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Unit3WhateverHappenedtoManners

By Leslie Ruiz,2014-05-20 11:52
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Unit3WhateverHappenedtoManners

    Unit 3 Whatever Happened to Manners?

1. Grammar

    (1) 比较结构的常规用法

    Mary is nicer than her three sisters.

    Blanc Mt. is higher than all other Alps peaks. George did more work than anyone else in the class. John behaves more politely than Jack (does).

注意than 从句中有时主语的省略

    than引导的比较从句里,常出现省略和替代现象,特别要注意有时从句主语的省略和主

    谓倒装现象,在省略主语的位置上,常可以补上itwhat. 如!

    More is meant than (what) meets the ear. There were more people present than was expected. There were more casualties than was reported. The really serious cases are fewer than (what) has been suggested.

    The standard of living of the working class is higher than the case was 30 years ago.

(2) 最高级比较范围的种种表达法

    Mary is the nicest of the four girls in the family.

    This is the most uninteresting book that I have ever read.

    Among the four girls, Alice works (the) hardest. This is the biggest generator ever made in China. (比较!That is the biggest generator that

    has ever been made in China.)

    Of the three boys, John behaves the most politely. 注!形容词和副词最高级的常规用法必须要有明确的比较范围;有时这个范围在上下文里不说自明?,否则就是所谓的绝对最高级;absolute superlative.

    He is a most learned man.

    It is most important for anyone to choose good friends.

(3) as…as…结构

    比较两方面的人和物可以用这个结构。与单数可数名词连用时要注意词序!

    as?形容词?不定冠词?名词?as…

    It was as pleasant a day as I ever spent. 名词前如没有不定冠词,则很少用此结构。

    Muchmany可作限定词,so (as) much … as so (as) many … as 常用来表达量,如! I haven’t got as much money as I thought.

    We need as many records as possible.

    (as) much (as) many 可用作代词,(as) much 还可用作副词。如!

    I ate as much as I should

    You ought to rest as much as possible.

(4) 比较级的非常规用法

“more?原级?than” 形式,这种结构除能连接形容词,还可以连接名词词组,介词短语等。

    常翻译成与其说不如说,比较婉转地肯定前者,否定后者。

    She is more proud than vain.

    She more shy than unsociable.

    He is more kind than intelligent.

    He was more of a poet than a King.

    The present crisis in capitalist countries is much more a political than an economic crisis.

“less…than…” 结构,该句婉转肯定后者,否定前者。

    He is less hurt than frightened. (He is more frightened than hurt.)

“not so (much) … as…, 该句型婉转地肯定后者,否定前者。它不仅可以连接词,还可以连

    接词组或句子。如!

    He was not so wise as he is witty.

    It wasn’t so much his appearance that I like as his personality.

    It was not so much that I disliked her as that I just wasn’t interested.

as…as… 该句型表示前后均肯定。

    The girl was as brilliant as she was beautiful.

    Mr. Bold is a very beautiful woman, and as intelligent as beautiful. He is as kind as his sister is honest.

2. Word Study

(1) manner

    1. [singular] the way that you do something or the way that something happens:

The salesman's aggressive manner put us off.

manner of:

    The manner of his death aroused a lot of interest in the media.

in a/the...manner:

    Customers should be treated in a friendly manner.

    Things had been done in the same manner for centuries.

2. manners [plural] traditionally accepted ways of behaving that show a polite respect for

    other people:

Children learn manners by observing their parents.

    good/bad manners: It's bad manners to interrupt someone.

have no manners (=behave badly):

    I forgot to say good-bye. They'll think I have no manners at all.

have good/bad manners

    it's good/bad manners to do something

    perfect/impeccable manners

    table manners (=the polite way of eating at a table) mind your manners (=used to tell someone to behave politely) somebody has no manners (=someone often behaves in a way that is not polite)

    remember your manners (=behave politely)

    forget your manners (=behave in an impolite way)

    where are your manners? British English (=used to tell a child that he or she is behaving

    impolitely)

(2) somehow

    1. in some way, or by some means, although you do not know how

     Don't worry, we'll get the money back somehow.

