History-Social Science Framework Field Review Draft Chapter 9

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History-Social Science Framework Field Review Draft Chapter 9

    HistorySocial Science Framework Field Review Draft

    Chapter 9

    1 Chapter 9Criteria for Evaluating Instructional Materials: 2 Kindergarten Through Grade Eight


    4 This document provides criteria for evaluating the alignment of instructional

    5 materials with the HistorySocial Science Content Standards for California Public

    6 Schools (2000) and the HistorySocial Science Framework for California Public

    7 Schools. The content standards were adopted by the California State Board of 8 Education in October 1998. They describe what students should know and be

    9 able to do at each grade level. The framework incorporates the standards and

    10 includes instructional guidelines for teachers and administrators. The framework,

    11 together with the standards, defines the essential skills and knowledge in

    12 historysocial science that will enable all California students to enjoy a world-13 class education.


    15 The instructional materials must provide guidance for the teacher to present the

    16 content standards and curriculum at each grade level and to teach students all

    17 the analysis skills required for the grade spans. Students should be able to

    18 demonstrate reasoning, reflection, and research skills. These skills are to be

    19 learned through, and applied to, the content standards and are to be assessed

    20 only in conjunction with the content standards. Special attention should also be

    21 paid to the appendixes in the framework, which address important overarching

    22 issues.


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    24 In 2011 the State Board of Education will adopt a new list of historysocial 25 science instructional materials for use in kindergarten through grade eight. This

    26 adoption and any follow-up adoption prior to 2017 will be guided by the criteria

    27 described below. To be adopted, materials must first meet in full Category 1, 28 HistorySocial Science Content/Alignment with Standards. Materials will be

    29 evaluated holistically in the other categories of Program Organization,

    30 Assessment, Universal Access, and Instructional Planning and Support. This

    31 means that while a program may not meet every criterion listed in those

    32 categories, they must on balance meet the goals of each category to be eligible

    33 for state adoption. Programs that do not meet Category 1 in full and do not meet

    34 each one of the other four categories as judged holistically will not be adopted.

    35 These criteria may also be used by publishers and local educational agencies as

    36 a guide for developing and selecting instructional materials for grades nine

    37 through twelve. To assist the State Board in the evaluation of instructional

    38 materials, publishers will use a standards map template and evaluation criteria

    39 maps supplied by the California Department of Education to demonstrate a

    40 program’s alignment with the standards.


    42 The criteria are organized into five categories:

    43 1. HistorySocial Science Content/Alignment with Standards: The content 44 as specified in the Education Code, the HistorySocial Science Content

    45 Standards, and the HistorySocial Science Framework

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    46 2. Program Organization: The sequence and organization of the historysocial 47 science program

    48 3. Assessment: The strategies presented in the instructional materials for

    49 measuring what students know and are able to do

    50 4. Universal Access: Instructional materials that are understandable to all

    51 students, including students eligible for special education, English learners, and

    52 students whose achievement is either below or above that typical of the class or

    53 grade level

    54 5. Instructional Planning and Support: The instructional planning and support

    55 information and materials, typically including a separate edition specially

    56 designed for use by teachers in implementing the HistorySocial Science 57 Content Standards and HistorySocial Science Framework 58

    59 Historysocial science instructional materials must support teaching aligned with

    60 the standards and framework. Materials that are contrary to or inconsistent with

    61 the standards, framework, and criteria are not allowed. Extraneous materials

    62 should be minimal and clearly purposeful.


    64 Category 1: HistorySocial Science Content/Alignment with Standards 65 1. Instructional materials, as defined in Education Code Section 60010(h), 66 support instruction designed to ensure that students master all the HistorySocial 67 Science Content Standards for the intended grade level. Analysis skills of the

    68 pertinent grade span must be covered at each grade level. This instruction must

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69 be included in the student edition of the instructional materials; while there can

    70 be direction in materials for the teacher to support instruction in the standards,

    71 this cannot be in lieu of content in the student edition. The standards themselves

    72 must be included in their entirety in the student materials, either at point of

    73 instruction or collected together at another location. There should be no

    74 reference to national standards or standards from other states in the instructional

    75 materials.

    76 2. Instructional materials reflect and incorporate the content of the HistorySocial

    77 Science Framework. 78 3. Instructional materials shall use proper grammar and spelling (Education Code

    79 Section 60045).

    80 4. Instructional materials present accurate, detailed content and a variety of

    81 perspectives.

