognized as a human right for all persons. Many countries have agreed to the eradication of sexist and discriminatory practices in the education system but much more needs to be done.

    Gender and education issues have been highlighted, in a direct or indirect manner, in a series of conferences, summits and forums. But sexist and homophobic stereotypes may be found still in the curricula of many national systems.

    Diversity in sexual attitudes and values

    1. If sex education is inescapably a value-laden activity, the wide-spread disagreements

    that exist over sexual values create a dilemma for teachers: without a fair level of agreement

    on underlying values it is difficult for them to carry out their work effectively.

    2. Dramatic changes have occurred in sexual attitudes and values since the early 1950s

    as a result of increasingly effective contraception, the growth of reproductive technology, the

    decline in the influence of religion on sexual values and behaviour, changing attitudes towards

    marriage and cohabitation, the growing sexualization of culture and many other factors.

    3. However, many people still stick to more traditional sexual values.

    Increasing political, cultural, ethnic and religious diversity has had a further diversifying

    influence on sexual values and attitudes.

    4. It is unsatisfactory to respond to the dilemma facing teachers by abandoning schools

    based sex education, by attempting to teach sex education from a monoculture perspective or

    by emphasising “enabling” values at the expense of more substantative ones.

    5. We argue that some sexual values are so fundamental that they must be insisted

    upon as universal principles. Others, which we call “common values”, can only be arrived at

    through a process of reflection and discussion. A third category is made up of values on which

    there is irreconcilable disagreement. In the last case, teachers must be neutral and respectful

    of diversity, but the first two categories together form a strong foundation for a values-Agenda Item:07 Doc: 7E approach to sex education.

    (“Values and sex education”,

    The wider issue here is that social and legal systems are lagging behind the reality of a wide diversity of lifestyles. In many ways the lesbian and gay communities have taken the lead in making individualized choices in how to shape their private lives, living together or apart, showing long-term emotional and physical commitments without necessarily taking on all the trappings of life in marriage.

    Bringing diversity to schools means building a culture of respect. That is a rich culture which allows us to find new solutions to old problems. New solutions based on dialogue and agreements, not on conflict and expulsion.

    Teaching cultural diversity is a strong strategy to stop discrimination, because discrimination is based on fear and on division between people. The development of methods for teaching diversity in daily practice is a challenge for all.

    The importance of values in sex education, of assertiveness of girls, of breaking gender roles, of lesbian and gay rights etc. does not rely on claiming one truth, but aims to deal with differences, with learning from each other, with learning to respect and accept.

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    Many unions are working at tackling the underlying causes of discrimination, not only the symptoms and consequences.

    The protection of trade union members means that teachers and education personnel who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (including those living with HIV/AIDS) have the right to access advice, information and justice if their human rights are endangered.

That means we have to build networks and teachers’ trade unions which include every one.

    That also includes training union staff and workers generally to comply with national laws concerning anti-discrimination legislation and their implementation; and identifying contact persons to promote non-discrimination policies on sexual orientation within each affiliate (equality officer, human rights, women’s or GLBT group, etc.)

    Many unions have accumulated important experience and resources to share with other unions. There is a need to create more spaces on the Internet and elsewhere, where sharing and access to knowledge can be made readily available: for example, giving access to information about gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender issues, step-by-step guidance, sample school policies, checklists, tool-kits and reference materials that can assist teachers and unionists to increase awareness and develop mechanisms to address discrimination and abuse based on sexual orientation.

    It should become a priority to develop tools that can help teachers’ unions to evaluate teaching materials currently in use to ensure that they do not present outdated information or sexist, racist, homophobic or other stereotypical messages.

    Last but not least, monitoring the implementation of ILO Conventions on non-discrimination should ensure that the perspective of GLBT workers is fully represented.

    ; are based on promoting understanding and analysing problems;

    ; promote dialogue and acceptance between different people;

    ; are based on identifying problems, finding solutions and building bridges;

    ; encourage responsible behaviour ;

    ; challenge misinformation based on realities and facts.

