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     Lecture Notes No. : 1 stndSubject Name : Modern Architecture Year : 2010 11 1/ 2 Term Lecturer : Mr. Stan Lai Session : to Assessment Category: Theory Based / Project Based (Type I)/ Project Based (Type II)* Division : General Courses / Design Course / Lecture Course*

    Week : Mon / Tue / Wed / Thur / Fri / Sat / Sun*

    Major Lecture Notes Headings PART I 1. Main Content PRE-MODERN - Baroque, Neo-classicism, Gothic Revival, ……(before mid-19C) - Claude Perrault - challenge to the universal validity of Vitruvian proportions (late 17C) - Etienne-Louis Boullee pure geometric form (late-18C) ; Cenotaph A Newton (1784) - Eugene-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc pioneer of Structural Rationalism (mid- 19C) ; Maçonnerie (1864)

     NEW STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING (19C) - New (use of) materials: cast iron, wrought iron, steel, reinforced concrete, glass…… - New (use of) structural systems: cable, truss, space frame, shell, cantilever, pre-tension…… - Joseph Paxton ; Crystal Palace, London (1851) - Gustav Eiffel ; La Tour Eiffel, Paris (1889) - Charles Dutert & Victor Contamin ; Galerie des Machines, Paris (1889) ENGLISH ARTS & CRAFTS (1836 - 1924) - William Morris ; Morris & Co. arts & crafts design (since 1875) ; Interior & furniture design for Red House, Kent (1859) - Philip Webb ; Red House, Kent (1859) - Voysey ; Broadleys House, Cumbria (1898) ART NOUVEAU & STRUCTURAL RATIONALISM (1880 - 1916) - Charles Rennie Mackintoch ; Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow (1897 - 1909) - Hector Guimard ; Metro Entrance Pavilion, Paris (1900) - Victor Horta ; Hotel Tassel, Brussels (1892 - 1893) ; La Maison du Peuple, Brussels (1896 - 1899)


- Henry van de Velde ; Karl Gerard Folklong Museum, Hagan (1897 - 1902) ; Academy of Fine Arts, Weimar (1904 - 1911) ; Henny House, the Hague (1898) - Antoni Gaudi ; Casa Batlo, Barcelona (1904 - 1906) ; Guell Park, Barcelona (1900 - 1914) ; Expiatory Church of the Familia Sagrada, Barcelona (since 1884) - Hendrik Petrus Berlage ; Stock Exchange, Amsterdam (1896 - 1903) ; Headquarters of „De Nederlanden‟ Fire Insurance Co., Hague (1895) VIENNESE SECCESSION (1886 1912) - Otto Wagner ; Majoliko House, Vienna (1898 1899) ; Villa Wagner, Vienna (1912 1913) ; Austrian Post Savings Bank, Vienna (1903 1912) - Joseph Maria Oblich ; Exhibition Building for the Secession, Vienna (1897 1898) ; “Wedding Tower” & Exhibition Building, Darmstadt (1905 – 1908) - Josef Hoffmann ; Palais Stoclet, Brussels (1905 - 1911) CLASSICAL RATIONALISM (1899 1925) - Ausguste Perret ; Apartment House, 25 Rue Franklin, Paris (1902 - 1903) ORNAMENT & CRIME (1899 1925) - Adolf Loos ; Steiner House, Vienna (1910) ; Goldman & Saltsch Building, Vienna (1909 - 1911) ; Villa for Hans & Anny Molla, Vienna (1927 - 1928) ORNAMENTATION & MODERN ARCHITECTURE Different attitudes of those European architects concerning the issue of "ornamentation" in architecture during the early 20th century: - Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris: ; Ornamental ; Classicism ; Historicism ; Rigorous proportion and composition ; Buildings, e.g. Pont Alexandre III, Grand Palais, and Petit Palais in the 1900 Paris Exhibition ; Architectural alumni, e.g. Tony Garnier (French), Raymond Hood (American) - English Arts and Crafts: ; Vernacular decorations ; Local materials ; Anti-classicism ; Anti-historicism ; Anti-industrial mode of production ; Expression of workmanship ; Rustication ; E.g. William Morris (interior designer), Philip Webb (architect) - Art Nouveau: ; New form of ornament freed from classicism ; Anti-historicism ; Abstract and pure forms mixed with plant and natural forms