    82 5. History is presented as a story well told, with continuity and narrative

    83 coherence (a beginning, a middle, and an end), and based on the best recent

    84 scholarship. Without sacrificing historical accuracy, the narrative is rich with the

    85 forceful personalities, controversies, and issues of the time. Primary sources,

    86 such as letters, diaries, documents, and photographs, are incorporated into the

    87 narrative to present an accurate and vivid picture of the times.

    88 6. Materials include sufficient use of primary sources appropriate to the age level

    89 of students so that students understand from the words of the authors the way

    90 people saw themselves, their work, their ideas and values, their assumptions,

    91 their fears and dreams, and their interpretation of their own times. These sources

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    92 are to be integral to the program and are carefully selected to exemplify the topic. 93 They serve as a voice from the past, conveying an accurate and thorough sense 94 of the period. When only an excerpt of a source is included in the materials, the 95 students and teachers are referred to the entire primary source. The materials 96 present different perspectives of participants, both ordinary and extraordinary 97 people, in world and U.S. history.

    98 7. Materials include the study of issues and historical and social science debates. 99 Students are presented with different perspectives and come to understand the 100 importance of reasoned debate and reliable evidence, recognizing that people in 101 a democratic society have the right to disagree.

    102 8. Throughout the instructional resources, the importance of the variables of time 103 and place history and geographyis stressed repeatedly. In examining the

    104 past and present, the instructional resources consistently help students 105 recognize that events and changes occur in a specific time and place. 106 Instructional resources also consistently help students judge the significance of 107 the relative location of place.

    108 9. The historysocial science curriculum is enriched with various genres of fiction

    109 and nonfiction literature of and about the historical period. Forms of literature 110 such as diaries, essays, biographies, autobiographies, myths, legends, historical 111 tales, oral literature, poetry, and religious literature richly describe the issues or 112 the events studied as well as the life of the people, including both work and 113 leisure activities. The literary selections are broadly representative of varied 114 cultures, ethnic groups, men, women, and children and, where appropriate,

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115 provide meaningful connections to the content standards in Englishlanguage

    116 arts, mathematics, science, and visual and performing arts.

    117 10. Materials on religious subject matter remain neutral; do not advocate one

    118 religion over another; do not include simulation or role playing of religious

    119 ceremonies or beliefs; do not include derogatory language about a religion or use

    120 examples from sacred texts or other religious literature that are derogatory,

    121 accusatory, or instill prejudice against other religions or those who believe in

    122 other religions. Religious matters, both belief and nonbelief, must be treated

    123 respectfully and be explained as protected by the U.S. Constitution. Instructional

    124 materials, where appropriate and called for in the standards, include examples of

    125 religious and secular thinkers in history. When the standards call for explanation

    126 of belief systems, they are presented in historical context. Events and figures

    127 detailed in religious texts are presented as beliefs held by members of that

    128 religion, are clearly identified as such, and should not be presented as fact

    129 unless there is independent historical evidence justifying that presentation. All

    130 materials must be in accordance with the guidance provided in the updated

    131 HistorySocial Science Framework, Appendix C, ―Religion and the Teaching of 132 History–Social Science,‖ and Education Code sections 51500, 51501, 51511,

    133 and 51513.

    134 11. Numerous examples are presented of women and men from different

    135 demographic groups who used their learning and intelligence to make important

    136 contributions to democratic practices and society and to science and technology.

    137 Materials emphasize the importance of education in a democratic society.

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138 12. For grades six through eight, the breadth and depth of world history to be

    139 covered are described in the HistorySocial Science Framework course

    140 descriptions. In addition to the content called for at grade six, instructional

    141 materials shall include the grade seven content standards on the Roman Empire

    142 (standard 7.1 and its sequence) and Mayan civilization (standard 7.7 and the

    143 applicable Mayan aspects of the sequence). In addition to the content called for

    144 at grade eight, materials shall include the grade seven content standards on the

    145 Age of Exploration, the Enlightenment, and the Age of Reason (standard 7.11

    146 and its sequence).