     Somehow, I managed to lose my keys.

     Maybe we could glue it together somehow or other.

     Somehow, I just don't think it'll work.

c.f.: somewhat

    to some degree but not to a large degree:

    The situation has improved somewhat during the past year. His behavior has been somewhat unreasonable.

    Molly finally agreed, somewhat reluctantly, to go see a doctor.

(3) get away from

    1 to leave or escape from a person or place, often when it is difficult to do this:

    We walked to the next beach to get away from the crowds. I'll get away from work as soon as I can.

    2 to go somewhere to have a holiday, often because you need to rest: I just need to get away for a few days.

    We've decided to go to Scotland to get away from it all.

(4) elevator (up and down vertically) -elevate / escalate-escalator (自动扶梯)/ lift (take a

    lift up and down)

elevate

    1. FORMAL to improve the status or importance of something or someone: We need to work together to elevate the position of women in society.

elevate someone/something to something:

    The brilliant script elevates the film to the status of a classic.

    1a. to give someone a more important job or position: PROMOTE: elevate someone to something:

    The President elevated him to the chairmanship of the council.

    1b. to improve something, especially your mind or feelings: music that elevates the spirit

    2. TECHNICAL to increase the level of something: RAISE: Hormone treatment was shown to elevate cancer risk.

    3. FORMAL to raise something to a higher physical position: RAISE: We are looking at elevating homes that have been devastated by this flood.

escalate

    1 [intransitive or transitive] to become, or make something become, much worse or more

    serious:

    The tension escalated until it became unbearable.

    Rebel forces have escalated the fighting.

escalate into:

    Any one of these border disputes could escalate into war.

    2 [intransitive] to increase, especially at a fast rate that causes problems: an effort to control escalating costs

    ? escalation / ,eskə`leɪʃn / noun [count or uncount]:

    the escalation of prices

    an escalation in violence

(5) Coworker=colleague

    Co-author, co-writer, co-ownership, coeducation, coexistence Coexist, cooperate, co-host

com-

    col- collaborate col labor ate science Language Laboratory

con- connect

    cor- correct

通常在 b,p,m 之前为 com-

    l 之前为 col-

    r 之前为 cor-

    母音,h,gn 之前为 co-

    其他情形则为 con-

(6) appreciate

    1. [transitive never progressive] to understand the true nature of a situation, and realize why it is important or serious: REALIZE:

    I began to appreciate the difficulties my father had faced.

appreciate how/why/what etc.:

    Doctors are only now beginning to appreciate how dangerous this drug can be.

    appreciate that: We appreciate that you cannot make a decision immediately.

    fully appreciate: I don't believe the President fully appreciates the complexity of the problem.

    2. [transitive never progressive] to recognize the good or special qualities of a person, place, or thing:

    She feels that her family doesn't really appreciate her.

    a restaurant that is popular with people who appreciate good service and fine wines

be truly/properly appreciated:

    Many of the office workers feel that they are not properly appreciated.

3. [transitive] to be grateful for something:

    I appreciate this opportunity to put my point of view to the committee. Thanks for helping me out, Donna, I really appreciate it.

I/we etc would appreciate it if... SPOKEN

    used for politely asking someone to do something, especially when you are slightly annoyed:

    I would appreciate it if you would just let me deal with this.

    4. [Intransitive] if something appreciates, its value increases gradually

Appreciation

    1 [singular or uncount] pleasure in understanding something that is good or beautiful: We share an appreciation of music.

    2 [uncount] the feeling you have when you are grateful to someone: This is just a small token of our appreciation.

in appreciation (of):

    The award is given in appreciation of her huge contribution to the movie business.

show/express your appreciation

    The chairman asked me to express our appreciation of all your hard work.

    3 [singular or uncount] the ability to understand the true nature of a situation, and realize why it is important or serious:

    There is a growing appreciation of the need for environmental reforms. The course allows students to gain an appreciation of what life was like then.