; Symbolism ; Adaptation to new materials and new mode of production ; E.g. Glasgow School, French architect Hector Guimard, Belgian architect Victor Horta, Catalan architect Antoni Gaudi, Vienna Secession - Austrian Architect Adolf Loos: ; Ornament = crime; ; Ornament as punitive form to labour; ; Absolutely abstract and pure forms CUBISM (1899 1925) - Pablo Picasso ; Still Life (1910) ; Guerica (1937) - Le Corbusier ; Still Life (1924) - Georges Braque ; Collage (1913) DUTCH DE STIJL (1917 - 1931) - Piet Mondrian ; Composition(s) (1910s) - Theo van Doesburg ; Leeuwarden Monument (1917 - 1918) ; Scheme for a Villa (1923) ; Colour Design for a University Hall, Amsterdam (1922) ; Café Laubette, Strasberg (1928) - Gerrit Thomas Rietveld ; Red-blue Chair (1917 - 1918) ; Schroder- Schrader House, Utrecht (1924) - Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud ; Café De Unie, Rotterdam (1924 - 1925) ITALIAN FUTURISM (1909 - 1914) - Filippo Tomaso Marinetti ; „Le Futurisme‟ (1909) - Umberto Boccioni ; Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture (1912) - Antonio Sant‟ Elia ; Casa a Gradinata for Citta Nuova (1914) USSR CONSTRUCTIVISM 1918 1932 - 1917 Bolshevik Revolution Union of Soviet Socialist Republic - Malevich ; Suprematist School, UNOVIS (School of New Art) (1919) - El Lissitzky ; PROUN (Pro-Unovis) (1920) ; Lenin‟s Tribune (1920) - Vladimir Tatlin ; Monument to the Third International (1920) - Konstantin Melnikov ; Soviet Pavilion at Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, Paris (1925)


- Ivan Leonidov ; Lenin Institute (1927) DEUTSCHE WERKBUND 1898 - 1927 - Founded by 13 German independent artists & 10 crafts firms in1907 - Committed to a German official, Hermann Muthesius‟ ideal of normative design for industrial production - Peter Behrens ; AEG Turbine Factory, Berlin (1908 - 1909) - Walter Gropius ; Model Factory at Werkbund Exhibition, Cologne, Alfeld-an-der-Leine (1914) ; Fagus Factory, Alfeld-an-der-Leine (1919) GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM 1910 - 1925 - Formed due to the ideological split within the Deutsche Werkbund during Cologne Werkbund Exhibition 1914, rejecting normative form (Typisoerung) & supporting „will to form‟ (Kunstwollen) - Bruno Taut ; Glass Pavilion at Werkbund Exhibition, Cologne, Alfeld-an-der-Leine (1914) - Hans Poelzig ; Sulfuric Acid Factory, Duban (1911 - 1912) - Erich Mendelsohn ; Friedrich Steinburg Hat Factory, Luckenwalde (1921 - 1923) ; Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1917 - 1921) ; Stocken Department Store, Stuttgart (1917 - 1921) - Hans Scharoun Works: ; Residential Hall, the Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition / Hostel for Single People & Newly-married Couples at “Wohlung und Werkraum”, Breslau (1929) ; Villa Schminke, Saxony (1933) ; Scharf House, Berlin-Schmargendorf (1936 1938) ; Mohrmann House, Berlin-Lichtenrade (1938 1939) ; Berlin Philharmonic Concert Hall, Berlin (1956 1963) Organic architecture: - Advocating “organ-liked building”. - An alternative to / critique of “rationalism” as propounded by Le Corbusier in particular. - Massing simulating biological organization. - Emphasizing programmatic organic focusing on planning and organization, instead of only curvy or free form on surface. - Advanced functional quality of modern organic architecture. - Non-orthogonal or even irregular planning and building form, e.g. Berlin Philharmonic Concert Hall. - Smooth flow of space and form, such as round corner, diagonal turn, and continuous linear elements, e.g. Schminke House and Residential Hall at the Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition. - Design generated by site conditions, such as exterior views, e.g. Schminke House, Mohrmann House, and Scharf House. - Design generated by individual spaces instead of imposition of order and system to the organization of whole building, e.g. Schminke House, Mohrmann House, and Scharf House. - Continuity from exterior space to interior space, such as continuous finishing material, projection and recess creating transitional space between interior and exterior, e.g. Schminke House, Mohrmann House, and Scharf House. Expressionism: - Often been cited as an Expressionist architect, partly due to his involvement in the Glass Chain (Glaeserne Kette). - Art, fantasy and irrationality. - Not in violation of form in favor of expressiveness, but an elaborate expression of functional form. - Important creative role of unconscious: “We must create just as the blood of our ancestors brought on waves of creativity; and we shall be content if we are ourselves thereafter able to reveal a complete comprehension of the character and the causality of our creation.” - Design stating from the essence of the programme and seeking to give expression to it in formal