    147 13. Student writing assignments are aligned with the grade-level expectations in

    148 the EnglishLanguage Arts Content Standards (adopted by the State Board of

    149 Education in 1997) under the strands ―Writing‖ and ―Written and Oral English

    150 Language Conventions. 151 14. Instructional materials use biography to portray the experiences of men,

    152 women, children, and youths. Where the standards call for examples (or use

    153 ―e.g.‖), materials shall include the listed examples and go beyond them, including 154 the roles and contributions of people from different demographic groups:

    155 American Indians, African Americans, Mexican Americans, Asian Americans,

    156 European Americans, and members of other ethnic and cultural groups

    157 (Education Code Section 60040).

    158 15. Instructional materials, where appropriate, present the contributions of the

    159 entrepreneur and labor in the total development of California and the United

    160 States (Education Code sections 51009 and 60040).

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161 16. Instructional materials, where appropriate, examine humanity’s place in

    162 ecological systems and the necessity for the protection of the environment

    163 (Education Code Section 60041). Materials include instructional content based

    164 upon the Environmental Principles and Concepts developed by the California

    165 Environmental Protection Agency and adopted by the State Board of Education

    166 (Public Resources Code Section 71301) where appropriate and aligned to the

    167 historysocial science content standards.

    168 17. Instructional materials for grades five and eight shall include a discussion of

    169 the Great Irish Famine of 18451850 and the effect of the famine on American 170 history (Education Code Section 51226.3[c]).

    171 18. Emphasis is placed on civic values, democratic principles, and democratic

    172 institutions, including frequent opportunities for discussion of the fundamental

    173 principles embodied in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. When

    174 appropriate to the comprehension of pupils, instructional materials shall include a

    175 copy of the U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence (Education

    176 Code Section 60043).

    177 19. Materials emphasize America’s multiethnic heritage and its contribution to

    178 this country’s development while explaining how American civic values provide

    179 students with a foundation for understanding their rights and responsibilities in

    180 this pluralistic society (Education Code sections 51226.5 and 60200.6). 181 20. Materials on American life and history give significant attention to the

    182 principles of morality, truth, justice, and patriotism and to a comprehension of the

    183 rights, duties, and dignity of American citizenship, inspiring an understanding of

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184 and a commitment to American ideals. Examples of memorable addresses by

    185 historical figures are presented in their historical context, including the effect of

    186 those addresses on people then and now (Education Code sections 52720 and

    187 60200.5).

    188 21. Materials for studying the life and contributions of Cesar E. Chavez and the

    189 history of the farm labor movement and of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the civil

    190 rights movement shall be included at each grade level, with suggestions for

    191 supporting the respective holidays in honor of those men and the accompanying

    192 activities (Education Code sections 51008 and 60200.6, respectively). In those 193 grade levels when the life of Chavez and King are not directly connected to the

    194 historical narrative (e.g., sixth grade), it is acceptable to include this content in a

    195 distinct product that is included as part of the core program for that grade level.

    196 However, these materials must be provided to all students using the program.

    197 22. Any gross inaccuracies or deliberate falsifications revealed during the review

    198 process will result in disqualification, and any found during the adoption cycle will

    199 be subject to removal of the program from the list of state-adopted textbooks.

    200 Gross inaccuracies and deliberate falsifications are defined as those requiring

    201 changes in content.


    203 Category 2: Program Organization 204

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205 1. Sequential organization of the material provides structure concerning what

    206 students should learn each year and allows teachers to convey the historysocial

    207 science content efficiently and effectively.

    208 2. The instructional materials provide instructional content for 180 days of

    209 instruction for at least one daily class period.

    210 3. The content is well organized and presented in a manner consistent with

    211 providing all students an opportunity to achieve the essential knowledge and

    212 skills described in the standards and framework. The academic language (i.e.,

    213 vocabulary) specific to the content is presented in a manner that provides explicit

    214 instructional opportunities for teachers and appropriate practice for all students.

    215 4. A detailed, expository narrative approach providing for in-depth study is the

    216 predominant writing mode and focuses on people and their ideas, thoughts,

    217 actions, conflicts, struggles, and achievements.

    218 5. Explanations are provided so that students clearly understand the likely

    219 causes of the events, the reasons the people and events are important, why

    220 things turned out as they did, and the connections of those results to events that

    221 followed.

    222 6. The narrative unifies and interrelates the many facts, explanations, visual aids,

    223 maps, and literary selections included in the topic or unit. Those components

    224 clearly contribute directly to students’ deeper understanding and retention of the

    225 events.

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