Appreciative of …

    showing that you are grateful or that you enjoyed something:

    The applause was warm and appreciative.

    an appreciative smile

appreciative of: He was sincerely appreciative of their support.

Appreciable

    enough to be noticed or considered important or significant:

    Her help on the project has made an appreciable difference.

    There's no appreciable change in the patient's condition.

(7) motorist=car driver

    c.f. cyclist, pedestrian, motorcyclist

(8) pull out

    1. When a vehicle or driver pulls out, the vehicle moves out into the road or nearer the centre of the road.

    She pulled out into the street...

    He was about to pull out to overtake the guy in front of him.

    2. If you pull out of an agreement, a contest, or an organization, you withdraw from it. The World Bank should pull out of the project...

    A racing injury forced Stephen Roche to pull out.

    3. If troops pull out of a place or if their leader pulls them out, they leave it.

The militia in Lebanon has agreed to pull out of Beirut...

    Economic sanctions will be lifted once two-thirds of their forces have pulled out... His government decided to pull its troops out of Cuba.

4. If a country pulls out of recession or if someone pulls it out, it begins to recover from it.

    Sterling has been hit by the economy's failure to pull out of recession... What we want to see today are policies to pull us out of this recession.

(9) Dress

    [Intransitive] to put on clothes. This verb is common in writing, but when you are speaking it is more usual to say that you get dressed:

    It only took her ten minutes to shower and dress.

1a. [intransitive] to put on clothes of a particular type:

    dress in: He tends to dress in dark colors.

    dress as: The nurses had decided to dress as clowns for Halloween.

1b. [intransitive] dress for to put on clothes that are appropriate for a particular occasion

    or event:

    I would suggest that you dress for cold weather.

    They dressed for dinner every night (=put on formal clothes for the evening meal).

1c. [transitive] to put clothes on someone:

    We wash the children and dress them for school.

    dress yourself: Our youngest boy can already dress himself.

    1d. [transitive] to choose or design the clothes that someone wears: He dresses many of Europe's most glamorous women.

(10) Decorate

    to make something look more attractive by putting nice things on it or in it: Have you decorated your Christmas tree yet?

decorate something with something:

    The room had been decorated with balloons.

1a. used about the thing you put on something:

    Framed prints decorate every wall.

Decoration

    Dad was putting up the Christmas decorations.

    When will they finish the decoration of the bathroom?

Decorator, interior designer室内装璜者

Decorative

    intended to look attractive rather than be useful:

    The lighting in the room is functional as well as decorative.

    Their products are purely functional.

(11) stylish (approving)

    attractive in a fashionable way

     a stylish woman in her forties

     Jack is quite stylish.

     a stylish restaurant in the West End

(12) long-lost

    a long-lost person, especially a relative, is someone you have not seen for a long time:

    She greeted him like a long-lost brother.

    a. a long-lost thing is something that has been lost for a long time: the long-lost healing skills of our ancestors

(13) to get into the habit of

     Regular exercise is a good habit for kids to develop.

     Thinking negatively can become a habit .

     Jeff was in the habit of taking a walk after dinner.

     She has a habit of playing with her hair when she's nervous.

    Since I stopped taking lessons, I've got out of the habit of practising my saxophone.

     Try to break the habit of adding salt to your food at the table.

    Why break the habit of a lifetime and start being cautious now?

    Some people drink alcohol as much from habit as from desire.

     'Hello, Miss Smith.' - 'I'm Mrs Jones now.' - 'Sorry, force of habit .'

    the spending habits of the average British woman

    good/bad habit

    become a habit

    be in the habit of doing something also have a/the habit of doing something (=do something regularly)

    get into/in the habit (of doing something) (=start doing something regularly) get out of the habit (of doing something) (=stop doing something regularly) develop/form a habit

    change a habit

    break/kick a habit (=stop doing something which is bad for you) change/break the habit(s) of a lifetime (=stop doing what you have done for many years)

    out of habit/from habit (=because it is a habit)