and spatial composition. - Dynamic movement in space, e.g. Berlin Philharmonic Concert Hall. - Early international style (before 1930) of white colour abstract elements both expressive from interior to exterior, e.g. Schminke House and Residential Hall at the Deutscher Werkbund Exhibition. - During Nazi‟s regime (1930s – 1945), subtle vernacular exterior form restricted by Nazi, but expressively dynamic interior spaces, e.g. Mohrmann House and Scharf House. BAUHAUS 1919 - 1932 - Composition of Academy of Fine Art & School of Arts & Crafts in 1919 - Weimar Bauhaus First Principle (1919 1928) Walter Gropius - Gesamtkunstwerk combination of crafts, sculpture & painting to architecture - Johannes Itten > Theo van Doesburg > Laszlo Moholy-Nagy - Walter Gropius ; Bauhaus Building, Dessau (1925 1926) - Marcel Breuer ; Tubular Steel Armchair (1926) - Dessau Bauhaus Second Principle Hannes Meyer - Dessau Bauhaus Third Principle Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - Closed by Nazi in 1933 AMERICAN TRADITION 1773 - 1930 - 1775 to 1783 War of Independence - 1869 Balloon-frame - Chicago School ; Capital of Middle West ; Great Fire 1871 - William Le Baron Jenney ; Leiter Building, Chicago (1879) ; Fair Building, Chicago (1891) - Louis Sullivan ; Schlesing & Mayer Department Store, Chicago (1899 - 1904) - New York ; Raymond Hood‟s American Radiator Building, New York (1924) ; William van Alen‟s Chrysler Building, New York (1927 - 1930) FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT (1867 1959) - Organic Architecture 1908 - Usonia 1928 - 9 Points in Prairie Houses 1930: 1. Reduce parts - To reduce the number of necessary parts of the house and the separate rooms to minimum, and make all come together as enclosed space so divided that light, air and vista permeated the whole with a sense of unity. 2. Extension, planes, leaving better parts - To associate the building as a whole with its site by extension and emphasis of all the planes parallel to the ground, but keeping the floors off the best part of the site, thus leaving that better part for use in connection with the life of the house. Extended level planes were found useful in this connection. 3. Screens, flow of space


- To eliminate the room as a box and the house as another by making all walls enclosing screens the ceilings and floors and enclosing screens to flow into each other as one large enclosure of space, with inner subdivisions only. Make all house proportions more liberally human, with less wasted space in structure, and structure more appropriate to materials, so the whole more livable. Liberal is the best word. Extend straight lines or streamlines were useful in this. 4. Basement up out of ground - To get the unwholesome basement up out of the ground, entirely above it, as a low pedestal for the living-position of the home, making the foundation itself visible as a low masonry platform on which the building should stand. 5. Openings between screens but not violent punched holes to walls - To harmonize all necessary openings to outside or to inside with good human proportions and make them occur naturally-singly or as a series in the scheme of the whole building. Usually they appeared as light-screens instead of walls, because all the architecture of the house was chiefly the way these openings came in such walls as were grouped about the rooms as enclosing screens. The room as such was now the essential architectural expression, and there were to be no holes cut in walls as holes are cut in a box, because this was not in keeping with the ideal of plastic. Cutting holes was violent. 6. Mono materials, no ornament - To eliminate combinations of different materials in favour of mono materials so far as possible; to use no ornament that did not come out of the nature of the materials to make the whole building clearer and more expressive as a place to live in, and give the conception of the building appropriate revealing emphasis. Geometrical or straight lines were natural to the machinery at work in the building trades then, so the interiors took on this character naturally. 7. Service features become architectural - To incorporate all heating, lighting, plumbing so that these systems became constituent parts of the building itself. These service features became architectural and this attempt the ideal of an organic architecture was at work. 8. Incorporate furnishings, simple, straight, rectangular - To incorporate as organic architecture as far as possible furnishings, making them all one with the building and designing them in simple terms for machine work. Again all straight lines and rectangular forms. 9. Eliminate decorators - Eliminate the decorator. He was all curves and all efflorescence, if not all period. - Broadacre City 1932 ; Winslow House, River Forest, Illinois (1893) ; Willitts House, Highland Park, Illinois (1902) ; Larkin Building, Buffalo, N.Y. (1904) ; Unity Church, Oak Park, Illinois (1906) ; Robie House, Chicago (1909) ; Millard House, Pasadena, California (1921) ; Falling Water (Kaufmann House), Bear Run, Pennsylvania (1936) ; Johnson Wax Administration Centre, Racine, Wisconsin (1939) ; Solar Hemicycle (Herbert Jacobs House), Middleton, Wisconsin (1944) ; Solomon H. Guggenheim Museum, N.Y. (1956) LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE (1886 1969) - “Truth is the significance of fact.” - “The structure is the whole from top to bottom, to the last detail with the same ideas.” - “Less is more.” ; Glass Skyscraper Project for Friedrichstrasse Skyscraper Competition (1921) ; Project of a Brick Country House (1923) ; Lange House, Krefeld (1928)