    ; are based on prejudice, panic and fear;

    ; are moralistic;

    ; generalize opinions and stigmatise people without any distinctions;

    ; are based on sanctions and repression;

    ; provide for conditional acceptance (identity is ok but sexual activity is not);

    ; isolate and threaten or make victims vulnerable.

    ; assume social responsibility for discrimination (e.g. campaign “Brazil without homophobia”);

    ; look for linkages and interconnections;

    ; build new social alliances to confront fragmentation;

    ; promote and support new leaderships;

    ; deal with multiple forms of discrimination.

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    Agenda: 07 Doc: 07E

    The Rights of Lesbian and Gay Teachers and Education Personnel:

    2001-2004 Triennial Report

    There is an international consensus that discrimination based on sexual orientation is unacceptable.

    The launch of the EI/PSI International GLBT Forum will open opportunities to both organisations to

    carry out concrete actions like:

    ; Monitor and evaluate the effective implementation of EI and PSI non-discrimination policies at

    all levels, and take immediate measures to close the gaps.

    ; Promote training and development within the whole organization (headquarters and regional

    offices).

    ; Develop suitable approaches and measure steps to be taken in each region.

    ; Develop tools to compile existing discrimination on sexual orientation at the workplace and to

    identify existing jurisprudence and procedures used by relevant bodies.

    ; Promote alliance building with other unions to support each other, and get practical support

    from sharing material, research and training.

    ; Undertake joint actions for lobbying for new policies and law reform.

    ; Advocate for the ILO to compile a Report on Working Conditions focusing on best practices

    related to promoting labour and trade union rights for lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual

    workers and employees.

    ; Support campaigns to promote ratification of ILO Conventions related to discrimination and

    increase the knowledge of rights protection mechanisms and how to use them. ; Ask the ILO to provide technical support to governments and unions to re-evaluate their

    employment and social practices in order to eliminate areas of discrimination on grounds of

    sexual orientation or gender identity.

    ; Provide the necessary resources to combat discrimination based on sexual orientation and to

    implement the recommendations of the EI/PSI GLBT International Forum.

    Agenda Item:07 Doc: 7E

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Seeing the Rainbow”

    Teachers talk about bisexual, gay, lesbian, transgender and two-spirited realities

    Canadian teachers’Federation/ Elementary Teacher’s Federation of Ontario

    www.ctf-fce.ca

    www.etfo.ca

“Lesben un Schwule in der Schule – respektiert!? Ignoriert?!”

    Eines Synopse der GEW-Befragung der Kultusministerien Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft - GEW Sommer 2001, Frankfurt am Main

    www.gew.de

“Por la Igualdad de Derechos para Tod@s” (brochure)

    Union General de los Trabajadores UGT

    www.ugt.es

“The No-nonsense guide to Sexual Diversity”

    By Vanessa Baird

    New Internationalist Publications, United Kingdom, 2001 www.newint.org

     ndThe Oxford Companion to Politics of the World, 2. Edition

    Edited by Joel KRIEGER

    Oxford University Press 2001. Pag. 309

“Values in Sex Education. From principles to practice”

    By J. Mark HALSTEAD and Michel REISS

    Institute of Education

    United Kingdom, 2003

    National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality (NCGLE) Draft review December 1994 July 1998.

    South Africa, Pag. 20

“Women’s sexuality as a site of control & resistance: views on the African context”

    Tamale, Sylvia

    Faculty of Law, Makarere University. Uganda, 2003

Behind the Mask

    www.behindthemask.org

Action Alerts - International Gay and Lesbian Human Right Commission (IGLHRC)

    San Francisco, United States

    www.iglhrc.org

    “Non-Discrimination in Civil Marriage: perspectives from International Human Rights Law and Practice” Briefing Paper, Sept. 2003. United States Human Rights Watch

    “More than a name. State-Sponsored Homophobia and its Consequences in South Africa” Human Rights Watch, Report May 2003. United States www.hrw.org/lgbt/

“Plan de Igualdad y no discriminación por orientación sexual”

    Fundacion de Acción, Estudios y Participación Social FEDAEPS

    Quito, Ecuador. Junio 2003

Peter Tatchell

    OutRage! The lesbian and gay human rights campaign http://www.petertatchell.net/

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