    (by/from) force of habit (=because it is a habit which is difficult to change) eating/drinking habits (=the kinds of things you eat or drink regularly)

    buying/spending habits (=the kinds of things you buy regularly) viewing habits (=the kind of television shows you regularly watch) social habits

(14) gracious

    ~ (to sb) (of persons and behaviour) kind, polite and generous (esp to sb who is socially

    inferior) ;指人及其行为?和善的, 有礼貌的, 大方的, ;尤指?礼贤下士的: a gracious lady,

    hostess, etc 落落大方的女士, 女主人等 * a gracious manner, reply, invitation, smile

    勤的态度, 回覆, 邀请, 微笑 * He was most gracious to everyone, smiling and thanking them. 他对大家彬彬有礼, 向他们微笑, 道谢. * It was gracious of the Queen

    to speak to the elderly patients. 女王和蔼可亲地慰问年老的病人.

    [attrib 作定语] (fml ) (used as a polite term for royal people or their acts 用作对皇

    族及其行为的敬语): her gracious Majesty the Queen 女王陛下 * by gracious permission

    of Her Majesty 蒙女王陛下恩准.

    ~ (to sb) (of God) merciful ;指上帝?仁慈的: He is kind and gracious to all sinners who repent. 他对忏悔的罪人一概慈悲为怀.

    [usu attrib 通常作定语] marked by luxury, elegance and leisure 奢华的; 优美的; 雍容

    华贵的: gracious living 豪华的生活.

(15) example

    a specific fact, idea, person, or thing that is used to explain or support a general idea, or

    to show what is typical of a larger group

    example of

     Can anyone give me an example of a transitive verb?

    good/typical/prime/classic etc example

     This church is a good example of Gothic architecture.

     She cited a number of recent examples to support her theory.

     Certain life events have to be registered by law. The most obvious examples are births, marriages and deaths.

    for example

    used before mentioning a specific thing, person, place etc in order to explain what you mean or to support an argument

     Many countries, for example Mexico and Japan, have a lot of earthquakes.

     Car prices can vary a lot. For example, in Belgium the VW Golf costs $1000 less than in Britain.

    someone whose behaviour is very good and should be copied by others, or this type of behaviour

    example to

     Her courage is an example to us all.

     Parents should set an example for their children.

     I suggest you follow Rosie's example (=copy her behaviour) and start doing regular exercise.

     The team captain leads by example .

     She's a shining example (=a very good example) of what a mother should be.

make an example of sb

    to punish someone so that other people are afraid to do the same thing

(16) pricelessvaluableinvaluablepreciouscostlyexpensive (of great value)

    valuelessworthless (No value at all)

    1 very valuable and impossible to replace:

    priceless antiques/gems

    2 extremely useful in helping you to achieve something:

    priceless information

    3 MAINLY SPOKEN extremely funny:

    James, you really are priceless!

(17) panache

    a way of doing things that makes them seem easy and exciting, and makes other people admire you 神气十足; 炫耀自负

    ?style with panache

     They played and sang with great panache.

(18) image

    1 [count or uncount] an opinion that people have about someone or something, which may not be a true one:

    image of: We have an image of the U.S. as a very rich country.

    shake off/get away from/shed an image: The company needs to shake off its outdated image.

    1a. the opinion of yourself, your company, or your community that you deliberately try to create in the minds of other people:

    project/present/promote an image: They present an image of themselves as experts in this area.

    positive/negative image: The charity is trying to promote positive images of people with disabilities.

    image of: media images of young women

    2 [count] the picture that you see on a computer or television screen, or in a movie theater:

    the flickering black-and-white images on the first movie screens

    software for manipulating images after you have scanned them

    2a. what you see when you look in a mirror: REFLECTION:

    Mrs. Carson was peering closely at her own image in the mirror.

    2b. a photograph, painting, or other work of art that represents a person or thing: Images of strange-looking animals are carved into the rocks.

    2c. a picture or idea of something in your mind:

    the strong visual images of the Catholic church

    conjure up an image (=create an image): Their name conjures up images of shiny new office buildings.

    mental image: I had a sudden mental image of Robert waiting for me with flowers.

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