; German Pavilion, International Exhibition in Barcelona (1929): Expression of planes, horizontality, projections, reflective materials. ; Tugendhat House, Brno (1928 - 1930) ; Country House for a Bachelor, Berlin Building Exhibition (1931) ; Farnsworth House, Plano, Illinois (1946 1951) ; Promontory Apartments, Chicago, Illinois (1949) ; Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago, Illinois (1950) ; Crown Hall of the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois (1950 1956) ; Seagram Building, N.Y. (1954 1958): Use of I-section for structure and decorative façade, repetition, order, rhythm of façade, setting a model for high rise building,. ; Bacardi Office Building, Mexico (1961) Classicism, colonnaded space, layering of façade, separation of structural elements, rhythm of façade. ; Twentieth Century Gallery, Berlin (1963)


    COMPARISON OF EARLIER & LATER WORKS OF MIES VAN DER ROHE - According to Kenneth Framptons book, Modern Architecture: A Critical History, the year of 1933 was the beginning of a transformation in his (Mies van der Rohes) work. - Differences between the earlier and later works of Mies van der Rohe in terms of architectural characteristics: -

    Earlier Works Later Works

     * His Project for the Reichsbank, Berlin (1933) was the turning point.

    1. Design references / similarities with precedent 1. Design references / similarities with precedent architects / artists: architects / artists: - Suprematist-elementarism inspiring Miess free plan. - Return to Schinkels tradition, [e.g. Crown Hall of IIT being a decisive return to Schinkels Atles Museum - Combination of constructivist objectivity and in Berlin] regarding the type-form generally evident Dadaist feeling for chance. as an organizing paradigm. - Berlages brick tradition. - Palladian composition of symmetry and mathematically regulated volume; but different - Pre-1910 work of Frank Lloyd Wright, as filtered from Palladian composition of hierarchically through the De Stijl group an influence ordered organization which projects its centralized acknowledged in the horizontal profiles extending theme vertically in the form of a pyramidal roof or into the landscape [e.g. Miess brick country dome [e.g. Crown Hall of IIT]. house]. - Schinkels tradition of symmetry. - Suprematist asymmetry.

    2. Informal asymmetry 2. Symmetrical monumentality. . 3. Expression of clear construction regarding building 3. Highly rationalized building method. method.

    4. Dynamic spatial effect. 4. Stabilized spatial effect.

    5. Organic composition. 5. Classical composition.

    6. Horizontal centrifugal spatial arrangement divided 6. Hierarchical layering arrangement by cores, and articulated by free-standing planes and neutral space, and building envelope from inner to columns. outer part.

    7. Generic cruciform column section. 7. Standard American I-section.

    8. Asymmetrical pin-wheeling plans [e.g. Barcelona 8. Single axis of symmetry favouring the articulation of Pavilion and the Tugendhat House at Brno] facades in terms of the directional axis of the demanding a non-directional column form. I-section [e.g. Miess buildings in IIT].

    9. All low-rise buildings, especially many private 9. Mostly high-rise office towers or residential houses; except the un-built projects of Glass apartments, or low-rise institutional buildings in IIT, Skyscraper in 1921 and concrete office building in and they were regarded as an return to the 1923, which were regarded as indication of Miess un-built highrise projects before 1933. style after 1933.

    10. Works: 10. Works: ; Glass Skyscraper Project for ; Project for the Reichsbank, Berlin (1933) Friedrichstrasse Skyscraper Competition ; Farnsworth House, Plano, Illinois (1946 (1921) 1951) ; Project of a Brick Country House (1923) ; Promontory Apartments, Chicago, Illinois ; Lange House, Krefeld (1928) (1949) ; German Pavilion, International Exhibition in ; Lake Shore Drive Apartments, Chicago, Barcelona (1929) Illinois (1950) ; Tugendhat House, Brno (1928 - 1930) ; Crown Hall of the Illinois Institute of ; Country House for a Bachelor, Berlin Technology, Chicago, Illinois (1950 1956) Building Exhibition (1931) ; Seagram Building, N.Y. (1954 1958) ; Bacardi Office Building, Mexico (1961) ; Twentieth Century Gallery, Berlin (1963)


2. Book Reference 3. Hand-out Date - 10/9/2010 4. Appendix - Nil

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